Neo-Quenya Semantic Categories



1. Physical World

1.11 World

Q., ᴹQ. Ambar n. “The World, Earth, (lit.) Habitation”
ᴺQ. !ambarya adj. “worldwide, world-wide, international, global”
⚠️ᴱQ. irmin n. “the inhabited world”; see instead:
Q. Ambar “The World, Earth, (lit.) Habitation”

1.12 Universe

Q., ᴹQ. n. “Creation, the (Material) Universe, Cosmos, †World; let it be, what is, [ᴹQ.] all that is”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ëavëa adj. “universal, natural”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !ilúvëa “universal”
ᴺQ. !nassëa² “natural”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ilu n. “everything, all, the whole; [ᴹQ.] universe, ⚠️world; [ᴱQ.] ether”
Q., ᴹQ. ilúvë n. “the whole, the all, allness; [ᴹQ.] universe, ⚠️world; Heaven”
ᴺQ. !ilúvëa adj. “universal”

1.21 Earth, Land

ᴺQ. !ardahyalma n. “[planetary] crust”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. cemen n. “the Earth; earth, [ᴹQ.] soil”
ᴺQ. !cemenquasië n. “earthquake”
⚠️ᴱQ. cemi n. “earth, soil, land”; see instead:
Q. cemen “the Earth; earth, [ᴹQ.] soil”
ᴹQ. cemna adj. “of earth, earthen”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cempalië n. “earthquake”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cemenquasië “earthquake”
⚠️ᴹQ. hún (hun-) n. “earth”; see instead:
Q. cemen “the Earth; earth, [ᴹQ.] soil”
Q. nór n. “land”
ᴹQ. palúrë n. “surface, bosom, bosom of Earth, (Old English) folde”
⚠️ᴱQ. talat n. “dry land”; see instead:
Q. nór “land”
ᴹQ. talat “sheet”

1.212 Ground, Soil

⚠️ᴱQ. hamba adj. “on the ground”
⚠️ᴱQ. hambanoitë adj. “on the ground”
⚠️ᴱQ. han (hamb-) n. “ground, earth”; see instead:
Q. talan “flat space, platform; [ᴹQ.] floor, ground”
Q. cemen “the Earth; earth, [ᴹQ.] soil”
⚠️ᴱQ. sar n. “earth, soil”; see instead:
Q. cemen “the Earth; earth, [ᴹQ.] soil”
Q. #sar “stone (small)”

1.213 Dust, Powder

ᴹQ. asto n. “dust”
⚠️ᴱQ. mul (muld-) n. “fine powder”; see instead:
ᴹQ. mulo “dust, [ᴱQ.] fine powder”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. mulda adj. “powdery”
ᴹQ. mulo (mulu-) n. “dust, [ᴱQ.] fine powder”

1.214 Mud, Mire

ᴺQ., Q. hloa n. “fenland, *wetlands”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^loxo (loxu-) n. “mud, *slime”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^loxor n. “swamp, bog”
⚠️ᴱQ. lúcë n. “slime”; see instead:
Q. maxo “mire, [ᴹQ.] sticky substance, *slime”
ᴹQ. lúcë “enchantment”
⚠️ᴱQ. lúcima adj. “slimy”
⚠️ᴱQ. luxo (luxu-) n. “mud”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^loxo “mud, *slime”
⚠️ᴱQ. luxor n. “swamp, bog”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^loxor “swamp, bog”
Q., ᴹQ. maxo n. “mire, [ᴹQ.] sticky substance, *slime”
Q., ᴹQ. motto n. “fen, marsh; [ᴹQ.] blot”

1.215 Sand, Grit

⚠️ᴱQ. ára n. “dry sand, grit”; see instead:
ᴹQ. litsë “sand”
⚠️ᴱQ. arquilis n. “desert”; see instead:
ᴹQ. erumë “desert”
ᴹQ. erumë n. “desert”
ᴹQ. litsë n. “sand”
ᴹQ. mál n. “grit”
⚠️ᴱQ. mar⁴ (mard-) n. “grit, course grain or powder”; see instead:
ᴹQ. mál “grit”
⚠️ᴱQ. marma n. “sand”; see instead:
ᴹQ. litsë “sand”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyussë n. “sand”; see instead:
ᴹQ. litsë “sand”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ambo n. “hill, rising ground, mount”
Q. ambuna adj. “hilly”
⚠️ᴱQ. †amun (amund-) n. “hill”; see instead:
Q. ambo “hill, rising ground, mount”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nóla¹ n. “round head, knoll, round hilltop; ⚠️summit, [ᴱQ.] top (only used of mountains etc.); crown of head”
ᴺQ. !orlanda n. “upland, plateau”
Q. #oroman n. “mountain dweller”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. oron (oront-) n. “mountain”
Q., ᴹQ. orto n. “[ᴹQ.] mountain-top; ⚠️[Q.] mount, mountain, hill”
Q. quín(ë) n. “crest, ridge”
Q. quinna adj. “crested”
ᴹQ. taras (tarass-) n. “mount, hill”
⚠️ᴱQ. tolda n. “hill (with a flat top), hill top; town on a hill”; see instead:
Q. ambo “hill, rising ground, mount”
ᴹQ. tundo¹ (tundu-) n. “hill, mound”

1.221 Peak, Summit

ᴹQ. aicalë n. “peak”
ᴹQ. aicassë n. “mountain peak”
ᴹQ. antaro n. “high mountain, peak”
⚠️ᴱQ. colman n. “peak, summit”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nóla¹ “round head, knoll, round hilltop; ⚠️summit, [ᴱQ.] top (only used of mountains etc.); crown of head”
Q. ingor n. “summit of a mountain”
ᴹQ. mintyë n. “peak”
⚠️ᴱQ. ormë¹ n. “summit, crest, hilltop”; see instead:
Q. ingor “summit of a mountain”
ᴹQ. ormë “haste, violence, wrath, rushing”
Q. orotinga n. “mountain-top”
⚠️ᴱQ. soron² n. “pinnacle, high peak, crag”; see instead:
Q. soron “eagle”
⚠️ᴱQ. tormë n. “mountain (peak)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. aicassë “mountain peak”
ᴹQ. antaro “high mountain, peak”

1.222 Slope, Cliff

⚠️ᴱQ. aico (aicu-) n. “cliff”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. aiquassë n. “precipice”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. am(ba)penda adj. “uphill; [ᴱQ.] arduous, difficult, tiresome”
ᴹQ. ambon n. “upward slope, hill-side”
ᴹQ. ampendë n. “upward slope”
⚠️ᴱQ. ollo n. “cliff, seaward precipice”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. penda adj. “sloping down, (steeply) inclined”
Q. penda- v. “to slope, incline”
Q., ᴹQ. pendë n. “steep incline, hillside, [ᴹQ.] (down) slope, declivity”
⚠️ᴱQ. róma n. “upward path, mountain side, (mountain) slope, alp”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ampendë “upward slope”
Q. róma “horn; [ᴹQ.] loud sound, trumpet-sound, *blare”
ᴹQ. talta² n. “incline”
⚠️ᴱQ. tilt- v. “to make slope, incline (tr.), decline, shake at foundations, make totter”; see instead:
Q. talta- “to slip, slide down, collapse, fall, [ᴹQ.] slip down, slope”
⚠️ᴱQ. tilta adj. “slanting”; see instead:
Q. talta “tottering, unsteady, [ᴱQ.] shaky, wobbling; [ᴹQ.] sloping, tilted, leaning, inclined, [ᴱQ.] slanting”
⚠️ᴱQ. tiltin adj. “slanting”; see instead:
Q. talta “tottering, unsteady, [ᴱQ.] shaky, wobbling; [ᴹQ.] sloping, tilted, leaning, inclined, [ᴱQ.] slanting”
ᴺQ. !varassë n. “cliff”

1.223 Mound, Pile

Q. coron n. “mound; [ᴹQ] globe, ball”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. cumbë n. “mound, heap, [ᴱQ.] pile; load, ⚠️burden”; see instead:
Q. hamna “pile, (artificial) mound, [ᴹQ.] heap”
⚠️ᴱQ. cumpo n. “pile”; see instead:
Q. hamna “pile, (artificial) mound, [ᴹQ.] heap”
ᴹQ. tumpo “hump, lump”
⚠️ᴹQ. hahta n. “heap, pile, (piled) mound”; see instead:
Q. hamna “pile, (artificial) mound, [ᴹQ.] heap”
Q. hahta “fence, hedge”
Q. hamna n. “pile, (artificial) mound, [ᴹQ.] heap”
Q., ᴹQ. luppo n. “clumsy piece or lump”
⚠️ᴱQ. pulmë n. “lump, knob”; see instead:
Q. tolma “protuberance contrived to serve a purpose, knob, short rounded handle”
ᴹQ. tumpo “hump, lump”
⚠️ᴱQ. ractë n. “pile, heap”; see instead:
Q. hamna “pile, (artificial) mound, [ᴹQ.] heap”
⚠️ᴱQ. tolos (toloss-) n. “knob, lump”; see instead:
Q. tolma “protuberance contrived to serve a purpose, knob, short rounded handle”
ᴹQ. tumpo n. “hump, lump”
⚠️ᴱQ. tupsë n. “lump, knob”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tumpo “hump, lump”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyúma n. “lump, mass”; see instead:
Q. umbo(n) “lump, clump, mass, ⚠️hill”
Q. umbo(n) n. “lump, clump, mass, ⚠️hill”

1.23 Plain, Field

⚠️ᴱQ. endl n. “plain, vale”; see instead:
Q. nan(do) “(wide) valley, vale”
⚠️ᴱQ. enga n. “mead”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nanda “water-mead, watered plain”
⚠️ᴱQ. fal(a)toisi n. “meadow, grassland”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !salquenor “grassland, meadow”
⚠️ᴱQ. lá¹ n. “moor, heath, open space”
⚠️ᴱQ. lairë n. “meadow”; see instead:
Q. lairë “summer”
ᴹQ. landa² n. “(a) plain”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “a sward, glade”; see instead:
ᴺQ. palis “sward, green, lawn”
Q. lé¹ “way, method, manner”
ᴹQ. nanda n. “water-mead, watered plain”
⚠️ᴱQ. nendo n. “water mead”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nanda “water-mead, watered plain”
ᴹQ. palar n. “plain, flat field, ‘wang’”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. peler n. “fenced field, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] fence”
⚠️ᴱQ. pelto n. “hedge, hedged field”; see instead:
ᴹQ. peler “fenced field, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] fence”
ᴺQ. !salquenor n. “grassland, meadow”

1.24 Dale, Valley

Q., ᴹQ. imbë² n. “deep valley, (wide) ravine, [ᴹQ.] glen, dell”
Q. imbilat n. “*deep valley”
⚠️ᴹQ. latimbë n. “glen”
⚠️ᴱQ. nal (nald-) n. “dale, dell”; see instead:
Q. imbë² “deep valley, (wide) ravine, [ᴹQ.] glen, dell”
⚠️ᴱQ. nalda adj. “lowly, valley (aj.), dale (aj.)”; see instead:
Q. tumba “[ᴹQ.] deep, lowlying; ⚠️[Q.] deep valley”
⚠️ᴱQ. nallë n. “dell”; see instead:
Q. imbë² “deep valley, (wide) ravine, [ᴹQ.] glen, dell”
Q. nan(do) n. “(wide) valley, vale”
⚠️ᴱQ. nes¹ n. “mead, valley, land”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nanda “water-mead, watered plain”
Q., ᴹQ. tumba adj. “[ᴹQ.] deep, lowlying; ⚠️[Q.] deep valley”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tumbo (tumbu-) n. “deep vale, valley, [ᴱQ.] dale”
⚠️ᴱQ. umbë n. “dale, dell”; see instead:
Q. imbë² “deep valley, (wide) ravine, [ᴹQ.] glen, dell”
Q. umbë “imminence, threat; premonition, fear, unwelcome expectation”

1.241 Ravine, Pass

Q. (a)nacca n. “narrows, defile, pass, cut”
ᴹQ. axa n. “ravine, narrow path; edge”
⚠️ᴹQ. cilya n. “cleft, pass between hills, gorge”; see instead:
Q. cirya² “cleft, pass”
⚠️ᴱQ. cirmë n. “cleft, gully”; see instead:
ᴹQ. yáwë “ravine, cleft, gully”
Q. cirya² n. “cleft, pass”
⚠️ᴱQ. falqua n. “(mountain) pass, ravine, cliff, cleft”; see instead:
Q. cirya² “cleft, pass”
ᴹQ. yáwë “ravine, cleft, gully”
ᴺQ. !varassë “cliff”
⚠️ᴱQ. fásë n. “gulf, gap”; see instead:
ᴹQ. yáwë “ravine, cleft, gully”
Q. rissë n. “?cleft, ravine”
ᴹQ. yáwë n. “ravine, cleft, gully”

1.25 Isle, Island

⚠️ᴹQ. lóna¹ n. “island, remote land difficult to reach”; see instead:
Q. #lónë¹ “isle, island, remote land difficult to reach”
Q. #lónë¹ n. “isle, island, remote land difficult to reach”
Q. nortil n. “cape (of land)”
ᴺQ. !pertol (pertoll-) n. “peninsula”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tol (toll-) n. “island, (steep) isle”
ᴺQ. !tolloquen n. “islander”
⚠️ᴱQ. tolomë n. “island”

1.27 Shore, Beach

⚠️ᴱQ. ailin² n. “shore”; see instead:
Q. hresta “beach, shore”
⚠️ᴱQ. aractë n. “(stony) beach”; see instead:
Q. sarnië “shingle, pebble bank”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. falassë n. “(wave-beaten) shore, seashore, line of surf; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] beach”
ᴺQ. !falassëa adj. “coastal”
⚠️ᴹQ. fára n. “beach, shore”; see instead:
Q. hresta “beach, shore”
Q. falassë “(wave-beaten) shore, seashore, line of surf; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] beach”
Q. hresta n. “beach, shore”
⚠️ᴱQ. marmalë n. “beach”; see instead:
Q. hresta “beach, shore”
⚠️ᴱQ. rímen n. “border, shore”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ríma “edge, hem, border”
Q. hresta “beach, shore”
⚠️ᴱQ. soractë n. “beach”; see instead:
Q. hresta “beach, shore”

1.31 Water

ᴹQ. limba n. “drop”
⚠️ᴱQ. linquëa adj. “watery”
⚠️ᴱQ. mirmila adj. “rippling”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nén (nen-) n. “water, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] river”
⚠️ᴱQ. ninda¹ n. “water, river”; see instead:
Q. nén “water, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] river”
Q. yulunefítë adj. “amphibious, *(lit.) drinking-breathing”

1.32 Sea

Q., ᴹQ. †airë² n. “sea”
⚠️ᴹQ. airen n. “sea”; see instead:
Q. †airon “ocean”
Q. †airon n. “ocean”
Q., ᴹQ. ëar n. “sea, great sea, ️[ᴹQ.] open sea; ⚠️water”
ᴺQ. !ëarina adj. “of the sea”
Q. eäron n. “ocean, great sea”
⚠️ᴱQ. haloisi n. “the sea (in storm)”; see instead:
Q. raumo “(noise of a) storm”
Q. váya “ocean, [stormy] sea”
⚠️ᴱQ. laivar n. “ocean”
⚠️ᴱQ. ua n. “the sea”; see instead:
Q. ëar “sea, great sea, ️[ᴹQ.] open sea; ⚠️water”
Q. váya n. “ocean, [stormy] sea”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vëa² n. “sea”; see instead:
Q. váya “ocean, [stormy] sea”

1.33 Lake, Pond

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ailin n. “(large) lake, [ᴹQ.] pool”
⚠️ᴱQ. ailo (ailu-) n. “lake, pool”; see instead:
Q. ailin “(large) lake, [ᴹQ.] pool”
⚠️ᴹQ. lindë² n. “pool”; see instead:
ᴹQ. linya “pool”
ᴹQ. linya n. “pool”
⚠️ᴱQ. liquilla n. “(clear) pool”; see instead:
ᴹQ. linya “pool”
Q. lón(a) n. “(deep) pool, mere, river-feeding well”
⚠️ᴱQ. moilë n. “tarn”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ringwë “cold pool or lake (in mountains)”
Q., ᴹQ. nendë n. “lake, [ᴹQ.] pool”
ᴹQ. ringwë n. “cold pool or lake (in mountains)”

1.34 Gulf, Bay

⚠️ᴱQ. fingil n. “narrows, straits, gulf”; see instead:
Q. (a)nacca “narrows, defile, pass, cut”

1.35 Wave, Surge

Q., ᴱQ. falasta- v. “to foam, surge, [ᴱQ.] make a sound like surf”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. falma n. “(crested or foaming) wave, breaker; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. falmar n. “wave (as it breaks), foamcrest”; see instead:
Q. falma “(crested or foaming) wave, breaker; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. palastor n. “surf”; see instead:
Q. falassë “(wave-beaten) shore, seashore, line of surf; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] beach”
ᴹQ. solor “surf, [ᴱQ.] surge; ⚠️wavebreak, coast”
⚠️ᴱQ. palaswin (palaswing-) n. “wave-crest”; see instead:
Q. falma “(crested or foaming) wave, breaker; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. qualumë² adj. “heaving”
⚠️ᴱQ. solmë n. “wave”; see instead:
Q. falma “(crested or foaming) wave, breaker; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] foam”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. solor (solos-) n. “surf, [ᴱQ.] surge; ⚠️wavebreak, coast”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^solta- v. “to wave, heave, *surge (up and down)”
⚠️ᴱQ. solto- v. “to wave, heave, surge (up and down)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^solta- “to wave, heave, *surge (up and down)”
Q. vairë adj. “?wavy”
⚠️ᴱQ. wingë² n. “wave”; see instead:
Q. falma “(crested or foaming) wave, breaker; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] foam”

1.351 Foam, Froth

ᴹQ. fallë n. “foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. hoiyë n. “foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. palassë n. “foam, splashing”; see instead:
ᴹQ. fallë “foam”
Q. wingë “foam, spindrift, spray, [ᴹQ.] wave crest, [ᴱQ.] froth, scud”
⚠️ᴱQ. palassëa adj. “foaming (of the sea)”
⚠️ᴱQ. poiminë n. “lather, foam; mermaid”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lipsanë “lather”
⚠️ᴱQ. uilossë n. “foam”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. wingë n. “foam, spindrift, spray, [ᴹQ.] wave crest, [ᴱQ.] froth, scud”

1.352 Splash, Spray

ᴺQ. !falarië n. “splashing, splash”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^falarya- v. “to splash, ⚠️foam”
⚠️ᴺQ. !palasta- v. “to splash, sprinkle”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^falarya- “to splash, ⚠️foam”
⚠️ᴺQ. !palastaina adj. “splashed”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^falarya- “to splash, ⚠️foam”
⚠️ᴺQ. !palastië n. “splashing”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !falarië “splashing, splash”
⚠️ᴱQ. palasya- v. “to splash, foam”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^falarya- “to splash, ⚠️foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. timpa n. “spray, nozzle of hose”; see instead:
Q. wingë “foam, spindrift, spray, [ᴹQ.] wave crest, [ᴱQ.] froth, scud”
⚠️ᴱQ. timpina adj. “fine, powdered, sprayed”; see instead:
Q. wingë “foam, spindrift, spray, [ᴹQ.] wave crest, [ᴱQ.] froth, scud”
⚠️ᴱQ. timpinë n. “spray”; see instead:
Q. wingë “foam, spindrift, spray, [ᴹQ.] wave crest, [ᴱQ.] froth, scud”
⚠️ᴱQ. vasca adj. “making a plash or rush”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

ᴺQ. !anasirë n. “tributary”
⚠️ᴱQ. axa¹ n. “waterfall”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lantasírë “waterfall, (lit.) falling river”
ᴹQ. celma n. “channel”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. celumë n. “flow(ing), stream, flood (tide); ⚠️[ᴱQ.] fountain, spring”
⚠️ᴱQ. celusindi n. “river near its source”
ᴹQ. celut n. “rivulet”
ᴹQ. etsir n. “mouth of a river”
ᴺQ. !lantasírë n. “waterfall, (lit.) falling river”
Q. †-(n)duinë suf. “(large) river”
ᴹQ. nellë n. “brook, *stream”
ᴹQ. ráva² n. “bank (especially of a river)”
⚠️ᴱQ. sindi n. “river”; see instead:
Q. sír(ë) “river, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] stream”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. sír(ë) (síri-) n. “river, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] stream”
ᴹQ. siril n. “rivulet”
⚠️ᴱQ. wenda n. “brook”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nellë “brook, *stream”
⚠️ᴱQ. wentë n. “brook, small river”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nellë “brook, *stream”
⚠️ᴱQ. wereven(da) (werevend-) n. “winding rill”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nellë “brook, *stream”

1.37 Spring, Well

⚠️ᴱQ. capalinda n. “spring of water”; see instead:
Q. ehtelë “spring, issue of water”
⚠️ᴱQ. cecta n. “jet, spring”; see instead:
Q. ehtelë “spring, issue of water”
Q. celussë “freshnet, water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring”
⚠️ᴱQ. cectelë n. “fountain”; see instead:
ᴹQ. celurë “fountain”
⚠️ᴱQ. †cectelu- v. “to bubble up”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ehtelu- “to well, bubble up”
ᴹQ. celulindë (celulindi-) n. “spring”
ᴹQ. celurë n. “fountain”
Q. celussë n. “freshnet, water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring”
⚠️ᴺQ. !celwë n. “spring, source”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^celu “source, origin”
⚠️ᴱQ. ectelë n. “fountain”; see instead:
Q. ehtelë “spring, issue of water”
ᴹQ. celurë “fountain”
Q., ᴹQ. ehtelë n. “spring, issue of water”
ᴹQ. ehtelu- v. “to well, bubble up”
⚠️ᴱQ. ehtil n. “spring, fount, source”; see instead:
Q. ehtelë “spring, issue of water”
ᴺQ. !laucehtelë n. “hot spring”
⚠️ᴱQ. quelu n. “well, spring, source”; see instead:
Q. ehtelë “spring, issue of water”
ᴺQ. ^celu “source, origin”
⚠️ᴱQ. quelu- v. “to well up”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ehtelu- “to well, bubble up”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tampo n. “well”
⚠️ᴱQ. vascelu n. “fountain”; see instead:
ᴹQ. celurë “fountain”

1.38 Whirlpool

ᴹQ. hwindë n. “eddy, whirlpool”
ᴺQ. !hwinwaiwa n. “whirlwind”

1.41 Woods, Forest

⚠️ᴱQ. málos n. “forest”; see instead:
Q. taurë “forest, (great) wood”
⚠️ᴱQ. nan (nand-) n. “woodland, *land”; see instead:
Q. nan(do) “(wide) valley, vale”
Q. ornendur n. “tree-keep, forester, woodsman”
ᴺQ. !rostaurë n. “rainforest”
⚠️ᴱQ. tauno n. “(great) forest”; see instead:
Q. taurë “forest, (great) wood”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. taurë n. “forest, (great) wood”
Q. #taurëa adj. “forested”
ᴺQ. !tauron (taurond-) n. “forester”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tavas (tavast-) n. “woodland”

1.43 Wood, Timber

⚠️ᴱQ. aldarë n. “wood”; see instead:
Q. toa “wood (as material)”
⚠️ᴱQ. cinda n. “splinter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^cirda “splinter, *wood shaving”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^cirda n. “splinter, *wood shaving”
Q. lepetta n. “Gondorian hardwood”
ᴺQ. !moritoa n. “ebony wood”
ᴹQ. runda n. “rough piece of wood”
ᴺQ. !sacillë [þ] n. “splinter”
Q. tauca adj. “stiff, wooden”
⚠️ᴹQ. taurina adj. “of wood”; see instead:
Q. toina “wood, *wooden”
⚠️ᴹQ. tavar n. “wood (material)”; see instead:
Q. toa “wood (as material)”
Q. toa n. “wood (as material)”
Q., ᴹQ. toina adj. “wood, *wooden”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tundo n. “firewood, fuel”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. turu n. “wood (as material), (orig.) firewood”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. turúva adj. “wooden”
⚠️ᴱQ. turuvoitë adj. “rich in timber”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tusturë n. “tinder, chips, ⚠️firewood”

1.44 Rock, Stone

⚠️ᴱQ. aicuvoitë adj. “cliffy, rocky”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. alas (alast-) n. “marble”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. alasta adj. “of marble, marble”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. alaswa adj. “like marble”
⚠️ᴱQ. arac n. “shingle, piles of stones”; see instead:
Q. sarnië “shingle, pebble bank”
⚠️ᴱQ. #hon¹ (hond-) n. “stone, rock”; see instead:
Q. ondo “stone (as a material), (large mass of) rock”
⚠️ᴱQ. hyellë n. “pebble”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sardincë “pebble”
⚠️ᴱQ. ‽lallë (lalli-) n. “pebble”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sardincë “pebble”
⚠️ᴱQ. on(d) n. “(a) stone”; see instead:
Q. ondo “stone (as a material), (large mass of) rock”
Q. #sar “stone (small)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ondo n. “stone (as a material), (large mass of) rock”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^ondova adj. “stony”
⚠️ᴱQ. onwa adj. “stony”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^ondova “stony”
Q., ᴹQ. #sar (sarn-) n. “stone (small)”
ᴺQ. !sardincë n. “pebble”
ᴹQ. sarna adj. “of stone”
ᴹQ. sarnë n. “stony place”
Q. sarnië n. “shingle, pebble bank”
ᴺQ. !sarya- v. “to stone”
⚠️ᴱQ. silic (siliqu-) n. “flint”; see instead:
Q. #sinca “flint, *flinty”
⚠️ᴱQ. siliqu(in)a adj. “flinty”; see instead:
Q. #sinca “flint, *flinty”
Q. #sinca n. and adj. “flint, *flinty”
ᴺQ. !talmondo n. “foundation stone”
⚠️ᴹQ. #tinga n. “*flint”; see instead:
Q. #sinca “flint, *flinty”
⚠️ᴱQ. tolot (toloct-) n. “pebble, cobble-stone”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sardincë “pebble”
ᴹQ. ambal “shaped stone, flag”
ᴺQ. !virittë n. “gravel”

1.46 Cave

⚠️ᴱQ. asampe(a) adj. “cavernous”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !rondova “cavernous”
⚠️ᴱQ. cambo n. “cellar, cave, vault”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sampo “*cellar, vault; ⚠️cave, hollow”
⚠️Q. felco n. “cave, mine, underground dwelling”; see instead:
Q. felya “mine, boring, tunnel, underground dwel[ling]; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] cave”
Q., ᴹQ. felya n. “mine, boring, tunnel, underground dwel[ling]; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] cave”
Q. hróta n. “dwelling underground, artificial cave or rockhewn hall”
⚠️ᴱQ. orot n. “cave”; see instead:
Q. rotto “tunnel, small grot, [ᴹQ.] cave”
⚠️ᴱQ. ronda n. “cavern”; see instead:
Q. rondo¹ “vaulted or arched roof, vaulted hall; [ᴹQ.] cavern, ⚠️cave”
Q. rotto “tunnel, small grot, [ᴹQ.] cave”
ᴺQ. !rondova adj. “cavernous”
⚠️ᴱQ. rótelë n. “cave”; see instead:
Q. rotto “tunnel, small grot, [ᴹQ.] cave”
⚠️ᴱQ. rotl n. “cave, hollow, grot”; see instead:
Q. rotto “tunnel, small grot, [ᴹQ.] cave”
Q., ᴹQ. rotto n. “tunnel, small grot, [ᴹQ.] cave”
⚠️ᴱQ. sampë n. “cave, hollow”; see instead:
Q. rotto “tunnel, small grot, [ᴹQ.] cave”
Q. unquë “hollow, [ᴹQ.] cavity, hole”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sampo n. “*cellar, vault; ⚠️cave, hollow”
⚠️ᴱQ. sinquelë n. “mine”; see instead:
Q. felya “mine, boring, tunnel, underground dwel[ling]; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] cave”

1.51 Sky, Heavens

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. callë n. “fair weather, clear sky, blue sky”
Q. fanyarë n. “the skies”
ᴹQ. hellë n. “sky”
ᴺQ. !hellecalma n. “sky-lantern”
⚠️ᴱQ. iluquinga n. “rainbow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helyanwë “rainbow, (lit.) sky-bridge”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilwë n. “sky, heavens”; see instead:
Q. menel “the heavens, firmament, sky”
Q., ᴹQ. menel n. “the heavens, firmament, sky”
ᴺQ. !menelwa adj. “heavenly”
⚠️ᴱQ. taimë n. “sky”; see instead:
Q. vilya “air, sky”
ᴹQ. hellë “sky”
⚠️ᴱQ. taitelúmë n. “firmament”; see instead:
Q. menel “the heavens, firmament, sky”
⚠️ᴱQ. telimbo n. “canopy; sky”; see instead:
Q. telumë “roof, canopy; heaven, sky; [ᴹQ.] vault, dome (of heaven), [ᴱQ.] firmament”
⚠️ᴱQ. vaitë adj. “skied”; see instead:
Q. vilya “air, sky”
⚠️ᴱQ. vaiya¹ n. “sky, skies”; see instead:
Q. vilya “air, sky”

1.52 Sun

⚠️ᴱQ. †ahúrasilqui n. “sun and moon”
Q., ᴹQ. Anar n. “Sun”
Q., ᴹQ. árë (ári-) n. “sunlight, warmth (especially of the sun); ⚠️day”
⚠️ᴺQ. !árinqua adj. “sunny, (lit.) sunlight-full”; see instead:
Q. calina “light, bright, sunny, (lit.) illumined”
Q. arma n. “ray of sunlight”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. aurëa adj. “sunny, sunlit, *(lit.) daylight-ish”
⚠️ᴱQ. aurinca adj. “sunny”; see instead:
ᴺQ. aurëa “sunny, sunlit, *(lit.) daylight-ish”
Q. calina “light, bright, sunny, (lit.) illumined”
⚠️ᴱQ. auro n. “sun”; see instead:
Q. Anar “Sun”
⚠️ᴱQ. aurquil(e)a adj. “golden, sunlit”; see instead:
Q. laurëa “golden (of hue)”
ᴺQ. aurëa “sunny, sunlit, *(lit.) daylight-ish”
⚠️ᴱQ. firin¹ n. “ray of sun”; see instead:
Q. arma “ray of sunlight”
ᴹQ. firin “dead (by natural cause)”
⚠️ᴱQ. osto n. “gates of the Sun”; see instead:
Q. osto “fortress, stronghold, strong place; [ᴹQ.] city, town with wall round”
⚠️ᴱQ. ránuringwi n. “sun and moon”

1.53 Moon

Q. ceuran n. “new-moon”
Q., ᴹQ. Isil [þ] n. “Moon, (lit.) Sheen”
Q. isilmë [þ] n. “moonlight”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. Rána n. “Moon, (lit.) Wayward”
⚠️ᴱQ. rincu n. “orb of Moon”
⚠️ᴱQ. Sil (Sill-) n. “Moon; Rose”; see instead:
Q. Isil “Moon, (lit.) Sheen”
⚠️ᴱQ. silma n. “ray of moonlight”; see instead:
Q. isilmë “moonlight”
Q. silma “crystal (white); [ᴹQ.] silver, shining white”
⚠️ᴱQ. silmëa adj. “*of the moon”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. silmerána n. “gleaming moon, silver moon”

1.54 Star

Q., ᴹQ. †él n. “star”
Q., ᴹQ. elen n. “star”
ᴺQ. !elengolmë n. “astronomy”
Q. elenya adj. “adjective referring to the stars, *of the stars, stellar”
ᴺQ. !élicombë n. “galaxy, collection of stars”
Q. elvëa adj. “starlike”
⚠️ᴱQ. ílë n. “star”; see instead:
Q. nillë¹ “silver glint; Valinorian imagines [images of real stars]”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. letinwessë n. “constellation”
⚠️ᴱQ. lintitinwë adj. “having many stars, many-starred”
Q. meneldil n. “astronomer, (lit.) *lover of the heavens”
Q. nillë¹ [ñ] n. “silver glint; Valinorian imagines [images of real stars]”
ᴹQ. tingilya n. “twinkling star”
⚠️ᴱQ. tint v. “(silver) spark”; see instead:
Q. tinwë “spark, [apparent] star”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tinwë n. “spark, [apparent] star”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. titinwë n. “small star, sparkle of dew”

1.542 Starlight

ᴹQ. élë n. “star-ray, beam, flashing of [?starry] light”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. silmë n. “starlight; [ᴹQ.] silver [light], ⚠️moonlight, light of Silpion; [ᴱQ.] moon”

1.55 Flash, Lightning

Q. alca- v. “to glitter, *shine out, flash”
⚠️Q. íta¹ n. “flash”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tindë “glint, *flash”
⚠️ᴱQ. silë n. “glint (of white)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tindë “glint, *flash”
ᴹQ. tinda adj. “glinting (silver)”
ᴹQ. tindë n. “glint, *flash”
ᴺQ. !volta n. “volt”
ᴺQ. !voltië n. “voltage”
⚠️ᴱQ. wintil n. “a glint”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tindë “glint, *flash”
⚠️ᴱQ. winwë (winwi-) n. “a sparkling, flash”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^tintilië “sparkling, twinkling”
⚠️ᴱQ. winya- v. “to flash, glint”; see instead:
Q. tin- “to spark, glitter, [ᴹQ.] glint, [ᴱQ.] gleam, shine as a star”
Q. alca- “to glitter, *shine out, flash”

1.56 Noise, Thunder

⚠️ᴺQ., ᴱQ. fundu- v. “to thunder”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hundu- “to thunder”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hundu- v. “to thunder”
⚠️ᴱQ. lausta-² v. “to roar, rush [making a rushing sound]”
⚠️ᴱQ. lausto adv. “*noisily”
⚠️ᴱQ. limpalassë n. “much roaring”
⚠️ᴱQ. limpalassëa adj. “much roaring”
⚠️ᴱQ. londa- v. “to boom, bang”
⚠️ᴱQ. lon(dë) (lond-) n. “loud noise”; see instead:
Q. hlón(a) “noise, sound”
Q. róma “horn; [ᴹQ.] loud sound, trumpet-sound, *blare”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. [ᴱQ.] ^narambo n. “bang, buffet”
⚠️ᴱQ. patacan n. “rattling, clatter”
⚠️ᴱQ. patacanda adj. “rattling, clattering”
⚠️ᴱQ. patacatapaca n. “rat-a-tat”
⚠️ᴱQ. patacë n. “clatter”
⚠️ᴱQ. patacta- v. “to clatter”
⚠️ᴱQ. ran (ram-) n. “noise”; see instead:
Q. hlón(a) “noise, sound”
ᴺQ. !rav- v. “to roar”
Q. rávë n. “roaring noise”
Q. rávëa adj. “roaring”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tompo-tompo n. “noise of drums (or guns)”
⚠️ᴱQ. yallë n. “a hollow ring”; see instead:
Q. yallë “as, in the same way as, like”
ᴹQ. yalmë n. “clamour”

1.61 Light

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. alca n. “ray of light, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] light of day; shining”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. cala n. “light; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] daytime (sunlight), 12 hours”
Q. cálë n. “light”
⚠️ᴱQ. cal(l)u- v. “to illuminate, to light up”; see instead:
ᴹQ. calya- “to illuminate”
ᴹQ. calya- v. “to illuminate”
⚠️ᴱQ. catë (cati-) n. “gleam, ray”; see instead:
Q. fá¹ “*ray of light, flame”
Q. fá¹ n. “*ray of light, flame”
Q. linquë² n. “light-substance”

1.62 Darkness

⚠️ᴱQ. hui n. “dark, murk, fog; night, evening”; see instead:
Q. huinë “gloom, darkness, deep shadow; night shade”
Q., ᴹQ. huinë n. “gloom, darkness, deep shadow; night shade”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilcala n. “*nighttime, darkness”
⚠️Q. lúmë² n. “darkness”; see instead:
Q. lómë “night, dimness, twilight, dusk, darkness, [ᴹQ.] night-time, shades of night, ⚠️gloom; [ᴱQ.] shadow, cloud”
⚠️ᴱQ. lur- v. “?to be dark”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nur- “to grow/be dark”
ᴹQ. nur- v. “to grow/be dark”
⚠️ᴹQ. ungwë n. “gloom”; see instead:
Q. huinë “gloom, darkness, deep shadow; night shade”
Q. ungwë “spider’s web; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] spider”
⚠️ᴱQ. yara n. “a gloom, blight, lowering darkness”; see instead:
Q. lumbo “cloud, [ᴱQ.] dark lowering cloud; [Q.] gloom, dark, shade”
Q. yára “old, ancient, [ᴹQ.] belonging to or descending from former times”

1.622 Dark, Murky

⚠️ᴱQ. huiva adj. “murky”; see instead:
Q. úcalima “dim, murky”
Q. lilómëa adj. “very dark, full of darkness”
⚠️ᴹQ. lóna² adj. “dark”; see instead:
Q. lúna “*dark”
Q. lumba adj. “gloomy”
Q. lúna adj. “*dark”
⚠️ᴱQ. masca adj. “dusky, misty”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hísëa “misty”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. morë (mori-) adj. and n. “dark, black; darkness, [ᴹQ.] blackness, [Q.] night”
Q. úcalima adj. “dim, murky”
⚠️ᴱQ. yanda adj. “dark, gloomy”; see instead:
Q. lumba “gloomy”
Q. yanda “wide”

1.63 Shade, Shadow

Q. hala n. “cast shadow, *shade”
ᴹQ. halda¹ adj. “veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady”
⚠️ᴹQ. laimë n. “shadow (cast by an object or form), shade”; see instead:
Q. hala “cast shadow, *shade”
⚠️ᴹQ. laira adj. “shady”; see instead:
ᴹQ. halda¹ “veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady”
⚠️ᴹQ. leo n. “shade, shadow cast by any object”; see instead:
Q. hala “cast shadow, *shade”
Q., ᴱQ. #lómëa adj. “shadowed, gloomy, *shadowy”
⚠️ᴱQ. lómin n. “shade, shadow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lumbë “gloom, shadow”
⚠️ᴱQ. lómina adj. “shadowy”; see instead:
Q. #lómëa “shadowed, gloomy, *shadowy”
ᴹQ. lumbë n. “gloom, shadow”
Q. lumbulë n. “dark shadow, heavy shadow; deep in shadow”
ᴹQ. mordo n. “shadow, obscurity, stain, smear, dimness”

1.71 Air, Ether

ᴺQ. !hwestalauca n. “vapour”
ᴺQ. !hwestalaucata- v. “to vaporize”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilma n. “air”
Q. vilya n. “air, sky”
⚠️ᴱQ. vílyava adj. “airy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. vilina “airy, breezy, ⚠️light”
ᴹQ. vista n. “air as substance”
⚠️ᴹQ. wilma n. “inner or lower air”; see instead:
Q. vilya “air, sky”

1.72 Wind

Q. hwárwa n. “violent wind”
⚠️ᴱQ. noswë n. “a wet wind (SW)”
Q., ᴱQ. n. “(sound of) wind”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. suiva adj. “soughing, moaning [of wind]”
⚠️ᴱQ. súlimë n. “wind”; see instead:
Q. Súlimë “March, *Windy-one”
Q. súrë “wind, breeze”
Q. súrë (súri-) n. “wind, breeze”
⚠️ᴱQ. súru n. “air-spirit; wind, gale”; see instead:
Q. súrë “wind, breeze”
ᴺQ. wanwa “great gale”
⚠️ᴱQ. susúlima adj. “full of wind, windy, airy”
⚠️ᴱQ. †súyë n. “air, breezes, winds”; see instead:
Q. súrë “wind, breeze”
Q. vailë n. “[strong] wind, *gale”
Q. vailima adj. “windy”
⚠️ᴹQ. vaiwa n. “wind”; see instead:
Q. vailë “[strong] wind, *gale”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “wind”; see instead:
Q. vailë “[strong] wind, *gale”
⚠️ᴱQ. wanwavoitë adj. “windy”; see instead:
Q. vailima “windy”

1.722 Storm

⚠️ᴱQ. húro n. “storm”; see instead:
Q. raumo “(noise of a) storm”
⚠️ᴱQ. laumë¹ n. “storm, overcast sky”; see instead:
Q. raumo “(noise of a) storm”
⚠️ᴱQ. laumëa adj. “dark, stormy”
Q. raumo n. “(noise of a) storm”
Q. vangwë n. “storm; ⚠️blow”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. wanwa n. “great gale”

1.723 Breeze

Q., ᴹQ. hwesta n. “breeze; [ᴹQ.] breath, puff of air”
⚠️ᴱQ. vílë n. “gentle breeze”; see instead:
Q. hwesta “breeze; [ᴹQ.] breath, puff of air”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. vilina adj. “airy, breezy, ⚠️light”

1.73 Cloud, Mirk

⚠️ᴱQ. aulo n. “cloud”; see instead:
Q. fanya “(white) cloud, white and shining [thing]; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] sky; white”
Q. lumbo “cloud, [ᴱQ.] dark lowering cloud; [Q.] gloom, dark, shade”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. fanya n. “(white) cloud, white and shining [thing]; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] sky; white”
Q., ᴱQ. lumbo n. “cloud, [ᴱQ.] dark lowering cloud; [Q.] gloom, dark, shade”
⚠️ᴹQ. ungo n. “cloud, dark shadow”; see instead:
Q. lumbo “cloud, [ᴱQ.] dark lowering cloud; [Q.] gloom, dark, shade”

1.74 Mist, Fog, Haze

Q. fanwë n. “vapour, steam”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #hísë (hísi-) [þ] n. “mist, [ᴹQ.] fog, [ᴱQ.] haze; ⚠️dusk; bleared”
ᴺQ. !hísëa adj. “misty”
Q. hísië [þ] n. “mist, mistiness”
ᴹQ. hiswë [þ] n. “fog”
⚠️ᴱQ. mirdë n. “mist”; see instead:
Q. mistë “drizzle, [ᴹQ.] fine rain”
⚠️ᴱQ. nótë n. “dew”; see instead:
Q. #rossë “(fine) rain, [ᴹQ.] dew; ⚠️[Q.] foam”
ᴹQ. nótë “number”
⚠️ᴱQ. quossë n. “mist”; see instead:
Q. hísië “mist, mistiness”
⚠️ᴱQ. rin² (ring-) n. “dew”; see instead:
Q. #rossë “(fine) rain, [ᴹQ.] dew; ⚠️[Q.] foam”

1.75 Rain (n)

ᴹQ. celya- v. “to send running down; to rain”
⚠️ᴱQ. mië¹ n. “mist, drizzle”; see instead:
Q. mistë “drizzle, [ᴹQ.] fine rain”
Q., ᴹQ. mistë n. “drizzle, [ᴹQ.] fine rain”
⚠️ᴱQ. notë (notsi-) n. “drizzle”; see instead:
Q. mistë “drizzle, [ᴹQ.] fine rain”
⚠️ᴱQ. notsiva adj. “drizzling”
Q., ᴹQ. #rossë n. “(fine) rain, [ᴹQ.] dew; ⚠️[Q.] foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. timpë n. “fine rain”; see instead:
Q. mistë “drizzle, [ᴹQ.] fine rain”
Q. #rossë “(fine) rain, [ᴹQ.] dew; ⚠️[Q.] foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. timpínëa adj. “made of spray, full of fine showers, showery (of weather)”; see instead:
Q. wingë “foam, spindrift, spray, [ᴹQ.] wave crest, [ᴱQ.] froth, scud”
Q. #ul- v. “to rain”
Q. ulo n. “rain”
⚠️ᴱQ. #uqu- v. “to rain”; see instead:
Q. #ul- “to rain”
⚠️ᴱQ. úquil n. “rain”; see instead:
Q. ulo “rain”

1.752 Rainbow

ᴹQ. helyanwë n. “rainbow, (lit.) sky-bridge”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilweran(ta) n. “bridge of heaven, rainbow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helyanwë “rainbow, (lit.) sky-bridge”
⚠️ᴱQ. uccu n. “rainbow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helyanwë “rainbow, (lit.) sky-bridge”

1.76 Snow (n)

⚠️ᴱQ. fauta- v. “to snow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hris- “to snow”
⚠️ᴱQ. fáwë n. “snow”; see instead:
Q. lossë¹ “snow, fallen snow; snow-white, snowy”
ᴺQ. !helexë n. “hail”
ᴺQ. [Q.] ^hris- v. “to snow”
Q. hrissë n. “fall of snow”
Q. hristil n. “snow (?peak)”
⚠️Q. hrisya- [þ] v. “to snow (impersonal)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hris- “to snow”
⚠️Q. †#hriz- v. “to snow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hris- “to snow”
⚠️ᴱQ. is (iss-) n. “light snow”; see instead:
Q. lossë¹ “snow, fallen snow; snow-white, snowy”
Q. lossë¹ n. and adj. “snow, fallen snow; snow-white, snowy”
Q. lossëa adj. “snowy, (snow) white”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #nieninquë n. “snowdrop, [ᴹQ.] (lit.) white tear”
Q., ᴱQ. nieninquëa adj. “like a snowdrop”
⚠️ᴱQ. niquetil (niquetild-) n. “snow cap”
⚠️ᴱQ. niquileninquë adj. “snow-white”
⚠️ᴱQ. niquilis n. “fine snow”; see instead:
Q. lossë¹ “snow, fallen snow; snow-white, snowy”
⚠️ᴱQ. niquissëa adj. “snowy”; see instead:
Q. lossëa “snowy, (snow) white”
⚠️ᴱQ. niquista- v. “to snow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hris- “to snow”
⚠️ᴹQ. †olos(së) n. “snow, fallen snow”; see instead:
Q. lossë¹ “snow, fallen snow; snow-white, snowy”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tiquilin (tiquilind-) n. “thaw, melting snow, slush”

1.77 Ice, Frost

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. helcë n. “ice”
ᴹQ. helcelimbë n. “*icicle, (lit.) ice-drop”
⚠️ᴹQ. helen (helem-) n. “icicle”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helcelimbë “*icicle, (lit.) ice-drop”
⚠️ᴹQ. hellë² n. “frost”; see instead:
Q. nixë “frost; ⚠️ice-flake or snow-flake”
ᴹQ. hellë “sky”
⚠️ᴹQ. helor n. “frost”; see instead:
Q. nixë “frost; ⚠️ice-flake or snow-flake”
⚠️ᴱQ. liquilitl n. “icicle, *(lit.) clear drop”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helcelimbë “*icicle, (lit.) ice-drop”
Q. niquessë n. “frost-patterns; snowflake, ice-flake, (lit.) chill feather”
Q., ᴱQ. niquis (niquiss-) n. “ice-flake, snowflake; petal (loose) of a white flower; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] snow”
Q. nixë n. “frost; ⚠️ice-flake or snow-flake”
⚠️ᴱQ. ringwë n. “rime, frost; cold”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ringë “cold, *chill”
Q. nixë “frost; ⚠️ice-flake or snow-flake”
ᴹQ. ringwë “cold pool or lake (in mountains)”
⚠️ᴱQ. yalca n. “ice”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helcë “ice”
⚠️ᴱQ. yelma n. “(a bout of) frost; a cold; chill”; see instead:
Q. nixë “frost; ⚠️ice-flake or snow-flake”

1.772 to Freeze

⚠️ᴱQ. halcin adj. “frozen”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^helcin “frozen”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hel- v. “to freeze”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^helcin adj. “frozen”
⚠️ᴱQ. hilc- v. “to freeze”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hel- “to freeze”
Q. nicu- v. “to snow, freeze, be cold (of weather), be chill”

1.78 Weather

⚠️ᴱQ. lúrë n. “dark weather, bad weather”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^lurmë “dark weather, bad weather”
⚠️ᴱQ. lúrëa adj. “dark, overcast”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hiswa “grey [of weather], *foggy, overcast; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] dim, fading”
Q. lumba “gloomy”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^lurmë n. “dark weather, bad weather”
⚠️ᴱQ. lúvin(a) adj. “dark, overcast”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hiswa “grey [of weather], *foggy, overcast; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] dim, fading”
Q. lumba “gloomy”
⚠️ᴱQ. luvu- v. “to lower, hang, brood”
ᴺQ. !vilwis(të) n. “weather, (lit.) turn of air”

1.81 Fire (n)

Q. (apa)ruivë n. “wild fire”
Q., ᴹQ. nár n. “fire (as an element); [ᴹQ.] flame”
⚠️ᴱQ. pur (purn-) n. “a fire, an artificial fire”; see instead:
Q. ruinë “fire, blaze”
Q. ruina adj. “blazing, fiery”
Q. ruinë n. “fire, blaze”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “fire”; see instead:
Q. nár “fire (as an element); [ᴹQ.] flame”
⚠️ᴱQ. sár(e)a adj. “fiery”; see instead:
ᴺQ. úruva “fiery, [ᴱQ.] like fire”
Q. sára “[ᴹQ.] bitter”
⚠️ᴱQ. tan(y)a n. “fire”; see instead:
Q. ruinë “fire, blaze”
⚠️ᴱQ. uru n. “fire”; see instead:
Q. úrë “heat, [ᴹQ.] fire”
⚠️ᴹQ. uruitë adj. “fiery”; see instead:
ᴺQ. úruva “fiery, [ᴱQ.] like fire”
⚠️ᴱQ. urupurnië n. “conflagration”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !ururuinië “conflagration”
ᴺQ. !ururuinië n. “conflagration”
ᴺQ., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. úruva adj. “fiery, [ᴱQ.] like fire”
⚠️ᴱQ. uruvoitë adj. “fiery, having fire”; see instead:
ᴺQ. úruva “fiery, [ᴱQ.] like fire”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. urwa adj. “on fire, afire”

1.82 Flame (n)

⚠️ᴹQ. culo n. “flame”; see instead:
Q. runya “fiery red”
ᴺQ. !narrundo n. “torch”
⚠️ᴱQ. purma n. “blaze, flame”; see instead:
Q. ruinë “fire, blaze”
Q. rúnya n. “red flame”
⚠️ᴱQ. velca n. “flame”; see instead:
Q. nár “fire (as an element); [ᴹQ.] flame”

1.83 Smoke (n)

ᴺQ. !ninquima n. “frankincense”
ᴺQ. !nisquë n. “incense, *(lit.) sweet smoke”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quonda n. “choking smog, smoke”
⚠️ᴱQ. ructa- v. “to belch smoke, spout smoke; to cause to smoke; to smoke at a pipe”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !uruhta- “to (cause to) smoke; to belch smoke”
⚠️ᴱQ. rucu n. “smoke, reek”; see instead:
Q. usquë “[ᴹQ.] reek, *smoke; ⚠️[Q.] dusk, dim light, [ᴹQ.] twilight; [ᴱQ.] fog”
⚠️ᴱQ. rucu- v. “to steam, smoke, reek”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !ustya- “to smoke (intr.)”
ᴺQ. !uruhta- v. “to (cause to) smoke; to belch smoke”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. usquë n. “[ᴹQ.] reek, *smoke; ⚠️[Q.] dusk, dim light, [ᴹQ.] twilight; [ᴱQ.] fog”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ussa n. “incense”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nisquë “incense, *(lit.) sweet smoke”
ᴺQ. !ustya- v. “to smoke (intr.)”

1.84 Ash(es)

ᴺQ. !hyulma n. “coal”
ᴺQ. !littë n. “ash”

1.85 to Burn, Scorch

⚠️ᴱQ. canda- v. “to blaze”; see instead:
Q. urya- “to be hot; [ᴹQ.] to blaze, [ᴱQ.] burn (intransitive)”
ᴺQ. !accal- “to blaze, shine (suddenly and) brilliantly”
⚠️ᴱQ. hus- v. “to burn (tr.)”; see instead:
Q. urya- “to be hot; [ᴹQ.] to blaze, [ᴱQ.] burn (intransitive)”
⚠️ᴱQ. puru- v. “to burn”; see instead:
Q. urya- “to be hot; [ᴹQ.] to blaze, [ᴱQ.] burn (intransitive)”
⚠️ᴱQ. purya- v. “to set fire to”; see instead:
ᴹQ. narta- “to kindle, *ignite, inflame, set fire to”
⚠️ᴱQ. sanga-² v. “to scorch”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sis- [þ-] v. “to scorch, singe, fry”
⚠️ᴱQ. tustima adj. “inflammable”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !uryaima “inflammable”
ᴺQ. !uryaima adj. “inflammable”
⚠️ᴱQ. usta- v. “to burn (tr.)”; see instead:
Q. urya- “to be hot; [ᴹQ.] to blaze, [ᴱQ.] burn (intransitive)”
⚠️ᴹQ. yul- v. “to smoulder”; see instead:
Q. yul- “to drink”
ᴺQ. !yúlala adj. “smoldering”

1.86 to Light, Kindle

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #calta- v. “to kindle, [ᴹQ.] (cause to) shine, light up, [ᴱQ.] set light to”
Q. lacalima adj. “not possible to be kindled (made to shine)”
Q. **lacaltaima adj. “not possible to be kindled”
ᴺQ. !luhtya- v. “extinguish”
ᴹQ. narta- v. “to kindle, *ignite, inflame, set fire to”
ᴺQ. !nartanwë n. “firework”
Q., ᴹQ. tinta- v. “to kindle, cause to spark, [ᴹQ.] make to spark”
⚠️ᴱQ. tunda- v. “to kindle”; see instead:
ᴹQ. narta- “to kindle, *ignite, inflame, set fire to”
Q. tinta- “to kindle, cause to spark, [ᴹQ.] make to spark”
⚠️ᴱQ. turya- v. “to catch fire”; see instead:
Q. urya- “to be hot; [ᴹQ.] to blaze, [ᴱQ.] burn (intransitive)”
ᴹQ. turya- “to strengthen”

1.87 Match, Fire Stick

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tusturin n. “match”
ᴺQ. !ussar (ussard-) n. “sulphur, (lit.) fire-stone”
ᴹQ. yúla n. “ember, smouldering wood”
⚠️ᴹQ. yulma n. “brand”; see instead:
Q. yulma “cup, drinking vessel, drinking implement, goblet”

1.99 Physical World (other)

Q., ᴹQ. #caraxë n. “[ᴹQ.] jagged hedge of spikes, [ᴱQ.] row of spikes or teeth”
⚠️ᴱQ. carcassë n. “row of spikes or teeth”; see instead:
Q. #caraxë “[ᴹQ.] jagged hedge of spikes, [ᴱQ.] row of spikes or teeth”

2. Mankind

2.1 Human Being

Q. Atan n. “Man, (lit.) the Second (People)”
ᴹQ. Atan n. “Man”
ᴹQ. firë n. “mortal man”
Q., ᴹQ. firya adj. “mortal; [ᴹQ.] human”
ᴺQ. !firyendesta n. “humanism”
Q. námo¹ n. “person, somebody (unnamed)”
Q. nassë n. “nature, true-being, *essence; person, individual”
⚠️ᴱQ. nasta n. “existence, being, creature”; see instead:
Q. nassë “nature, true-being, *essence; person, individual”
ᴺQ. ^ëasta “being, existence”
Q. návë n. “being”
Q. quén (quen-) n. “person, individual, man or woman, one, somebody”

2.21 Man

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nér (ner-) n. “man, male person; [ᴹQ.] adult male; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] husband; warrior”
Q. nercë n. “little man”
Q. nerdo n. “large, strong man”
ᴹQ. vëaner¹ n. “(adult) man”
ᴹQ. †veo n. “man”
ᴹQ. † n. “man, warrior”
⚠️ᴱQ. wië n. “*man, male of the Elda”; see instead:
ᴹQ. † “man, warrior”

2.22 Woman

⚠️ᴱQ. anai n. “woman”; see instead:
Q. nís “woman”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. † n. “woman, female”
Q. #nillë² (nill-) n. “small [woman]”
Q., ᴹQ. nís (niss-) n. “woman”
Q. nisto n. “large woman”
⚠️ᴱQ. nyél n. “woman”; see instead:
Q. nís “woman”
⚠️ᴱQ. quimellë n. “little woman”; see instead:
Q. #nillë² “small [woman]”

2.23 Male

⚠️ᴱQ. anu n. “a male, man”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hanu “male, man (of Men or Elves), male animal”
⚠️ᴱQ. anúrë n. “manliness, masculinity”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hanúrë “manliness, masculinity”
⚠️ᴱQ. anúvië n. “manhood, doughtyness”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hanúvië “manhood, doughtyness”
⚠️ᴱQ. anuvoitë adj. “male, masculine”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hanuvoitë “*masculine”
⚠️ᴹQ. enno n. “person, *being”; see instead:
Q. námo¹ “person, somebody (unnamed)”
ᴹQ. hanu n. “male, man (of Men or Elves), male animal”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hanúrë n. “manliness, masculinity”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hanúva adj. “doughty, *manly”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hanúvië n. “manhood, doughtyness”
ᴹQ. hanuvoitë adj. “*masculine”
ᴹQ. hanwa adj. “male”
⚠️ᴱQ. nerëa adj. “manly, stout, brave”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vëa¹ “adult, manly, vigorous”
⚠️ᴱQ. nerevoitë adj. “manly”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vëa¹ “adult, manly, vigorous”
⚠️ᴱQ. nérinwa adj. “*of man”
⚠️ᴱQ. #-nu suf. “masculine suffix”
ᴹQ. vëa¹ adj. “adult, manly, vigorous”
⚠️ᴱQ. via adj. “male”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hanwa “male”
ᴹQ. vië n. “manhood, vigour; [ᴱQ.] teors, *penis”
ᴹQ. -wë¹ suf. “masculine suffix”
⚠️ᴱQ. wenga adj. “*male”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hanwa “male”

2.24 Female

⚠️ᴱQ. anaina adj. “womanly”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !iniva “womanly”
⚠️ᴹQ. ennië n. “person (female), *being (female)”; see instead:
Q. námo¹ “person, somebody (unnamed)”
Q., ᴹQ. -ien¹ suf. “feminine ending; ⚠️feminine patronymic, -daughter”
ᴺQ. !inimë n. “femininity, womanliness”
ᴹQ. inimeitë adj. “*feminine”
ᴺQ. !iniva adj. “womanly”
ᴹQ. inya¹ adj. “female”
Q. -issë suf. “ending in feminine names”
⚠️ᴱQ. #-ni suf. “feminine suffix”
⚠️ᴱQ. quim(en)ëa adj. “womanly, feminine”; see instead:
ᴹQ. inimeitë “*feminine”
⚠️ᴱQ. quimenoitë (quimenoitsi-) adj. “feminine, female”; see instead:
ᴹQ. inimeitë “*feminine”
ᴹQ. inya¹ “female”
⚠️ᴱQ. quin¹ (quim-) n. “woman, female”; see instead:
Q. nís “woman”
⚠️ᴱQ. quindë n. “womanliness, femininity; (concr.) women as a whole”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !inimë “femininity, womanliness”
⚠️ᴱQ. quinya adj. “womanly”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !iniva “womanly”
⚠️ᴱQ. #-si suf. “feminine suffix”
⚠️ᴱQ. #-ssë³ suf. “feminine suffix”
⚠️ᴱQ. venya adj. “womanl[y]”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !iniva “womanly”

2.242 Sex

Q. yermë n. “sexual desire (for marriage and procreation)”

2.25 Boy

ᴹQ. seldo n. “child [m.], *boy”
Q. yonyo n. “boy, son (diminutive)”

2.26 Girl

⚠️ᴱQ. mella n. “girl”; see instead:
Q. nettë “(little) girl, sister (diminutive), pretty little thing, ⚠️daughter”
Q. nettë n. “(little) girl, sister (diminutive), pretty little thing, ⚠️daughter”
Q. riel(lë) n. “garlanded maiden, maiden crowned with a festive garland”
⚠️ᴱQ. tessa n. “maid, maiden”
⚠️ᴱQ. tessara adj. “maiden, maidenly”
⚠️ᴱQ. tessarë (tessari-) n. “little maid”
Q., ᴹQ. vénë n. “virginity; ⚠️*virgin”
Q. #vénëa n. “*virginal”
ᴹQ. venessë n. “virginity”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. wendë n. “maiden, *virgin”
Q., ᴱQ. wendelë n. “maidenhood”
⚠️ᴱQ. wen(di) n. “maid, girl, maiden”; see instead:
Q. wendë “maiden, *virgin”

2.27 Child

⚠️ᴱQ. ar¹ (arn-) n. “child”
⚠️ᴹQ. aran² (arn-) n. “child”; see instead:
Q. hína “child”
Q. hína (hín-) n. “child”
⚠️Q. hindë n. “[unglossed]”; see instead:
Q. hína “child”
⚠️Q. hindo n. “[unglossed]”; see instead:
Q. hína “child”
Q., ᴹQ. onna n. “child, *offspring; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] creature”
Q. ontavalië n. “puberty, *(lit.) able to beget”
Q. onya n. “my child”
⚠️ᴹQ. selda n. “child [n.]”; see instead:
Q. hína “child”
ᴺQ. [Q.] ^vinima adj. “childish”
ᴺQ. !vinyanóna adj. “new-born”
⚠️Q. winima adj. “childish”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vinima “childish”

2.28 Infant

⚠️Q. hinyë n. “baby”; see instead:
Q. †winë “baby, little-one, child not yet full grown”
ᴹQ. lapsë n. “babe”
⚠️ᴱQ. putsë n. “baby, child”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vinimo “baby, little-one”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tet(ta) n. “baby”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vinimo “baby, little-one”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyetl n. “babe, a tiny baby”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vinimo “baby, little-one”
ᴺQ. [Q.] ^vinimo n. “baby, little-one”
Q. †winë n. “baby, little-one, child not yet full grown”
⚠️Q. †winimo n. “baby, little-one”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vinimo “baby, little-one”

2.31 Husband

ᴹQ. ender n. “bridegroom, *groom”
⚠️ᴱQ. heruvesto n. “husband, (lit.) lord husband”; see instead:
Q. veru “husband”
⚠️ᴹQ. venno n. “husband”; see instead:
Q. veru “husband”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. veru n. “husband”
⚠️ᴱQ. veruner n. “husband”; see instead:
Q. veru “husband”
⚠️ᴱQ. vestaner n. “?groom”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ender “bridegroom, *groom”

2.32 Wife

⚠️ᴱQ. herivesti n. “wife”; see instead:
Q. veri “wife”
Q., ᴱQ. veri n. “wife”
⚠️ᴱQ. †veruni n. “wife”; see instead:
Q. veri “wife”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vessë n. “wife”; see instead:
Q. veri “wife”
⚠️ᴱQ. vestin n. “wife”; see instead:
Q. veri “wife”

2.321 Bride

⚠️ᴱQ. acairis (acairist-) n. “bride, wife”; see instead:
Q. indis “[ᴹQ.] bride; ⚠️[Q.] wife”
Q. veri “wife”
⚠️ᴱQ. acairisan (acairisamb-) n. “bride chamber, thalamus”
Q., ᴹQ. indis (indiss-) n. “[ᴹQ.] bride; ⚠️[Q.] wife”
⚠️ᴱQ. vestani n. “?bride”; see instead:
Q. indis “[ᴹQ.] bride; ⚠️[Q.] wife”

2.33 to Wed, Marry

⚠️ᴱQ. ‽(a)cainu- v. “to wed”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vesta-¹ “to wed”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. verin adj. “married”
⚠️Q. verta- v. “to give in marriage (a) to (b), take as husband or wife (to oneself)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vesta-¹ “to wed”
⚠️Q. verya- v. “to marry (of husband and wife), be joined to”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vesta-¹ “to wed”
ᴹQ. verya- “to dare”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vesta-¹ v. “to wed”

2.34 Wedding, Marriage

⚠️ᴱQ. (a)cainusta n. “wedding, marriage”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vestalë “wedding”
ᴹQ. vesta¹ “matrimony, [ᴱQ.] state of marriage”
⚠️ᴱQ. acairë (acairi-) n. “‘living beside’, wedded life”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vesta¹ “matrimony, [ᴱQ.] state of marriage”
ᴺQ. !aumenta- v. “to dismiss, divorce, (lit.) away-send”
ᴺQ. !aumentalë n. “dismissal, divorce, (lit.) away-sending”
ᴺQ. !heconna n. “child born out of wedlock, bastard”
⚠️Q. veryanwë n. “*wedding”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vestalë “wedding”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vesta¹ n. “matrimony, [ᴱQ.] state of marriage”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vestalë n. “wedding”
⚠️ᴱQ. vestanoina adj. “related by marriage”

2.341 Married Couple

⚠️ᴱQ. veringwi n. “husband and wife, married pair”; see instead:
ᴹQ. veru² “husband and wife, married pair”
⚠️ᴹQ. veru² coll. “husband and wife, married pair”; see instead:
Q. veru “husband”

2.35 Father

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. atar¹ n. “father”
⚠️ᴱQ. atta¹ n. “father (child’s word)”; see instead:
Q. atto “daddy, father (familiar/family)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. atto n. “daddy, father (familiar/family)”
⚠️ᴱQ. attu n. “father”; see instead:
Q. atto “daddy, father (familiar/family)”
Q. atya¹ n. “daddy, (my) father”
Q. #tata n. “*daddy”

2.36 Mother

⚠️ᴱQ. ama n. “mother”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ammë “mummy, mother”
⚠️ᴱQ. ambi n. “mother”; see instead:
Q. amil(lë) “mother”
Q., ᴹQ. amil(lë) n. “mother”
⚠️ᴱQ. amis (amits-) n. “mother”; see instead:
Q. amil(lë) “mother”
ᴺQ., ᴹQ. ammë n. “mummy, mother”
Q. amya n. “mummy, (orig.) my mother”
⚠️Q. emmë² n. “mummy, mother (familiar/family)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ammë “mummy, mother”
⚠️ᴱQ. (m)ambë n. “mother”; see instead:
Q. amil(lë) “mother”
Q. mamil n. “*mummy”
⚠️ᴹQ. ontarë n. “begetter, parent (f.)”; see instead:
Q. #nostar “begetter, parent”
⚠️Q. ontari(l) n. “*mother, (lit.) genetrix”; see instead:
Q. #nostar “begetter, parent”

2.37 Parent(s)

⚠️ᴱQ. †attawhi n. “parents”; see instead:
Q. #nostar “begetter, parent”
Q. #nostar n. “begetter, parent”
⚠️ᴹQ. ontaro n. “begetter, parent”; see instead:
Q. #nostar “begetter, parent”
⚠️ᴱQ. puyando n. “parent”; see instead:
Q. #nostar “begetter, parent”

2.41 Son

⚠️Q. anon n. “son”; see instead:
Q. yondo “son, ⚠️boy; [ᴱQ.] male descendant, (great) grandson”
⚠️ᴱQ. fion (fiond-) n. “son”; see instead:
Q. yondo “son, ⚠️boy; [ᴱQ.] male descendant, (great) grandson”
⚠️ᴱQ. hilu n. “son”; see instead:
Q. yondo “son, ⚠️boy; [ᴱQ.] male descendant, (great) grandson”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. -ion suf. “-son, masculine patronymic”
⚠️ᴱQ. ion n. “son”; see instead:
Q. yondo “son, ⚠️boy; [ᴱQ.] male descendant, (great) grandson”
⚠️ᴱQ. vondo n. “son”; see instead:
Q. yondo “son, ⚠️boy; [ᴱQ.] male descendant, (great) grandson”
⚠️ᴱQ. † n. “son”; see instead:
Q. yondo “son, ⚠️boy; [ᴱQ.] male descendant, (great) grandson”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. yondo n. “son, ⚠️boy; [ᴱQ.] male descendant, (great) grandson”

2.42 Daughter

⚠️Q. anel n. “daughter”; see instead:
Q. seldë “daughter; [ᴹQ.] child [f.], *girl”
⚠️ᴱQ. aris (arits-) n. “daughter, maid”
Q., ᴹQ. -iel suf. “feminine suffix; -daughter”
⚠️ᴱQ. -il suf. “*(feminine) patronymic”; see instead:
Q. -iel “feminine suffix; -daughter”
Q., ᴹQ. seldë n. “daughter; [ᴹQ.] child [f.], *girl”
Q. selyë n. “daughter (diminutive)”
⚠️ᴱQ. sildë n. “daughter”; see instead:
Q. seldë “daughter; [ᴹQ.] child [f.], *girl”
Q., ᴹQ. yeldë n. “daughter”
⚠️ᴹQ. yen(dë) n. “daughter”; see instead:
Q. yeldë “daughter”

2.43 Son or Daughter

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. hilmi coll. “family, offspring, *descendants, progeny”

2.44 Brother

Q. hanno n. “brother (diminutive)”
Q. háno n. “brother”
⚠️ᴱQ. herendo n. “brother”; see instead:
Q. háno “brother”
⚠️ᴱQ. hestaner n. “brother”; see instead:
Q. háno “brother”
⚠️ᴱQ. hestanu n. “brother”; see instead:
Q. háno “brother”
Q. #melotornë n. “love-brother”
ᴹQ. otornassë n. “brotherhood, *association”
ᴹQ. otorno n. “sworn brother, associate [m.]”
ᴹQ. toron (torn-) n. “brother”

2.45 Sister

⚠️ᴱQ. heressë n. “sister”; see instead:
Q. nésa “sister”
⚠️ᴱQ. hestani n. “sister”; see instead:
Q. nésa “sister”
⚠️ᴱQ. hestaquin n. “sister”; see instead:
Q. nésa “sister”
Q. #meleseldë [þ] n. “love-sister”
Q. nésa [þ] n. “sister”
ᴹQ. osellë [þ] n. “[sworn] sister, associate [f.]”
ᴹQ. seler (sell-) [þ] n. “sister”

2.452 Sibling(s)

⚠️ᴱQ. hes (hest-) n. “brother, sister”; see instead:
Q. háno “brother”
Q. nésa “sister”
⚠️ᴱQ. hesta n. “the nearest consanguinity”
⚠️ᴱQ. hestanoina adj. “bearing the nearest consanguinity”

2.46 Grandfather

ᴺQ. !atartur n. “patriarch, (lit.) master-father”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. haru n. “grandfather”
ᴺQ. !nossetur n. “patriarch, family head”

2.47 Grandmother

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. haruni n. “grandmother”

2.48 Grandson

ᴹQ. indyo n. “grandchild, descendant, grandson”

2.53 Nephew

⚠️ᴱQ. súyon n. “nephew, daughter’s son”

2.55 Cousin

⚠️ᴱQ. etta n. “cousin”; see instead:
ᴺQ. rendo “cousin (m.), kinsman, *relative”
ᴺQ. ressë “cousin (f.), kinswoman, *relative”
⚠️ᴱQ. ettani n. “female cousin”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ressë “cousin (f.), kinswoman, *relative”
⚠️ᴱQ. ettanu n. “male cousin”; see instead:
ᴺQ. rendo “cousin (m.), kinsman, *relative”
⚠️ᴱQ. ettaresta n. “cousinship”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^rendë “kinship, kin, kindred, clan”
ᴹQ. onónë n. “kinswoman; sister”
ᴹQ. onóro n. “kinsman; brother”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. rendo n. “cousin (m.), kinsman, *relative”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. rendolë n. “cousinship”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. ressë n. “cousin (f.), kinswoman, *relative”

2.57 Descendant(s)

ᴺQ. !hilyalë n. “succession, dynasty”
ᴺQ. !nónarë n. “generation”
Q., ᴹQ. ontalë n. “descent, *derivation, ancestry”

2.75 Orphan

ᴺQ. !hinta- v. “to adopt”
ᴺQ. !nostarenca n. “orphaned, (lit.) parent-less”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yenta- v. “to adopt (a daughter)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hinta- “to adopt”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yentarë n. “adoptive mother (for a daughter)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hinta- “to adopt”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yentaro n. “adoptive father (for a daughter)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hinta- “to adopt”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yonta- v. “to adopt (a son)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hinta- “to adopt”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yontarë n. “adoptive mother (for a son)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hinta- “to adopt”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yontaro n. “adoptive father (for a son)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hinta- “to adopt”

2.76 Widow

ᴺQ. !verulóra adj. and n. “widowed; widow”

2.82 Family

ᴺQ. !orendë n. “(nuclear) family”
⚠️ᴱQ. soresta n. “family”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !orendë “(nuclear) family”

3. Animals

3.11 Animal

Q. #celva n. “animal, living thing that moves”
ᴺQ. !celvavëa adj. “animal-like”
⚠️ᴱQ. coisiva adj. “animal, bodily”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hrondova “corporeal, bodily”
⚠️ᴱQ. coitë (coisi-) n. “living thing, being, animal”; see instead:
Q. #cuima “creature, animal”
Q. #cuima n. “creature, animal”
⚠️Q. #cuiva n.
Q. hravan n. “wild beast”
⚠️ᴱQ. lama n. “animal, beast; head of cattle or sheep”; see instead:
Q. laman “animal, [ᴹQ.] tame beast”
Q., ᴹQ. laman (lamn-) n. “animal, [ᴹQ.] tame beast”
ᴹQ. nasto n. “animal, beast”
⚠️ᴱQ. roa n. “wild beast”; see instead:
Q. hravan “wild beast”
Q. roa “dog”
⚠️ᴱQ. talar (talard-) n. “beast of burden”
Q. vëo n. “living creature”

3.16 to Pasture

ᴺQ. !narasta- v. “to pasture, *graze, give to feed”
⚠️ᴱQ. nese- v. “to graze, pasture, give to feed, feed”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !matya- “to feed”
ᴺQ. !narasta- “to pasture, *graze, give to feed”

3.17 Pasture

ᴺQ. !narassë n. “pasture”
⚠️ᴱQ. nesselë n. “pasture, mead; pasturage”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !narassë “pasture”

3.18 Herdsman

Q. #emer- v. “?to herd (sheep)”
ᴺQ. !emerro n. “shepherd, herdsman”
Q. emerwen n. “shepherdess”
⚠️ᴱQ. lamandar n. “herdsman, shepherd”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !emerro “shepherd, herdsman”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lamárë n. “flock, *herd”
⚠️ᴱQ. mavar(do) n. “shepherd”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !emerro “shepherd, herdsman”
⚠️ᴱQ. moar(do) (moard-) n. “shepherd”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !emerro “shepherd, herdsman”

3.21 Bull

Q. mundo n. “bull, ox”
⚠️ᴱQ. tarucco n. “bull, ox”; see instead:
Q. mundo “bull, ox”

3.22 Ox, Steer

⚠️ᴱQ. yac(c)o n. “ox”; see instead:
Q. mundo “bull, ox”

3.23 Cow

⚠️ᴱQ. mui n. “cow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. yaxë “cow”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. yaxë n. “cow”
⚠️ᴱQ. yaxi n. “cow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. yaxë “cow”

3.24 Calf

ᴺQ. !mundollë n. “calf”

3.25 Sheep

⚠️ᴱQ. arma n. “flock of sheep”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lamárë “flock, *herd”
Q. arma “ray of sunlight”
Q. máma n. “sheep”
ᴺQ. !mámalin n. “sheepfold”
⚠️ᴱQ. moa n. “sheep”; see instead:
Q. máma “sheep”
⚠️ᴱQ. moalin n. “sheepfold”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !mámalin “sheepfold”
⚠️ᴱQ. sauvë n. “sheep”; see instead:
Q. máma “sheep”

3.26 Ram

⚠️ᴱQ. camo n. “ram”
ᴺQ. !pollo n. “ram”

3.29 Lamb

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. eulë n. “lamb”
⚠️ᴱQ. eulitsë n. “*little lamb”; see instead:
ᴺQ. eulë “lamb”

3.32 Boar

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. carcapolca n. “boar, *(lit.) tusk-pig”
⚠️ᴱQ. úro n. “boar”; see instead:
Q. úro “*evil, nastiness”
ᴺQ. carcapolca “boar, *(lit.) tusk-pig”

3.35 Pig

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. polca n. “pig”

3.36 Goat

ᴺQ. !naico n. “goat”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. nyé n. “bleat, cry of goat or sheep”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. nyéni n. “(she) goat”
ᴹQ. yat² (yac-) n. “goat”

3.41 Horse (generic)

ᴺQ. !eretildo n. “unicorn”
⚠️ᴱQ. lópa n. “horse, mare”; see instead:
Q. rocco “horse”
⚠️ᴱQ. mairu n. “(horse) mane, flowing hair; charger”
⚠️ᴹQ. olombo n. “horse”; see instead:
Q. rocco “horse”
ᴺQ. !pérappa n. “bridle, (lit.) lip-rope”
Q., ᴹQ. rocco n. “horse”

3.44 Mare

⚠️ᴱQ. lopsi n. “mare”; see instead:
ᴹQ. olombo “horse”

3.45 Foal, Colt

ᴺQ. !rocollë n. “colt”

3.46 Ass, Donkey

ᴺQ. !pellopë n. “donkey, ass”

3.51 Hen, Chicken (generic)

⚠️ᴱQ. cectecet (cectecett-) n. “clucking”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^cehtecet “clucking”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^cehtecet n. “clucking”
⚠️ᴺQ. !holyë n. “hen”; see instead:
ᴺQ. porocë “hen, barn foul”
⚠️ᴱQ. oi n. “bird, hen”; see instead:
Q. aiwë “(small) bird”
ᴺQ. porocë “hen, barn foul”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. porocë n. “hen, barn foul”
⚠️ᴱQ. porocellë n. “chicken”

3.52 Cock, Rooster

ᴺQ. !hollo n. “cock, cockerel, rooster”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tocot n. “cock, *rooster”

3.56 Goose

ᴹQ. ván n. “goose”
⚠️ᴱQ. yanwa n. “goose”

3.57 Duck

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quá n. “duck”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quaqua- v. “to quack, squawk, cackle, *croak”

3.61 Dog

⚠️ᴱQ. fan (fand-) n. “dog”; see instead:
ᴹQ. huo “dog”
Q. n. “hound (or ?heart)”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. huan n. “hound, [ᴱQ.] dog”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^húni n. “bitch, *female dog”
ᴹQ. huo n. “dog”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^húvar n. “wild dog, jackal”
Q. roa n. “dog”
ᴹQ. ronyo n. “‘chaser’, hound of chase”
⚠️ᴱQ. savar n. “wild dog, jackal”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^húvar “wild dog, jackal”
⚠️ᴱQ. savarna n. “pack (of dogs, wolves)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^húvarda “pack (of dogs, wolves)”
⚠️ᴱQ. suni n. “bitch, *female dog”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^húni “bitch, *female dog”

3.612 Puppy

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^huolë n. “litter (of pups, cubs, etc.)”
⚠️ᴱQ. saulë n. “litter (of pups, cubs, etc.)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^huolë “litter (of pups, cubs, etc.)”

3.62 Cat

⚠️ᴱQ. meoi n. “cat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. miuë “cat”
ᴹQ. miuë (miuy-) n. “cat”
ᴹQ. miulë n. “whining, mewing”
⚠️ᴺQ. !miura n. “cat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. miuë “cat”
⚠️ᴺQ. !miurë n. “cat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. miuë “cat”
⚠️ᴺQ. !miuro n. “cat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. miuë “cat”
ᴹQ. titsë (tits-) n. “kitten”
⚠️ᴱQ. yaulë n. “cat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. miuë “cat”

3.63 Mouse, Rodent

ᴺQ. !farinë n. “vermin”
⚠️ᴱQ. lapatl n. “leveret”
⚠️ᴱQ. lapattë (lapatsi-) n. “rabbit”; see instead:
Q. #lopoldë “rabbit”
⚠️ᴹQ. lopo n. “rabbit”; see instead:
Q. #lopoldë “rabbit”
Q. #lopoldë n. “rabbit”
ᴹQ. nyarro n. “rat”
Q. peccuvo n. “squirrel, (lit.) nut-hider”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^quin- v. “to speak high, squeak”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quínë n. “squeaking, *squeak”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quínëa adj. “squeaking”
⚠️ᴱQ. quíni- v. “to speak high, squeak”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^quin- “to speak high, squeak”
Q. rasillo [þ] n. “squirrel”
⚠️ᴱQ. rausimë n. “vermin”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !farinë “vermin”
ᴺQ. !rimpeccuvo n. “chipmunk”

3.64 Bird

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. aiwë n. “(small) bird”
ᴺQ. !aiwestë n. “bird’s nest”
⚠️ᴱQ. cilapitya- v. “to chirp”
ᴺQ. !hausta n. “nest”
⚠️ᴹQ. oio (oiw-) n. “bird”; see instead:
Q. aiwë “(small) bird”
Q. oi(o) “ever, everlastingly; an endless period, *aeon”
⚠️ᴱQ. oivë n. “bird”; see instead:
Q. aiwë “(small) bird”
⚠️ᴱQ. wilin n. “bird”; see instead:
Q. aiwë “(small) bird”
⚠️ᴱQ. wilindëa adj. “as a bird”

3.641 Eagle, Hawk

⚠️ᴱQ. ëa(r) n. “(young) eagle”; see instead:
Q. ëar “sea, great sea, ️[ᴹQ.] open sea; ⚠️water”
Q. soron “eagle”
⚠️ᴱQ. ëaren (ëarend-) n. “eyrie, (young) eagle”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sornion “eyrie”
Q. soron “eagle”
ᴹQ. fion (fiond-) n. “hawk, ⚠️haste”
ᴹQ. haro n. “hawk”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. n. “owl”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sornion n. “eyrie”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. soron [þ] n. “eagle”

3.642 Crow, Raven

⚠️ᴱQ. caron n. “crow”
ᴹQ. corco n. “crow”
⚠️Q. quáco n. “crow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. corco “crow”
Q. quácë “frog”

3.647 Gull, Petrel

ᴹQ. halatir(no) (halatirn-) n. “kingsfisher, (lit.) fish-watcher”
Q., ᴹQ. maiwë n. “gull”
⚠️ᴱQ. máwë (máwi-) n. “gull, seamew”; see instead:
Q. maiwë “gull”
ᴹQ. quénë n. “petrel”

3.648 Swan

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. alqua n. “swan”
⚠️ᴱQ. siloinë (siloini-) n. “swan”; see instead:
Q. alqua “swan”

3.649 Bird (other)

⚠️Q. aimenal n. “lark”
ᴹQ. ambalë n. “yellow bird, ‘yellow hammer’”
⚠️ᴱQ. ambarin (ambarind-) n. “lark”
⚠️ᴱQ. carnëambar n. and adj. “robin, (lit.) red-breast”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^carnëambor “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^carnëambor n. “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. cecet n. “pheasant”
⚠️ᴱQ. cilapi n. “robin”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^carnëambor “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
Q. #cirincë n. “scarlet-plumed species of bird”
ᴹQ. cucua n. “dove”
ᴺQ. !cucuollë n. “turtledove”
Q., ᴹQ. filincë n. “finch”
ᴹQ. filit (filic-) n. “small bird, sparrow”
ᴺQ. !hendelúpëa cecet n. “peafowl, (lit.) eye-plumed pheasant”
⚠️ᴱQ. imbilinc n. “sparrow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. filit “small bird, sparrow”
⚠️ᴱQ. lintuilinda adj. “many swallows of autumn”
ᴹQ. liri n. “finch”
Q. lirulin n. “lark”
Q., ᴹQ. lómelindë n. “nightingale, (lit.) dusk-singer”
⚠️ᴹQ. morilindë n. “nightingale”; see instead:
Q. lómelindë “nightingale, (lit.) dusk-singer”
ᴺQ. !morilúpë n. “blackbird, (lit.) black plume”
⚠️ᴱQ. pimpevinnë n. “larch”; see instead:
ᴹQ. finë “larch”
⚠️ᴺQ. !russambos n. “robin”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^carnëambor “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
ᴹQ. tambaro n. “woodpecker, knocker”
ᴺQ. !tinwerúmë n. “starling, (lit.) abundance of stars”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tuilindo n. “swallow, (lit.) spring-singer”

3.65 Fish (n)

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^culingwë n. “goldfish”
⚠️ᴱQ. culuin (culuind-) n. “goldfish”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^culingwë “goldfish”
Q. ?fanto n. “whale”
ᴹQ. hala n. “(small) fish”
⚠️ᴱQ. ingwë (ingwi-) n. “fish”; see instead:
Q. #lingwë
⚠️ᴱQ. ingwil(in) (ingwiling-) n. “eel”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lingwileuca “eel”
Q., ᴹQ. #lingwë (lingwi-) n.
ᴺQ. !lingwëa adj. “fishlike”
ᴺQ. !lingwileuca n. “eel”
ᴹQ. nixë n. “minnow, ‘little fish’”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. telpingwë n. “silverfish”
⚠️ᴱQ. windëa adj. “fishlike”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lingwëa “fishlike”

3.66 Fisherman

ᴺQ. !lingwimo n. “fisherman”
ᴺQ. !lingwiremnë n. “fishing”
⚠️ᴺQ. !raito n. “fisher”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lingwimo “fisherman”

3.71 Wolf

⚠️ᴹQ. harma² n. “wolf, hound”
⚠️ᴹQ. hu n. “howl”; see instead:
Q. nwámë “wolvish howling”
ᴹQ. naulë “wolfhowl”
⚠️ᴹQ. húna- v. “to howl”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nauna- “to howl”
ᴹQ. narmo [ñ] n. “wolf”
ᴹQ. naulë [ñ] n. “wolfhowl”
ᴺQ. !nauna- [ñ-] v. “to howl”
Q., ᴹQ. nauro [ñ] n. “werewolf, wolf (not wild wolves)”
Q. nwámë n. “wolvish howling”
ᴹQ. ráca n. “wolf”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulcu n. “wolf”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ráca “wolf”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulqui n. “she-wolf”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ráca “wolf”

3.72 Lion

ᴺQ. !picara n. “leopard”
Q., ᴹQ. †rá¹ (ráv-) n. “lion”
⚠️ᴱQ. rau (rav-) n. “lion”; see instead:
Q. †rá¹ “lion”
Q. rauro n. “lion”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. ravennë n. “she-lion, *lioness”

3.73 Bear

⚠️ᴱQ. #matsilë n. “bear”; see instead:
ᴹQ. morco “bear”
ᴹQ. morco n. “bear”

3.74 Fox

Q. rusco (ruscu-) n. “fox”
Q. ruscuitë adj. “foxy”

3.75 Deer

ᴺQ. !arassë n. “deer, hart, stag”
⚠️ᴱQ. opolë n. “fawn, young deer”

3.76 Monkey

ᴺQ. !maimun n. “monkey, ape”

3.77 Elephant

ᴹQ. andamunda n. “elephant”
⚠️ᴱQ. hunto n. “elephant”; see instead:
ᴹQ. andamunda “elephant”

3.78 Camel

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. ulumpë n. “camel”
⚠️ᴱQ. uluntilla n. “camel’s hair”

3.79 to Hunt

ᴹQ. fafarra- v. “*to keep on hunting”
Q., ᴹQ. fara- v. “to hunt”
Q., ᴹQ. faralë n. “hunting”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^farasta n. “hunting, the chase”
⚠️ᴹQ. farastë n. “hunting, the chase”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^farasta “hunting, the chase”
ᴹQ. farastëa adj. “of the chase (that it is proper to hunt), *of prey”
ᴹQ. farina adj. “hunted”
ᴹQ. farna n. “quarry, prey”
⚠️ᴱQ. rausima adj. “*hunted”; see instead:
ᴹQ. farina “hunted”
⚠️ᴱQ. raustë n. “hunting, preying, the hunt”; see instead:
Q. faralë “hunting”
⚠️ᴱQ. raustëa adj. “of prey”; see instead:
ᴹQ. farastëa “of the chase (that it is proper to hunt), *of prey”
⚠️ᴱQ. rauta- v. “to chase, hunt, pursue; to extirpate, exterminate; to steal”; see instead:
Q. fara- “to hunt”
ᴹQ. roita- “to pursue, *chase”
ᴺQ. pil- “to steal”
ᴹQ. roimë n. “hunt, hunting”

3.81 Insect

ᴺQ. !humil n. “moth”
⚠️ᴱQ. malo¹ n. “moth”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !humil “moth”
ᴹQ. malo¹ “pollen, yellow powder”
ᴺQ. !nastaro n. “scorpion”
Q. n. “small insect”
ᴺQ. !salquecápo n. “grasshopper”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. ulumpingwë n. “caterpillar”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. wilwarin (wilwarind-) n. “butterfly”
⚠️ᴱQ. wilwarinda adj. “butterflylike”; see instead:
Q. wilwarindëa “like a butterfly”
Q. wilwarindëa adj. “like a butterfly”

3.811 Spider

⚠️ᴱQ. cangalë n. “web”; see instead:
Q. ungwë “spider’s web; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] spider”
⚠️ᴱQ. cangaris (cangarist-) n. “spider”; see instead:
ᴹQ. liantë “spider, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] tendril, vine”
⚠️ᴱQ. cangawinda n. “cobweb”; see instead:
ᴹQ. línë “cobweb; [ᴱQ.] cotton; ⚠️thread”
⚠️ᴹQ. filet (filec-) n. “cobweb”; see instead:
ᴹQ. línë “cobweb; [ᴱQ.] cotton; ⚠️thread”
⚠️ᴱQ. lenquelénu n. “(daddy) long-legs”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. liantë n. “spider, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] tendril, vine”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. línë n. “cobweb; [ᴱQ.] cotton; ⚠️thread”
Q., ᴱQ. ungwë n. “spider’s web; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] spider”

3.82 Bee

⚠️ᴱQ. imbë n. “hive”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. nier n. “honey bee”
⚠️ᴱQ. nierwes (nierwest-) n. “hive”

3.83 Fly (n)

⚠️ᴹQ. camparu n. “?flea”; see instead:
ᴺQ. campo “flea”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. campo n. “flea”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. itis n. “fly bite; *itch”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. itsë n. “small fly”
ᴹQ. n. “small fly”
Q., ᴹQ. pupso n. “large fly, [ᴹQ.] blow fly”
ᴹQ. †tsettë n. “fly”

3.84 Worm

⚠️ᴱQ. lingwë n. “snake, worm”; see instead:
Q. (h)lócë “snake, serpent, reptile, worm; [ᴹQ.] dragon, [ᴱQ.] drake”
Q. #lingwë
⚠️ᴱQ. testë n. “small worm”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vembë “worm”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^vembë n. “worm”
⚠️ᴱQ. wembë n. “worm”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vembë “worm”
⚠️ᴱQ. wembil n. “worm”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vembë “worm”

3.85 Snake

ᴹQ. ango (angu-) n. “snake, dragon”
⚠️ᴱQ. histe- v. “to hiss”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !surya- “to hiss”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. (h)lócë n. “snake, serpent, reptile, worm; [ᴹQ.] dragon, [ᴱQ.] drake”
Q. leuca n. “snake”
⚠️ᴱQ. lin² (ling-) n. “snake”; see instead:
Q. leuca “snake”
ᴹQ. lingwilócë n. “fish-dragon, sea-serpent”
⚠️ᴱQ. lingwin n. “serpent, dragon”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lingwilócë “fish-dragon, sea-serpent”
⚠️ᴱQ. oqui n. “snake”; see instead:
Q. leuca “snake”
ᴺQ. !surya- v. “to hiss”

3.99 Animals (other)

ᴺQ. !andalango n. “giraffe, (lit.) long-neck”
ᴺQ. !andanyarro n. “weasel, (lit.) long-rat”
ᴺQ. !canguru n. “kangaroo”
ᴺQ. !carastanyarro n. “beaver, (lit.) build-rat”
ᴺQ. !carpo n. “frog”
ᴺQ. !castor n. “beaver”
ᴺQ. !celvatarwa n. “zoo, (lit.) life-garden”
⚠️ᴱQ. cuptulo n. “camel”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ulumpë “camel”
Q. ecellë n. “urchin, hedgehog”
ᴺQ. !ehtipolca n. “porcupine, (lit.) spike-pig”
ᴺQ. !filiculumpë n. “ostrich, (lit.) sparrow-camel”
ᴹQ. lopotundo (lopotundu-) n. “rabbithole”
ᴺQ. !mórolingwë n. “squid, (lit.) ink-fish”
Q. #nendil n. “beast that lives in the water”
ᴺQ. !nengarmo n. “otter, (lit.) water-wolf”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. noldarë n. “mole”
ᴺQ. !nuinerocco n. “hippopotamus, (lit.) river-horse”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. oryapin n. “badger”
⚠️ᴱQ. oryat (oryap-) n. “badger”; see instead:
ᴺQ. oryapin “badger”
ᴺQ. !poco(lle)nyarro n. “opossum, (lit.) pouch-rat”
Q. quácë n. “frog”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quildarë n. “bat”
ᴺQ. !rassemunda n. “rhinoceros, (lit.) horn-snout”
ᴺQ. !rimperocco n. “zebra, (lit.) stripe-horse”
ᴺQ. !sauroryat [þ] n. “skunk, (lit.) stink-badger”
ᴺQ. !sovamorco n. “raccoon, (lit.) wash-bear”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.11 Body

⚠️ᴱQ. columë n. “body”; see instead:
Q. hroa “body, bodily form, flesh; physical matter”
Q. hroa n. “body, bodily form, flesh; physical matter”
ᴺQ. !hroacanta n. “body-shape”
⚠️Q. hrón n. “matter, substance, ⚠️flesh; body”; see instead:
Q. hroa “body, bodily form, flesh; physical matter”
Q. erma “(physical) matter”
Q. hrondo n. “(physical) body, corporeal form”
ᴺQ. !hrondova adj. “corporeal, bodily”
Q. #mirroanwë n. and adj. “incarnate”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. pulco n. “trunk, bole of tree, *torso, ⚠️body”
⚠️ᴱQ. sarcuva adj. “corporeal, bodily”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hrondova “corporeal, bodily”

4.12 Skin, Hide

⚠️ᴹQ. halma n. “skin, fell”
ᴹQ. helma n. “skin, fell”
ᴺQ. !helmunquë n. “wrinkle, (lit.) skin-hollow”
⚠️ᴱQ. nautë n. “skin”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helma “skin, fell”
ᴹQ. †psára n. “peel”
⚠️ᴱQ. randa n. “bark; peel, rind, outer ring, circumference”

4.13 Flesh

⚠️ᴱQ. hara(nda) n. “flesh-meat”; see instead:
Q. hrávë “flesh”
ᴹQ. apsa¹ “meat, cooked food”
⚠️ᴱQ. haranwa adj. “fleshly, carnal”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hrávëa “fleshly, carnal”
Q. hrávë n. “flesh”
ᴺQ. !hrávëa adj. “fleshly, carnal”
⚠️ᴱQ. mimbë n. “flesh”; see instead:
Q. hrávë “flesh”
⚠️ᴱQ. mindl n. “piece of flesh”; see instead:
Q. hrávë “flesh”
⚠️ᴱQ. sarco¹ (sarcu-) n. “flesh, living flesh, body”; see instead:
Q. hrávë “flesh”
Q. hrondo “(physical) body, corporeal form”
⚠️ᴱQ. sarqua adj. “fleshy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !larmëa “fleshy, fatty”

4.14 Hair

⚠️ᴱQ. filma n. “fine hair, line”; see instead:
Q. finë “(single) hair, filament”
ᴹQ. tëa “straight line, road”
Q., ᴹQ. findë n. “tress or plait of hair, [ᴹQ.] braid of hair; ⚠️[Q.] hair (especially of the head)”
Q. findelë n. “tress, lock [of hair]”
Q. findessë n. “head of hair, person’s hair as a whole”
⚠️Q. findilë n. “head of hair”; see instead:
Q. findessë “head of hair, person’s hair as a whole”
Q. findelë “tress, lock [of hair]”
⚠️ᴱQ. findl n. “lock of hair, tress”; see instead:
Q. findelë “tress, lock [of hair]”
Q. finë (fini-) n. “(single) hair, filament”
⚠️ᴱQ. laxë n. “tress”; see instead:
Q. findelë “tress, lock [of hair]”
⚠️ᴺQ. !locco n. “ringlet”; see instead:
Q. lócë¹ “bight, bend, curl of hair”
Q. lócë¹ n. “bight, bend, curl of hair”
ᴹQ. loxë n. “hair [in general]”
⚠️ᴱQ. silquë n. “tress of hair; (glossy) hair”; see instead:
Q. findë “tress or plait of hair, [ᴹQ.] braid of hair; ⚠️[Q.] hair (especially of the head)”
⚠️ᴱQ. silqueléna adj. “having tresses”
⚠️ᴱQ. silquelossëa adj. “with hair like white flowers”
⚠️ᴱQ. til (tiln-) n. “(single) hair”; see instead:
Q. finë “(single) hair, filament”

4.142 Beard

Q., ᴹQ. #fanga n. “beard”
⚠️ᴱQ. fangë n. “beard”; see instead:
Q. #fanga “beard”
⚠️ᴱQ. poa n. “beard”; see instead:
Q. #fanga “beard”
⚠️ᴱQ. veltë n. “beard”; see instead:
Q. #fanga “beard”

4.143 Hair (other)

⚠️ᴱQ. andesilquë adj. “long-haired, long-tressed”
⚠️ᴱQ. aulë (auli-) adj. “shaggy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !fassa “shaggy”
ᴹQ. aulë “invention”
ᴺQ. !fassa adj. “shaggy”
ᴹQ. fassë n. “tangled hair, shaggy lock”
ᴹQ. fasta-¹ v. “to tangle”
Q. finda¹ adj. “having hair, -haired”
ᴺQ. !findimaitar n. “barber, hairdresser”
ᴺQ. !finëa adj. “downy, hairy [specifically fine, light hair]”
⚠️Q. loxa adj. “brown of hair”
Q. nolya [ñ] adj. “dark-haired”
⚠️ᴱQ. tilinya adj. “downy, hairy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !finëa “downy, hairy [specifically fine, light hair]”
ᴺQ., Q. vaina¹ adj. “blonde, fair of hair”

4.15 Blood

⚠️ᴱQ. hari n. “blood”; see instead:
Q. sercë “blood”
⚠️ᴱQ. mëar (mëarn-) n. “gore, blood”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mehar “gore”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^mehar n. “gore”
Q. sercë n. “blood”
⚠️ᴱQ. vísi n. “blood”; see instead:
Q. sercë “blood”
⚠️ᴹQ. yár (yar-) n. “blood”; see instead:
Q. sercë “blood”

4.16 Bone

⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #as (astu-) n. “bone”; see instead:
Q. axo¹ “bone”
⚠️ᴱQ. assëa adj. “bony”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !axula “bony”
⚠️ᴹQ. astula adj. “bony”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !axula “bony”
⚠️ᴱQ. aswa adj. “of bone”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !axula “bony”
ᴺQ. !axendë n. “marrow”
Q. axo¹ n. “bone”
ᴺQ. !axula adj. “bony”
⚠️ᴱQ. hón(a) n. “bone”; see instead:
Q. axo¹ “bone”
ᴺQ. !mortava n. “ivory”

4.17 Horn (animal)

ᴹQ. hyalma n. “conch, shell, horn of Ulmo”
Q., ᴹQ. rassë n. “horn [of both animals and mountains]”
ᴺQ. !rassëa adj. “horned”
ᴹQ. tarca n. “horn [of animals]”
⚠️ᴱQ. taru n. “horn”; see instead:
Q. rassë “horn [of both animals and mountains]”
ᴹQ. tarca “horn [of animals]”
⚠️ᴱQ. tarucca adj. “horned”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !rassëa “horned”

4.18 Tail

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^pimpë n. “tail”
⚠️ᴱQ. pimpilin (pimpilind-) n. “hanging tail, tassel”; see instead:
ᴹQ. atsa² “tassel, fryse, fringe”
⚠️ᴱQ. pint (pimp-) n. “tail”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^pimpë “tail”

4.19 Back

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. hacca n. “the hams, buttocks”
ᴹQ. opto n. “back”

4.20 Head

⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. cár (cas-) n. “head”; see instead:
Q. cas “head, [ᴱQ.] top, ⚠️summit”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. cas (car-) n. “head, [ᴱQ.] top, ⚠️summit”

4.202 Skull

⚠️ᴺQ. !caraxo n. “skull, *(lit.) head-bone”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !corpë “skull”
⚠️ᴺQ. !coropë n. “skull”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !corpë “skull”
ᴺQ. !corpë n. “skull”

4.204 Face

⚠️ᴱQ. alma n. “face”; see instead:
Q. cendelë “face, *facing, direction of looking”
ᴹQ. alma “good fortune, weal, wealth, *well-being”
ᴺQ., Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. anta n. “[ᴹQ.] face, [ᴱQ.] cheek, *front of the head, ⚠️[Q.] jaw”
⚠️Q. #canwa² n. “face”; see instead:
Q. cendelë “face, *facing, direction of looking”
Q. cendelë n. “face, *facing, direction of looking”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nívë n. “face”; see instead:
Q. cendelë “face, *facing, direction of looking”
⚠️ᴱQ. yéma n. “face”; see instead:
Q. cendelë “face, *facing, direction of looking”

4.205 Forehead

⚠️ᴱQ. candóla n. “crown of head”
Q. #estirnë n. “brow”
⚠️ᴱQ. timbarë n. “forehead”

4.207 Jaw

Q., ᴹQ. anca n. “jaws; [ᴹQ.] jaw, row of teeth”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “jaw”; see instead:
Q. anca “jaws; [ᴹQ.] jaw, row of teeth”
⚠️ᴱQ. maquar n. “jaw”; see instead:
Q. anca “jaws; [ᴹQ.] jaw, row of teeth”
ᴹQ. nangwa n. “jaw”

4.209 Chin

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. venta n. “chin”

4.21 Eye

Q. alahen adj. “eyeless”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #hen (hend-) n. “eye”
ᴺQ. !hentópa n. “eyelid”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “eye, eyeball, pupil”; see instead:
Q. #hen “eye”
⚠️ᴱQ. sehtë n. “pupil; bead; †eye”
⚠️ᴱQ. sinda¹ n. “eye”; see instead:
Q. #hen “eye”
⚠️ᴹQ. yé² n. “eye”; see instead:
Q. #hen “eye”

4.212 Sharpeyed

Q. hendumaica adj. “sharp-eye[d]”

4.213 Evileyed

Q. henulca adj. “*evil-eyed”

4.22 Ear

⚠️ᴱQ. ancar (ancas-) n. “ear (of men)”; see instead:
Q. hlas “ear”
Q. hlas (hlar-) n. “ear”
⚠️ᴹQ. lár n. “ear”; see instead:
Q. hlas “ear”
⚠️ᴱQ. quan (quand-) n. “ear”; see instead:
Q. hlas “ear”
⚠️ᴱQ. unc(o) (unqu-) n. “ear (of animals); corner, sticking out edge”; see instead:
Q. hlas “ear”

4.23 Nose

⚠️ᴱQ. mem n. “nose, beak”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nengwë “nose”
ᴹQ. mundo n. “snout, nose; cape [of land]”
⚠️ᴱQ. nen² (neng-) n. “nostril”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nengwë “nose”
ᴹQ. nengwë n. “nose”
ᴹQ. nengwëa adj. “nasal”
⚠️ᴹQ. nin n. “nose, beak”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nengwë “nose”
⚠️ᴱQ. ‽penta n. “nose, beak (probably of such birds as woodpeckers)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nengwë “nose”
⚠️ᴱQ. súma n. “nostril”; see instead:
Q. súma “hollow cavity, bosom”
⚠️ᴱQ. súnë n. “(human) nose”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nengwë “nose”

4.24 Mouth

Q., ᴱQ. anto n. “mouth [as a thing for eating]; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] jaw”
⚠️Q. carpa n. “(entire) mouth; phonetic system”; see instead:
Q. songa “mouth (interior cavity behind the teeth containing the tongue)”
Q. lambelë “phonetics”
⚠️ᴱQ. matu n. “the mouth (inside)”; see instead:
Q. songa “mouth (interior cavity behind the teeth containing the tongue)”
Q. náva² [ñ] n. “mouth”
Q. ópa n. “mouth (opening of which the lips are the edges)”
⚠️ᴱQ. ó(vo) n. “mouth”; see instead:
Q. ópa “mouth (opening of which the lips are the edges)”
Q. songa n. “mouth (interior cavity behind the teeth containing the tongue)”

4.25 Lip

⚠️ᴱQ. cailë n. “lip”; see instead:
Q. #pempë “lip”
⚠️ᴱQ. cilmë n. “lip”; see instead:
Q. #pempë “lip”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. n. “lip, (closed) mouth; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] the two lips”
Q. #pempë n. “lip”

4.26 Tongue

Q., ᴹQ. lamba n. “physical tongue”

4.27 Tooth

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. carca n. “fang, [ᴹQ.] tooth, [ᴱQ.] tusk; ⚠️[Q.] rock”
ᴹQ. carcanë n. “row of teeth”
⚠️ᴱQ. carcanel n. “fang”; see instead:
Q. carca “fang, [ᴹQ.] tooth, [ᴱQ.] tusk; ⚠️[Q.] rock”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. carcara adj. “toothed”
ᴹQ. nelet (nelc-) n. “tooth”
⚠️ᴱQ. nyat n. “tooth”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nelcë

4.28 Neck

Q. acas n. “neck [vertebrae], *spine; rock ridge”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lango n. “neck, (physical) passage, [ᴹQ.] throat”
⚠️ᴹQ. yat¹ (yaht-) n. “neck; [ᴱQ.] isthmus”; see instead:
Q. acas “neck [vertebrae], *spine; rock ridge”
ᴹQ. yatta “narrow neck, isthmus; *(lit.) joining”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. yatta n. “narrow neck, isthmus; *(lit.) joining”

4.29 Throat

⚠️ᴱQ. caicta- v. “to strangle”
⚠️ᴱQ. cailen n. “throat, gullet”; see instead:
Q. lango “neck, (physical) passage, [ᴹQ.] throat”
⚠️ᴱQ. carco (carcu-) n. “alimentary canel”
ᴺQ. !hlungo n. “pharynx, gullet”
⚠️ᴹQ. lanco n. “throat”; see instead:
Q. lango “neck, (physical) passage, [ᴹQ.] throat”
ᴺQ. !hlungo “pharynx, gullet”
⚠️ᴱQ. quelqua n. “throat”; see instead:
Q. lango “neck, (physical) passage, [ᴹQ.] throat”
⚠️ᴱQ. querca n. “throat”; see instead:
Q. lango “neck, (physical) passage, [ᴹQ.] throat”

4.30 Shoulder

⚠️ᴱQ. aldamo n. “shoulder(s), back”; see instead:
ᴺQ. almo “shoulder(s), back”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. almo n. “shoulder(s), back”

4.31 Arm

⚠️ᴱQ. anda-ráma adj. “long-arm(ed); long-wing(ed)”
⚠️ᴱQ. lenc (lenqu-) n. “limb”
⚠️ᴱQ. olet (olec-) n. “forearm”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “arm”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ranco “arm”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ranco (rancu-) n. “arm”

4.32 Elbow

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. ólemë n. “elbow”

4.33 Hand

Q. camba n. “(cupped) hand, hollow of the hand”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ. #cambë n. “(hollow of) hand”; see instead:
Q. camba “(cupped) hand, hollow of the hand”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. n. “hand”
⚠️ᴱQ. †mactë¹ (maxi-) n. “hand”; see instead:
Q. “hand”
Q., ᴹQ. quár(ë) n. “fist, (tightly closed) hand”

4.332 Hand (other)

Q. ataformaitë adj. “ambidextrous”
Q. atamaitë adj. “two-handed”
⚠️ᴱQ. erumaili adj. “one handed”
⚠️ᴱQ. #maili adj. “handed”; see instead:
Q. maitë “handy, skillful, [ᴹQ.] skilled; [Q.] having a hand, handed; shapely”
Q. málimë (málimi-) n. “wrist, (lit.) hand-link”
⚠️ᴱQ. maricta n. “wrist”; see instead:
Q. málimë “wrist, (lit.) hand-link”
⚠️ᴱQ. mavoitë (mavoisi-) adj. “having hands”; see instead:
Q. maitë “handy, skillful, [ᴹQ.] skilled; [Q.] having a hand, handed; shapely”
Q. maxë n. “handiness”
Q. morimaitë adj. “black-handed”
Q. nonda n. “hand especially in (?clutching)”
Q., ᴱQ. palta n. “flat of the hand, *palm; [ᴱQ.] shelf”
⚠️ᴱQ. paltya n. “flat of hand, palm of hand”; see instead:
Q. palta “flat of the hand, *palm; [ᴱQ.] shelf”

4.34 Finger

Q. amaltil n. “*mother finger”
⚠️ᴱQ. anda-lepta adj. “long-fingered”
⚠️Q. antil n. “*middle finger”; see instead:
Q. lependë “middle finger”
⚠️Q. cantil n. “fourth finger”; see instead:
Q. lepecan(t) “fourth finger”
⚠️Q. enestil n. “*middle finger”; see instead:
Q. lependë “middle finger”
Q. lepecan(t) n. “fourth finger”
Q. lependë n. “middle finger”
Q. †lepenel n. “middle finger”
⚠️Q. lepentë n. “fourth finger”; see instead:
Q. lepecan(t) “fourth finger”
Q. leper n. “finger”
Q. lepetas (lepetass-) n. “index finger”
Q. lepincë (lepinci-) n. “little finger”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ. lepsë n. “finger”; see instead:
Q. leper “finger”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lepta adj. and n. “fingered; ⚠️thumb, [ᴱQ.] finger”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. let (leps-) n. “finger”; see instead:
Q. leper “finger”
⚠️Q. leuta n. “finger”; see instead:
Q. leper “finger”
Q. nícë n. “little finger”
Q. nihtil n. “little [finger]”
Q. tassa n. “index finger”
Q. tastil n. “*index finger”
⚠️ᴱQ. -tenda suf. “having fingers”
⚠️ᴱQ. tenna n. “finger”; see instead:
Q. leper “finger”

4.342 Thumb

Q. atartil n. “thumb [nursery rhymes]”
Q. nápo n. “thumb, (lit.) picker”
⚠️Q. tollë² n. “thumb”; see instead:
Q. nápo “thumb, (lit.) picker”
⚠️Q. tolpë n. “thumb”; see instead:
Q. nápo “thumb, (lit.) picker”
⚠️Q. toltil n. “thumb”; see instead:
Q. nápo “thumb, (lit.) picker”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyútë (tyúsi-) n. “thumb”; see instead:
Q. nápo “thumb, (lit.) picker”

4.35 Leg

⚠️ᴱQ. attalaitë adj. “biped”; see instead:
Q. #attalya “biped, *(lit.) two-footed”
⚠️ᴱQ. attalin n. “biped”; see instead:
Q. #attalya “biped, *(lit.) two-footed”
Q. #attalya n. and adj. “biped, *(lit.) two-footed”
ᴺQ. !cantalya adj. “four-legged”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ. ciuca n. “*thigh”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tiuco “thigh”
⚠️ᴹQ. noa² n. “thigh”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tiuco “thigh”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. oswë n. “hip”
⚠️ᴱQ. piu n. “calf of leg”
ᴹQ. quingatelco adj. “*bow-legged”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. telco (*telcu-) n. “leg; stem (of a tengwa symbol)”
ᴹQ. tiuco n. “thigh”
⚠️ᴹQ. tyúca n. “thigh”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tiuco “thigh”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyúca¹ adj. “thick”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tiuca “thick, fat; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] dense, solid”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyú(ta) n. “thigh”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tiuco “thigh”

4.36 Knee

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. occa n. “knee”

4.37 Foot

ᴹQ. runya n. “slot, footprint”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tál (tal-) n. “foot; [ᴹQ.] bottom, [ᴱQ.] lowest part”
⚠️ᴱQ. tala¹ n. “foot; bottom, lowest part”; see instead:
Q. tál “foot; [ᴹQ.] bottom, [ᴱQ.] lowest part”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. talaitë adj. “footed”
⚠️ᴱQ. talas (talast-) n. “sole”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tallunë “sole of foot”
ᴺQ. !tallimë (tallimi-) n. “ankle, (lit.) foot-link”
ᴹQ. tallunë n. “sole of foot”

4.38 Toe

Q. pirë n. “toe”
Q. taltil (taltill-) n. “toe”
Q. taltol n. “big toe”
Q. tolbo n. “big toe; stump, stub; ⚠️thumb”

4.39 Nail, Claw

ᴹQ. atsa¹ n. “claw, catch, hook”
Q. nappa n. “claw, talon”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. nyelet n. “nail (of the finger)”
ᴹQ. #racca n. “*claw”
ᴹQ. raccalepta adj. “*claw-fingered”

4.392 Wing

⚠️ᴱQ. #ala² n. “wing”; see instead:
Q. ráma “wing; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] arm”
⚠️ᴱQ. ehtaráma adj. “having a wing like a sword”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ráma n. “wing; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] arm”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. rámaitë adj. “having wings, winged”
⚠️ᴱQ. rámavoitë adj. “having wings, winged”; see instead:
ᴺQ. rámaitë “having wings, winged”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ramna n. “wing (horn)”; see instead:
Q. ráma “wing; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] arm”
⚠️ᴱQ. vassë (vassi-) n. “wing”; see instead:
Q. ráma “wing; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] arm”
⚠️ᴱQ. vassivaswë n. “beating or rushing of wings”
⚠️ᴱQ. wilda adj. “winged”; see instead:
ᴺQ. rámaitë “having wings, winged”

4.393 Feather

ᴹQ. lúpë n. “plume”
⚠️ᴱQ. pectë (pexi-) n. “plume, cox-comb”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lúpë “plume”
⚠️ᴹQ. pilen n. “feather”; see instead:
Q. quessë “feather”
ᴹQ. pilin “arrow; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] feather”
⚠️ᴱQ. pilinquasilla n. “nodding plume”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lúpë “plume”
Q. pilinehtar “an unidentified plant, (lit.) ?arrow thorns”
⚠️ᴱQ. pilintelë n. “plumage”
⚠️ᴱQ. quasilla n. “tuft, nodding spray, tassel, plume”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lúpë “plume”
Q., ᴹQ. quessë n. “feather”

4.40 Front of Chest

ᴹQ. ambor n. “breast, *chest”
⚠️ᴱQ. ambos (ambost-) n. “breast; shoulder”

4.41 Breast of Woman

⚠️ᴱQ. ambar² (ambas-) n. “breast, bosom”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ambor “breast, *chest”
Q. súma n. “hollow cavity, bosom”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tittë n. “breast, teat”
ᴺQ. !tyet- v. “to suckle, nurse”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tyetsë n. “teat”

4.44 Heart

⚠️ᴱQ. elwen n. “heart”; see instead:
Q. indo “(state of) mind, (inner) thought, mood; will, resolve; [ᴹQ.] heart”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. hón (hom-) n. “heart (physical organ)”
Q. #honda adj. “hearted”
⚠️ᴹQ. #hondo adj. “*hearted”; see instead:
Q. #honda “hearted”
Q. sincahonda adj. “flint-hearted”
⚠️ᴹQ. tingahondo adj. “flint-hearted”; see instead:
Q. sincahonda “flint-hearted”

4.45 Liver

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lepsa n. “liver”

4.46 Belly, Stomach

ᴹQ. #cumba adj. and n. “*bellied”
ᴺQ. !cumbo n. “belly”
⚠️ᴱQ. famba n. “belly, fat body”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #cumba “*bellied”
⚠️ᴱQ. palla n. “paunch”
ᴹQ. sauricumba [þ] adj. “*foul-bellied”

4.47 Womb

Q. #carva n. “*womb”
Q. #colba n. “*womb”
Q. #móna n. “*womb”
ᴺQ. !pucco (puccu-) n. “cunnus, vagina”

4.48 Egg

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. ohtë n. “egg”

4.49 Testicle

⚠️ᴱQ. milt n. “semen”

4.492 Penis

⚠️ᴱQ. hapta- v. “to eject, ejaculate”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^puncil n. “male organ, *penis”
⚠️ᴱQ. puntl n. “mem. vir., *penis”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^puncil “male organ, *penis”
⚠️ᴱQ. vië n. “teors, *penis”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^puncil “male organ, *penis”
ᴹQ. vië “manhood, vigour; [ᴱQ.] teors, *penis”
ᴺQ. !vielóra n. “eunuch”

4.51 to Breathe; Breath

Q. foa n. “breath, puff of breath”
Q. *nef- v. “to breathe (air)”
Q. #nefítë adj. “air-breathing”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quor- v. “to choke, suffocate, (esp.) drown”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quorin adj. “drowned, choked, speechless”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quosta- v. “to choke, drown (trans.)”
Q., ᴹQ. súlë [þ] n. “spirit, emission of power (of will or desire); breath”
ᴹQ. súya- [þ] v. “to breathe, *blow, (lit.) expel breath”

4.52 to Gape, Yawn

Q. #háca- v. “to yawn”
Q. hácala adj. “yawning”
⚠️ᴱQ. yámë adj. “yawning”; see instead:
Q. hácala “yawning”
ᴹQ. yanga- v. “to yawn”

4.53 to Cough

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. hototyossë n. “a cough and a sneeze”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. hútatyosta n. “whooping cough”
⚠️ᴱQ. hyuxo n. “hiccup”
⚠️ᴱQ. nang- v. “I have a cold”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nungwë “cold (in the nose or head)”
⚠️ᴱQ. nungo n. “cold (in the nose or head)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nungwë “cold (in the nose or head)”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. nungwë n. “cold (in the nose or head)”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tyos (tyoss-) n. “cough”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^tyosta- v. “to cough”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyosto- v. “to cough”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^tyosta- “to cough”

4.54 to Sneeze

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. hont n. “sneeze”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. hontossë n. “loud sneeze”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hotya- v. “to sneeze”
⚠️ᴱQ. hotyo- v. “to sneeze”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hotya- “to sneeze”

4.56 to Spit

⚠️ᴹQ. pis- [þ] v. “to spit”; see instead:
ᴹQ. piuta- “to spit”
⚠️ᴱQ. pist- v. “to spit”; see instead:
ᴹQ. piuta- “to spit”
ᴹQ. piuta- v. “to spit”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. recca n. “spittle, *saliva”
⚠️ᴱQ. rent (renty-) n. “spittle, saliva”; see instead:
ᴺQ. recca “spittle, *saliva”
⚠️ᴱQ. retye- v. “to spit”; see instead:
ᴹQ. piuta- “to spit”

4.57 to Vomit

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quam- v. “to be ill, vomit”
ᴺQ. !quamna n. “vomit”
ᴺQ. !sála n. “gall, bile”

4.58 to Bite

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nac-² v. “to bite”
ᴹQ. nahta¹ n. “bite”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nyanda- v. “to gnaw”; see instead:
Q. #nwar- “to fret, wear away, [ᴹQ.] erode; to gnaw”

4.59 to Lick

ᴹQ. lapsa- v. “to lick (frequentative)”
⚠️ᴹQ. lapsa n. “licking up (food or drink), gluttonous eating”; see instead:
ᴺQ. laptë “gluttonous eating, [ᴹQ.] licking up (food or drink)”
ᴺQ., Q. laptë n. “gluttonous eating, [ᴹQ.] licking up (food or drink)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lav- v. “to lick”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. salpa- v. “to lick up, sup, sip, [ᴱQ.] take a sup of; to sample”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^salpë (sulp-) n. “sip, ⚠️taste”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. sulpa- v. “to lap up, drink greedily; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] to lick, sup, lick up, sup up; to sip, taste; to drink”

4.61 to Sleep; Sleep

⚠️ᴱQ. fansa n. “swoon”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lortalë “swoon, faint, dizziness”
⚠️ᴱQ. fanta- v. “to fall asleep, go dazed, swoon”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lorta- “to faint, swoon, become dazed”
ᴺQ. !loru- “to fall asleep”
⚠️ᴱQ. fum- v. “to sleep”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lor- “to slumber, *sleep”
⚠️ᴱQ. fúmë n. “(deep) sleep”; see instead:
Q. lórë “[ᴹQ.] slumber, *sleep; [Q.] dream”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lor- v. “to slumber, *sleep”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lorda adj. “slumbrous, drowsy”
ᴹQ. lorna adj. “asleep”
ᴺQ. !lornatála adj. “sleep-inducing”
ᴺQ. !lorta- v. “to faint, swoon, become dazed”
ᴺQ. !lortalë n. “swoon, faint, dizziness”
ᴺQ. !loru- v. “to fall asleep”
⚠️ᴱQ. murmë n. “slumber, sleep”; see instead:
Q. lórë “[ᴹQ.] slumber, *sleep; [Q.] dream”
⚠️ᴱQ. murmëa adj. “slumbrous”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lorda “slumbrous, drowsy”
⚠️ᴱQ. muru- v. “to slumber, sleep”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lor- “to slumber, *sleep”

4.62 Dream (n)

ᴺQ. !cuilórë n. “day-dream, (lit.) awake-dream”
⚠️ᴱQ. fanórë n. “day-dream”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cuilórë “day-dream, (lit.) awake-dream”
⚠️ᴱQ. fantl n. “vision, dream, hazy notion, imaginary idea”; see instead:
Q. olor “dream, vision”
Q. tenna³ “thought, notion, idea”
⚠️ᴱQ. fanwë n. “dream”; see instead:
Q. olor “dream, vision”
Q. indemma n. “mind-picture (of apparition in dream)”
Q., ᴹQ. lórë n. “[ᴹQ.] slumber, *sleep; [Q.] dream”
Q. óla- v. “to dream”
⚠️ᴹQ. olar n. “dream”; see instead:
Q. olor “dream, vision”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. olor n. “dream, vision”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. olorda adj. “dreamy, drowsy; in dreams”
⚠️ᴱQ. olórë n. “dream”; see instead:
Q. olor “dream, vision”
⚠️ᴱQ. olórëa adj. “dreamy, dreamlike”; see instead:
Q. olosta “dreamy, *dreamlike”
Q. olosta adj. “dreamy, *dreamlike”

4.63 to Wake

ᴺQ., Q. cuita- v. “to waken, rouse; ⚠️to live”
ᴺQ. !cuiva adj. “awake”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cuiva- v. “to awake”; see instead:
ᴺQ. cuita- “to waken, rouse; ⚠️to live”
ᴹQ. cuivëa adj. “wakening”
Q., ᴹQ. cuivië¹ n. “awakening”
ᴺQ. !eccuinu- v. “to awake, wake up”
⚠️ᴱQ. quíva adj. “awake”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cuiva “awake”
⚠️ᴱQ. quívië n. “awakening”; see instead:
Q. cuivië¹ “awakening”

4.65 to Urinate; Urine

⚠️ᴱQ. mis (mist-) n. “urine”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sáralipta “urine”
ᴺQ. !sáralipta n. “urine”

4.66 to Void Excrement; Dung, Excrement

ᴺQ. !catassa n. “anus, arsehole, *(lit.) behind-hole”
ᴺQ. !hexan (hexamb-) n. “toilet”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. múco n. “dung, *manure, muck”
⚠️ᴱQ. mucta- v. “cacare [Latin], *to empty bowels”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^muhta- “*to defecate, empty bowels”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^muhta- v. “*to defecate, empty bowels”
⚠️ᴺQ. !satyasambë [þ] n. “privy, lavatory”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hexan “toilet”

4.67 to have Sexual Intercourse

ᴺQ. !hrupuhta- v. “to fornicate”
ᴺQ. !hrupuhtië n. “fornication”
ᴺQ. !hrupuhto n. “fornicator”
⚠️ᴱQ. pucta n. “coitus, *sex”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^puhta “coitus, *sex”
⚠️ᴱQ. pucta- v. “to copulate”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^puhta- “to copulate, *have sex”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. [ᴱQ.] ^puhta n. “coitus, *sex”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^puhta- v. “to copulate, *have sex”
ᴺQ. !puhtëa adj. “sexual”
⚠️ᴺQ. !úpuhta- v. “to fornicate”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hrupuhta- “to fornicate”
⚠️ᴺQ. !úpuhtalë n. “fornication”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hrupuhtië “fornication”

4.71 to Beget (of Father)

⚠️ᴱQ. ciw- v. “*to germinate, impregnate”
Q., ᴱQ. nosta- v. “to beget, [ᴱQ.] give birth to; to cause; ️[Q.] to be begotten [impersonal?]”
Q., ᴹQ. onta- v. “to beget, [ᴹQ.] create”
⚠️ᴱQ. puita- v. “to beget”; see instead:
Q. onta- “to beget, [ᴹQ.] create”
⚠️ᴺQ. !talma- v. “to found”; see instead:
ᴺQ. tulca- “to set up, establish, *found; ⚠️to fix, stick in, ”
ᴺQ. !talmata- v. “to base (on), found”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tulca- v. “to set up, establish, *found; ⚠️to fix, stick in, ”

4.72 to Bear (of Mother)

ᴺQ. !ennóna adj. “born again”
ᴺQ. !enontië n. “rebirth, resurrection”
ᴺQ. !enortalë n. “resurrection”
ᴺQ. !ernóna adj. “only-born, only-begotten”
Q. #nóna adj. “born”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nónië n. “birth”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nosta “birth, ⚠️birthday”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. nosta n. “birth, ⚠️birthday”
ᴺQ. !nostarë n. “birthday”
⚠️ᴱQ. toquo- v. “to yield, give, bear, bring forth”; see instead:
ᴺQ. yava- “to bear (fruit), *yield, bring forth, produce”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. yava- v. “to bear (fruit), *yield, bring forth, produce”

4.73 Pregnant

Q. colbamarië n. “gestation, *(lit.) womb-residence”
Q. colbanavië n. “gestation, *(lit.) womb-being”
ᴺQ. !iula adj. “pregnant”
⚠️ᴺQ. !lapsarwa adj. “pregnant, (lit.) baby-having”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !iula “pregnant”
⚠️ᴺQ. !lapselunga n. “pregnant, (lit.) baby-heavy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !iula “pregnant”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

Q. ceula adj. “?alive (of vegetable)”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. coina adj. “alive, ⚠️living”
⚠️ᴱQ. coirë n. “life”; see instead:
Q. coivië “life, [ᴱQ.] liveliness; ⚠️awakening”
Q. coirë “stirring, early spring; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] life”
Q., ᴱQ. coirëa adj. “living, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] lively, alive”
⚠️ᴱQ. coiresta- v. “to spend one’s life”
Q., ᴹQ. #coita- v. “[ᴹQ.] to live, be alive, have life”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. coiva adj. “lively, ⚠️living; awake”
Q., ᴱQ. coivië n. “life, [ᴱQ.] liveliness; ⚠️awakening”
⚠️ᴹQ. cuilë n. “life, being alive”; see instead:
Q. coivië “life, [ᴱQ.] liveliness; ⚠️awakening”
⚠️ᴹQ. cuina adj. “alive”; see instead:
ᴺQ. coina “alive, ⚠️living”
Q. coirëa “living, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] lively, alive”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cuina- v. “to live, be alive”; see instead:
Q. #coita- “[ᴹQ.] to live, be alive, have life”
ᴹQ. (ec)coiru- v. “to come to life”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. laulë n. “life, mode of life”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. laulesta n. “livelihood”
⚠️ᴱQ. lausiva adj. “living (of plants)”; see instead:
Q. ceula “?alive (of vegetable)”
⚠️ᴱQ. lausta-¹ v. “to lead a life, gain a living”
⚠️ᴱQ. loa n. “life”; see instead:
Q. loa “(seasonal) year, (lit.) (time of) growth, blooming”
Q. coivië “life, [ᴱQ.] liveliness; ⚠️awakening”
ᴹQ. oi- v. “to live, pass one’s days”
Q. vehtë n. “life; habitat, haunt”
Q. vehtequentalë n. “biography”

4.742 Immortal

ᴹQ. #alfírima adj. “immortal”
ᴹQ. Alfírimo n. “Immortal”
⚠️ᴹQ. ilfirin adj. “immortal”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #alfírima “immortal”

4.75 to Die; Dead; Death

ᴹQ. fairë² n. “natural death (as act)”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “last hour, last breath, (act of) death”; see instead:
Q. #fírië “death”
Q., ᴹQ. fir- v. “to die, fade, expire, breathe forth”
Q. #fírië n. “death”
Q., ᴹQ. fírima adj. “mortal, (lit.) *able to die”
ᴹQ. fírimárë n. “mortality (being mortal)”
ᴹQ. firin adj. “dead (by natural cause)”
⚠️ᴱQ. mána adj. “dead”; see instead:
ᴹQ. qualin “dead, [ᴱQ.] dying”
Q. mána “blessing, good thing; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] blessed”
⚠️ᴱQ. #narca² adj. “dead”; see instead:
ᴹQ. qualin “dead, [ᴱQ.] dying”
ᴹQ. nuru [ñ] n. “death [abstract]”
Q., ᴱQ. qual- v. “to die”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. qualin adj. “dead, [ᴱQ.] dying”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. qualmë n. “(death) agony, (process of) death”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ., ᴱQ. qualmëa adj. “deadly, deathly”
⚠️ᴱQ. †qualna adj. “dead”; see instead:
ᴹQ. qualin “dead, [ᴱQ.] dying”
⚠️ᴱQ. †qualumë¹ n. “death”; see instead:
ᴹQ. qualmë “(death) agony, (process of) death”
⚠️ᴱQ. †qualúmëa adj. “deathly”; see instead:
ᴺQ. qualmëa “deadly, deathly”
⚠️ᴹQ. quelesta n. “dying, fading”; see instead:
Q. #quelië “*fading”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. queletya- v. “to perish”
Q., ᴹQ. #quelië n. “*fading”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quelmë n. “ruin, utter end, perdition, ⚠️end, death”
⚠️ᴱQ. urdu n. “death”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nuru “death [abstract]”
⚠️Q. ?urtu n. “death”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nuru “death [abstract]”
⚠️ᴱQ. warda adj. “dead”; see instead:
ᴹQ. qualin “dead, [ᴱQ.] dying”

4.76 to Kill

ᴺQ. !atannahtar n. “man-slayer”
⚠️ᴱQ. faicar n. “destroyer, slayer; bane”; see instead:
Q. #nehtar “slayer”
⚠️ᴺQ. !firta- v. “to kill”; see instead:
Q. nahta-¹ “to slay, [ᴱQ.] slay cruelly; ⚠️[Q.] to hurt, injure, wound”
⚠️ᴱQ. macca n. “slaughter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nancalë “slaughter”
⚠️ᴱQ. macta- v. “to slay, slaughter”; see instead:
Q. nahta-¹ “to slay, [ᴱQ.] slay cruelly; ⚠️[Q.] to hurt, injure, wound”
Q. mahta- “to handle, wield, use, make use of; to manage, deal with, treat, control; [ᴹQ.] to stroke, feel; to wield a weapon, fight”
⚠️ᴱQ. mactya- v. “to kill”; see instead:
Q. nahta-¹ “to slay, [ᴱQ.] slay cruelly; ⚠️[Q.] to hurt, injure, wound”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nahta-¹ v. “to slay, [ᴱQ.] slay cruelly; ⚠️[Q.] to hurt, injure, wound”
Q. nahtana adj. “*slain”
ᴺQ. !nahtar n. “slayer, murderer”
Q. nanca adj. “*slain”
ᴺQ. !nancalë n. “slaughter”
Q. #nehtar n. “slayer”
ᴺQ. !qualta- v. “to kill, murder”

4.77 Corpse, Body

⚠️ᴱQ. caivo n. “corpse”; see instead:
Q. loico “corpse, dead body”
Q. loico n. “corpse, dead body”
⚠️ᴱQ. quelectë n. “carcasse”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^quelehtë “carcasse”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^quelehtë n. “carcasse”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. quelet (quelets-) n. “corpse”

4.79 Grave, Tomb

⚠️ᴱQ. caunë n. “grave”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^sapta “(delved) hole, pit; [ᴱQ.] grave”
⚠️ᴹQ. lára² n. “grave”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^sapta “(delved) hole, pit; [ᴱQ.] grave”
Q. #noirë n. “tomb”

4.81 Strong, Mighty, Powerful

Q. #antorya- v. “to strengthen [of sound]”
Q. antoryamë n. “strengthening”
⚠️ᴱQ. anúva adj. “doughty”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hanúva “doughty, *manly”
ᴺQ., Q. astalda adj. “*valiant; ⚠️strong”
Q. melehta adj. “mighty”
ᴺQ., Q. melehtë n. “might, power (inherent)”
⚠️ᴱQ. nertu n. “strength”; see instead:
ᴹQ. poldorë “physical strength; might”
ᴺQ. !poldavë adv. “strongly”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. poldorë n. “physical strength; might”
ᴺQ., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. poldórëa adj. “strong, strong-bodied, [ᴱQ.] muscular, powerful”
⚠️ᴺQ. !pollië adv. “hard, strongly”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !poldavë “strongly”
Q., ᴹQ. taura adj. “(very) mighty, masterful; vast, of unmeasured might or size”
⚠️ᴺQ. !torya- v. “to strengthen”; see instead:
ᴹQ. turya- “to strengthen”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tulca adj. “firm, immovable, steadfast; strong”
ᴹQ. tuo n. “muscle, sinew; vigour, physical strength”
Q., ᴱQ. #turca adj. “strong, powerful (in body)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #túrë n. “[ᴹQ.] mastery, victory; [ᴱQ.] might, strength, power”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. turwa adj. “powerful”
Q. turya- v. “*to strengthen”
ᴹQ. turya- v. “to strengthen”
Q., ᴹQ. turyandë n. “fortification, strengthening”
ᴹQ. turyanwa adj. “fortified”
⚠️ᴱQ. valma adj. “powerful”
ᴹQ. vëassë n. “vigour”

4.82 Weak, Infirm

Q. limpa adj. “frail, slender and drooping”
Q. úmaitë adj. “clumsy(-handed), unskilled”

4.83 Well; Health

⚠️ᴹQ. al- v. “to thrive”; see instead:
Q. ala-¹ “to plant, grow (of plants); *to thrive, flourish”
⚠️ᴱQ. ausi- pref. “well”; see instead:
Q. mai-¹ “excellent, admirable; *well, happily”
Q. málë n. “good health”
ᴺQ. !málëa adj. “healthy”
ᴺQ. !málië n. and adv. “healthy; healthful”
⚠️ᴱQ. vandë² adv. “well”; see instead:
Q. mai “well; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] too much”

4.84 Sick; Sickness

ᴹQ. caila adj. and n. “lying in bed, bedridden; sickness”
ᴹQ. caimassë n. “lying in bed, sickness”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. caimassëa adj. “bedridden, sick, [ᴱQ.] confined to bed, a-bed”
Q., ᴹQ. #engwa adj. “sickly”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^hlaiwa adj. “sick, sickly, ill”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^hlívë n. “sickness, *disease”
ᴺQ. !hruhirdië n. “dysentery”
⚠️ᴹQ. laiwa adj. “sick, sickly, ill”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlaiwa “sick, sickly, ill”
⚠️ᴱQ. leucë (leuci-) adj. “sick, ill; pallid, wan”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlaiwa “sick, sickly, ill”
ᴹQ. malwa “fallow, pale, [ᴱQ.] yellowish, *wan”
⚠️ᴱQ. leumë n. “sickness”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlívë “sickness, *disease”
⚠️ᴹQ. lívë n. “sickness”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlívë “sickness, *disease”
⚠️ᴱQ. naica² adj. “stricken ill, sick”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlaiwa “sick, sickly, ill”
ᴺQ. quámëa “sick, *nauseous”
⚠️ᴱQ. naico adv. “*sickly”; see instead:
Q. #engwa “sickly”
Q. nimpa adj. “drooping, ailing”
⚠️ᴱQ. quamba adj. “unwell, sick”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quámëa “sick, *nauseous”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. quámë n. “sickness, [ᴱQ.] nausea”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quámëa adj. “sick, *nauseous”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quol- v. “to ail, *be sick”
⚠️ᴱQ. quolda adj. “ill”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quolina “ill, sickly, ailing”
⚠️ᴱQ. quolima adj. “sickly, ailing”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quolina “ill, sickly, ailing”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quolimo n. “invalid”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quolina adj. “ill, sickly, ailing”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quolu n. “disease”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quolúva adj. “pestilent, pestilential”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quolúvië n. “pestilence”
ᴺQ. !sauluppo n. “cancer (disease) ”

4.85 to Wound; Wound; Wounded

ᴹQ. harna- v. “to wound, *injure, hurt, damage”
ᴹQ. harna¹ adj. “wounded”
ᴹQ. harwë² n. “wound”
Q. nahtë n. “wounding, wound”
⚠️ᴹQ. nirwa² adj. “scarred”
⚠️ᴹQ. nirwë n. “scar”
⚠️ᴱQ. sastya adj. “sore, galled”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sistina “ulcerated, sore, *galled”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sistë (sisti-) n. “ulcer, sore, boil”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sistina adj. “ulcerated, sore, *galled”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. welet n. “boil, tumor”

4.86 to Cure, Heal

Q. #envinyata- v. “to renew, heal”
Q. hasa- [þ] v. “to treat (medically), (help to) cure; to treat kindly, make easy”
ᴺQ. !hasaino [þ] n. “patient, (lit.) medically treated one”
ᴺQ. !nesta- v. “to heal”

4.87 Physician

Q. asar(o) [þ] n. “doctor, leech”
Q. asarta [þ] n. “leech, doctor”
ᴺQ. !hlaimar (hlaimard-) n. “hospital”
ᴺQ. !nestando n. “healer, physician”

4.88 Medicine, Drug

Q., ᴹQ. asëa [þ] n. “healing herb, athelas”
ᴹQ. asëa aranaitë [þ] n. “*kingsfoil”
Q. asëa aranion [þ] n. “kingsfoil, asëa of the Kings”
ᴺQ. !colma n. “stretcher”
ᴺQ. !hasarëa [þ] adj. “medical”
ᴺQ. !haswa [þ] n. “medicine”
Q. hröangolmë n. “lore of the body and arts of healing”

4.89 Poison

⚠️ᴱQ. feno (fenu-) n. “venom, poison”; see instead:
Q. hloirëa “venomous, *poisonous”
⚠️ᴱQ. henuva adj. “venomous, poisonous”; see instead:
Q. hloirëa “venomous, *poisonous”
Q. hloima n. “poison, poisonous substance”
Q. hloirë n. “venom, poison, poisonousness”
Q. hloirëa adj. “venomous, *poisonous”
Q. hloita- v. “to poison, envenom, fill with poison”
⚠️ᴹQ. sangwa n. “poison”; see instead:
Q. hloima “poison, poisonous substance”

4.91 Tired, Weary

ᴹQ. lumba adj. “weary”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quinqua adj. “languid, ⚠️drooping”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quinquelë n. “languor”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quinquelëa adj. “languorous”
⚠️ᴱQ. quiqui- v. “to hang, droop”; see instead:
Q. *linga- “[ᴹQ.] to hang, dangle”
⚠️ᴱQ. #rúsë (rúsi-) adj. “weary”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lumba “weary”
Q. rúsë “wrath”
ᴺQ. !sapsarrima adj. “boring, tedious”
⚠️ᴱQ. tarwa² adj. “tired”

4.93 Bald

⚠️ᴱQ. falcasse(a) adj. “bald”; see instead:
Q. parnë “bare, bald, naked”

4.94 Lame

⚠️ᴱQ. cauco (caucu-) n. “humpback”
⚠️ᴱQ. cupta- v. “to hump up, look lumpy”
ᴺQ. !hroaloica n. “cripple”
ᴺQ. !lalevítë adj. “paralyzed, lame, (lit.) incapable of moving”
⚠️ᴱQ. maita adj. “maimed”
⚠️ᴺQ. !úlévima adj. “paralyzed, lame”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lalevítë “paralyzed, lame, (lit.) incapable of moving”

4.95 Deaf

⚠️ᴺQ. !hlárelóra adj. “deaf, (lit.) hearing-less”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lahlarítë “deaf, (lit.) unable to hear”
ᴺQ. !lahlarítë adj. “deaf, (lit.) unable to hear”

4.96 Dumb

Q. úpa adj. “dumb”
Q. úpahtëa adj. “speechless”

4.97 Blind

⚠️ᴺQ. !cellóra adj. “blind, sightless”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lacenítë “unseeing, blind”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cénelóra n. “blind”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lacenítë “unseeing, blind”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cenenca adj. “blind, sightless”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lacenítë “unseeing, blind”
ᴺQ., Q. lacenítë adj. “unseeing, blind”
ᴺQ., Q. lomba adj. “blind”

4.98 Drunk

ᴺQ. !limpunqua adj. “drunk [from alcohol]”
ᴺQ. !limpunquië n. “drunkenness”

4.99 Naked, Bare

⚠️ᴱQ. carp- v. “to pluck”
⚠️ᴱQ. carpalë n. “a plucking, tucking, wrenching; deceiving, tricking”
⚠️ᴱQ. falca¹ adj. “naked, bare”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helda¹ “naked, stripped bare”
⚠️ᴱQ. falin adj. “bare, nude, fallow, wild (of land)”; see instead:
Q. parnë “bare, bald, naked”
ᴺQ. !laréra “fallow, (lit.) not sown”
⚠️ᴹQ. halla² adj. “naked”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helda¹ “naked, stripped bare”
ᴹQ. helda¹ adj. “naked, stripped bare”
ᴺQ. !heldassë n. “nakedness”
⚠️ᴱQ. hulin adj. “naked”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helda¹ “naked, stripped bare”
⚠️ᴱQ. hulqua adj. “naked”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helda¹ “naked, stripped bare”
⚠️Q. parca adj. “naked (of persons)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helda¹ “naked, stripped bare”
ᴹQ. parca “dry; ⚠️thirsty”
Q. parnë adj. “bare, bald, naked”

4.999 Body Parts and Functions (other)

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lepsilë n. “tendril”

5. Food and Drink

5.11 to Eat

ᴺQ. !accamátala adj. “over-eating”
ᴺQ. !accamatië n. “over-eating”
⚠️ᴱQ. camanta- v. “to make eat, give to eat”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !matya- “to feed”
ᴺQ. !hluc- v. “to swallow”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lávëar n. “glutton”
⚠️ᴱQ. ‽malu- v. “to devour”; see instead:
Q. mammata- “to go on eating, gorge oneself; to gobble up, [ᴹQ.] devour”
Q., ᴹQ. mammata- v. “to go on eating, gorge oneself; to gobble up, [ᴹQ.] devour”
⚠️ᴱQ. manta adj. “eaten”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !matina “eaten”
Q. #manta- “to bless”
⚠️Q., ᴱQ. mastima adj. “edible”; see instead:
Q. mátima “edible”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ., ᴱQ. mat- v. “to eat”
ᴹQ. #matië n. “eating”
ᴺQ. !matila adj. “eating”
Q. mátima adj. “edible”
ᴺQ. !matimar (matimard-) n. “restaurant, (lit.) eating hall”
ᴺQ. !matina adj. “eaten”
⚠️ᴱQ. matsa adj. “good to eat, nice”
⚠️ᴹQ. mattima adj. “edible”; see instead:
Q. mátima “edible”
⚠️ᴱQ. #matwa adj. “*eating”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !matila “eating”
Q. #-matya “eating”
Q. #-matya suf. “eating”
ᴺQ. !matya- v. “to feed”
⚠️ᴱQ. nesta n. “(act of) feeding”
⚠️ᴱQ. nesta- v. “to feed”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !matya- “to feed”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tyuc- v. “to chew”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyúca² n. “cud”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^tyuxë “cud”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyus (tyux-) n. “cud”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^tyuxë “cud”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyustyucta- v. “to chew the cud; to reflect, reminisce”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^tyustyuhta- “to chew the cud; to reflect, reminisce”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^tyustyuhta- v. “to chew the cud; to reflect, reminisce”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^tyuxë n. “cud”

5.12 Food

⚠️ᴱQ. coisimatl n. “animal food”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cuimamatta “animal food”
ᴺQ. !cuimamatta n. “animal food”
⚠️ᴱQ. matl n. “food”; see instead:
Q. matta “food”
⚠️ᴱQ. matso n. “food”; see instead:
Q. matta “food”
Q. matta n. “food”
⚠️ᴱQ. nes² (nest-) n. “food, feed, fodder”; see instead:
Q. matta “food”

5.13 to Drink

ᴺQ. !accasúcala adj. “over-drinking”
ᴺQ. !accasucië n. “over-drinking”
⚠️ᴱQ. soco- v. “to drink”; see instead:
ᴹQ. suc- “to drink”
⚠️ᴱQ. socto- v. “to give to drink, drench”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^sohta- “to give to drink, drench”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^sohta- v. “to give to drink, drench”
⚠️ᴱQ. soqu- v. “to drink”; see instead:
ᴹQ. suc- “to drink”
ᴹQ. suc- v. “to drink”
ᴹQ. suhto n. “draught”
Q. yul- v. “to drink”
Q. yulda¹ n. “drink, draught, thing drunk; cup”
Q. yulda² adj. “drunk”
Q. yúlima adj. “drinkable”
Q. yulmë n. “drinking, carousal”
ᴺQ. !yulmo n. “drinker”
Q. yuluitë (yuluiti-) adj. “drinking (as a habit), *aquatic”

5.14 Hunger (n)

Q. maita adj. “hungry”
ᴺQ. !maitië n. “hunger”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^saica- v. “to be hungry”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. saicë n. “hunger”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. saicelë n. “famine”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. saicelëa adj. “famished”
⚠️ᴱQ. saicelta- v. “to starve”; see instead:
ᴺQ. saitya- “to starve”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. saiqua adj. “hungry”
⚠️ᴱQ. saita- v. “to be hungry”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^saica- “to be hungry”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. saitya- v. “to starve”

5.15 Thirst (n)

⚠️ᴱQ. loimë n. “thirst”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !soicië “thirst”
ᴺQ. !soicië n. “thirst”

5.151 Thirsty

ᴹQ. fauca adj. “thirsty, parched, (lit.) open-mouthed”
⚠️ᴱQ. loimëa adj. “thirsty”; see instead:
Q. soica “thirsty”
ᴹQ. fauca “thirsty, parched, (lit.) open-mouthed”
⚠️ᴱQ. loirë (loiri-) adj. “thirsty”; see instead:
Q. soica “thirsty”
ᴹQ. fauca “thirsty, parched, (lit.) open-mouthed”
⚠️ᴱQ. loyo- v. “be thirsty (impers.)”; see instead:
Q. soica “thirsty”
Q. soica adj. “thirsty”

5.17 to Mix, Blend

ᴺQ. !hwinta- v. “to mix, stir; to confuse”
ᴹQ. hwinya- v. “to swirl, eddy, gyrate”
Q. #ostimë n. “blend”

5.21 to Cook

⚠️ᴺQ. !aptaina adj. “cooked, broiled”; see instead:
Q. apta- “to refuse, deny, say nay”
ᴺQ. maxa- “to cook”
⚠️ᴱQ. maswa adj. “soft, cooked, ripe”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. maxa- v. “to cook”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. maxar n. “cook”

5.24 to Bake

⚠️ᴱQ. mas- v. “to bake, cook”; see instead:
ᴹQ. masta- “to bake”
ᴹQ. masta- v. “to bake”
ᴺQ. !mastanwa adj. “baked”
⚠️ᴱQ. torina adj. “baked, done”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !mastanwa “baked”
⚠️ᴱQ. toro- v. “to bake”; see instead:
ᴹQ. masta- “to bake”

5.25 Oven

⚠️ᴱQ. torma n. “oven”; see instead:
ᴺQ. urna “oven”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. urna n. “oven”

5.26 Pot

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. calpa n. “water-vessel, bucket”
ᴹQ. tambë (tambi-) n. “pot”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tambin n. “cauldron”

5.31 Dish

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. venë n. “dish, [eating] vessel, ⚠️small boat”

5.33 Bowl

ᴺQ. !lanquinga n. “crossbow”
Q. nanwa² n. “a (large) bowl”
⚠️ᴱQ. salpa n. “bowl”; see instead:
ᴺQ. tolpo “bowl”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tolpo n. “bowl”

5.34 Jug, Pitcher

ᴹQ. capsa n. “case, vessel, *container”
ᴺQ. !helmolpë n. “skin-bottle, wine-skin”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. olpë n. “bottle”
⚠️ᴱQ. unquilla(r) n. “handle of jar; pothook”

5.35 Cup

Q. cilinyul n. “drinking-vessel (made of glass)”
ᴹQ. súlo (*súlu-) n. “goblet”
⚠️ᴹQ. sungwa n. “drinking-vessel”; see instead:
Q. yulma “cup, drinking vessel, drinking implement, goblet”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. ulma n. “flagon, *pitcher”
Q. yulma n. “cup, drinking vessel, drinking implement, goblet”
ᴺQ. !yulmon n. “chalice”

5.37 Spoon

ᴺQ. !calampa n. “spoon”

5.41 a Meal

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. mat (matt-) n. “meal, [ᴱQ.] meal time; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] food”

5.42 Breakfast

ᴺQ. !arinwat n. “breakfast, (lit.) morning-meal”

5.44 Dinner

ᴺQ. !sinyemat [þ] n. “evening meal”

5.45 Supper

ᴹQ. ahtumat n. “supper, *(lit.) maker’s meal”

5.51 Bread

ᴺQ. !alapulúna adj. “unleavened, unfermented”
Q. coimas (*coimass-) n. “life-bread, lembas”
⚠️ᴱQ. cornë n. “loaf”; see instead:
Q. masta “cake, loaf; ⚠️bread”
⚠️Q. lerembas n. “bread taken on leaving home (for a long journey)”; see instead:
Q. coimas “life-bread, lembas”
Q. #massa n. “bread”
Q. massánië n. “the Lady, breadgiver”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. masta n. “cake, loaf; ⚠️bread”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. mastacornë n. “loaf”

5.52 Cake

⚠️ᴱQ. corma n. “cake, lump”; see instead:
Q. masta “cake, loaf; ⚠️bread”

5.53 Dough

ᴺQ. !malma² n. “pulp, paste, mash, mush; dough, grume”
ᴹQ. maxë¹ n. “dough”
ᴺQ. !pulmaxë n. “leaven(ing), *yeast”

5.54 to Knead

ᴺQ. !maxata- v. “to knead”

5.55 Meal, Flour

Q. mulë n. “meal”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. mulma n. “fine flour”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. polë (poli-) n. “meal, grist, [ᴱQ.] oats, grain (unground kernels of oats, wheat, etc.)”; see instead:
Q. mulë “meal”
⚠️ᴱQ. polessë n. “porridge”
ᴹQ. porë (pori-) n. “flour, ⚠️meal”

5.56 to Grind

⚠️ᴱQ. mard(a)- v. “to grind, pulverize”; see instead:
ᴺQ. mul- “to grind, *pulverize”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. mul- v. “to grind, *pulverize”

5.57 Mill

⚠️ᴺQ. !mulmanen n. “mill”; see instead:
ᴺQ. mulmin “mill”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. mulmar n. “miller”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. mulmin n. “mill”
ᴺQ. !mulondo n. “millstone”

5.61 Meat

ᴹQ. apsa¹ n. “meat, cooked food”
⚠️ᴱQ. coisimatwa adj. “carnivorous”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cuimamatya “carnivorous, (lit.) animal-eating”
ᴺQ. !cuimamatya adj. “carnivorous, (lit.) animal-eating”
⚠️ᴹQ. maxë² n. “meat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. apsa¹ “meat, cooked food”
ᴹQ. maxë¹ “dough”
⚠️ᴱQ. mimbematwa adj. “carnivorous”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cuimamatya “carnivorous, (lit.) animal-eating”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tarquin(a) n. and adj. “salt meat; salted, dried, *(lit.) preserved”

5.612 Butcher (n)

ᴺQ. !cuimacir n. “butcher”

5.614 Fat, Grease

ᴹQ. lar n. “fat, richness, ⚠️riches”
ᴹQ. lárëa adj. “fat, rich”
ᴹQ. larma n. “(?pig-)fat, flesh”
ᴺQ. !larmëa adj. “fleshy, fatty”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. laru n. “grease, ⚠️fat”
⚠️ᴱQ. larucë adj. “fat, rich”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lárëa “fat, rich”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. larúva adj. “greasy”
⚠️ᴱQ. lisë (lihy-) n. “grease”; see instead:
ᴺQ. laru “grease, ⚠️fat”
⚠️ᴱQ. lisiva adj. “greasy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. larúva “greasy”
Q. lúvo adj. “greasy, fat”
⚠️ᴱQ. mangë¹ (mangi-) n. “grease”; see instead:
ᴺQ. laru “grease, ⚠️fat”
⚠️ᴱQ. piulë adj. “greasy, overfat; overfed, spoilt”; see instead:
ᴺQ. larúva “greasy”
⚠️ᴱQ. píwë n. “fatness, richness, goodness”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lar “fat, richness, ⚠️riches”
⚠️ᴱQ. silc(in)a adj. “rich, fat, glossy”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lárëa “fat, rich”
ᴺQ. oiwa “glossy”

5.64 Soup, Broth

ᴺQ. !salpa n. “broth”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sulpa n. “soup”

5.65 Vegetables

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. colosta n. “cucumber”
ᴺQ. !laimamatta adj. “vegetable food”
ᴺQ. !laimamatya adj. “herbivorous, vegetarian, (lit.) plant-eating”
⚠️ᴱQ. laucë (lauci-) n. “vegetable, plant (species)”; see instead:
Q. quëa “vegetable”
Q. laima “plant”
⚠️ᴱQ. lausimatl n. “vegetable food”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !laimamatta “vegetable food”
⚠️ᴱQ. lausimatwa adj. “vegetarian”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !laimamatya “herbivorous, vegetarian, (lit.) plant-eating”
⚠️ᴱQ. lautë (lausi-) n. “living thing, (esp.) vegetable”; see instead:
Q. quëa “vegetable”
Q. quëa n. “vegetable”
ᴺQ. !rassulca n. “carrot”
ᴺQ. !velyávë n. “Cucurbitaceae, the gourd family”

5.67 Pea

⚠️ᴱQ. mildi coll. “pease”

5.69 Cabbage

⚠️ᴱQ. calar n. “lettuce”

5.70 Potato

ᴺQ. !cemorva n. “potato(es)”

5.71 Fruit

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. aipio n. “cherry”
ᴹQ. culuma n. “orange [fruit]”
ᴺQ. !malma¹ n. “lemon”
⚠️ᴱQ. marinnë n. “fruit tree”
ᴺQ. !relyávalda n. “fig-tree”
ᴺQ. !relyávë n. “fig”
ᴺQ. !wenwa n. “lime (fruit)”
Q., ᴹQ. yávë n. “fruit”
ᴺQ. !yávelóra adj. “fruitless”
ᴺQ. !yávinqua adj. “fruitful”

5.72 Apple

⚠️ᴱQ. marin n. “(ripe) fruit, apple”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. orva n. “apple”

5.76 Grape

ᴺQ. !mirupio n. “grape, (lit.) wine-berry”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tiuma n. “grape”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !mirupio “grape, (lit.) wine-berry”

5.77 Nut

⚠️ᴱQ. cotë (cotsi-) n. “nut”
⚠️ᴱQ. cotsia adj. “nutty”
⚠️ᴱQ. cotsivoitë adj. “nut-bearing, nutty”
⚠️ᴱQ. cottulë n. “hazel”
⚠️ᴱQ. mavoisi n. “chestnut”
Q. #pecco n. “nut”

5.78 Olive

ᴺQ. !milpialda n. “olive tree”
ᴺQ. !milpio n. “olive, (lit.) oily-berry”
ᴺQ. !piemillo n. “olive oil”

5.79 Oil

Q. ?elp- v. “to anoint”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilma¹ n. “oil”; see instead:
ᴺQ. millo “oil”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilqua adj. “oily”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !milla “oily”
ᴹQ. laivë n. “ointment”
ᴺQ. !liv- v. “to anoint”
ᴺQ. !milla adj. “oily”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. millo (millu-) n. “oil”
⚠️ᴱQ. oinalis (oinaliss-) n. “ointment”; see instead:
ᴹQ. laivë “ointment”
⚠️ᴱQ. oinë n. “unguent”; see instead:
ᴹQ. laivë “ointment”
ᴺQ. !ondomillo (ondomillu-) n. “petrol, petroleum, gasoline, gas”

5.80 Berry

⚠️ᴱQ. melpo n. “gooseberry”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. pio n. “plum, berry, cherry”
⚠️ᴱQ. pi(o)pin n. “haws, fruit of hawthorns”
⚠️ᴱQ. piucca n. “blackberry”

5.81 Salt

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. singë (singi-) n. “salt”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. singwa adj. “salt, *salty”

5.84 Honey

⚠️ᴱQ. ilë n. “honey”; see instead:
Q. lís “honey, *sugar”
Q., ᴹQ. lís (liss-) n. “honey, *sugar”
⚠️Q. #melu n. “honey”; see instead:
Q. nehtë² “honey; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] honeycomb”
⚠️Q. melumatya adj. “honey-eating”; see instead:
Q. nehtë² “honey; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] honeycomb”
⚠️ᴱQ. nectë n. “honey”; see instead:
Q. nehtë² “honey; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] honeycomb”
⚠️ᴱQ. nectelë n. “honeycomb”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^nehtelë “honeycomb”
Q., ᴹQ. nehtë² n. “honey; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] honeycomb”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^nehtelë n. “honeycomb”

5.86 Milk

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. ilimba adj. “milky”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. ilin (ilim-) n. “milk”

5.88 Cheese

⚠️ᴱQ. tyur (tyurd-) n. “cheese”; see instead:
ᴺQ. tyurmë “cheese”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tyurmë n. “cheese”

5.89 Butter

⚠️ᴱQ. lis² (lisi-) n. “butter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mandya “butter”
Q. lís “honey, *sugar”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^mandya n. “butter”
⚠️ᴱQ. manya¹ n. “butter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mandya “butter”
⚠️ᴱQ. mingwë n. “butter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mandya “butter”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quirmë n. “cream”
⚠️ᴱQ. telpë² n. “butter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mandya “butter”
Q. telpë “silver; [ᴱQ.] money”
⚠️ᴱQ. úlë n. “butter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mandya “butter”

5.91 Mead

Q., ᴱQ. miruvórë n. “mead, nectar, special wine or cordial, drink of the Elves, (lit.) precious juice, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] sweet drink”

5.92 Wine

⚠️ᴱQ. io n. “wine”; see instead:
ᴺQ. miru “wine”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. limpë n. “wine, ⚠️drink of the Valar, [ᴱQ.] drink of the fairies, fairy-drink, elfwine”
ᴺQ. !limpevorma n. “wine-press”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. miru n. “wine”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. mirúva adj. “like wine, winy”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulmë n. “a kind of wine”; see instead:
ᴹQ. limpë “wine, ⚠️drink of the Valar, [ᴱQ.] drink of the fairies, fairy-drink, elfwine”

5.94 Juice

⚠️ᴹQ. apsa² n. “juice”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sáva “juice”
ᴹQ. apsa¹ “meat, cooked food”
⚠️ᴱQ. marc n. “ripe juice, sap, ooze, moisture”; see instead:
ᴹQ. pirya “juice, syrup, *sap”
⚠️ᴱQ. marqua adj. “oozy, juicy, moist”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !pirina “juicy, oozy”
⚠️ᴱQ. maru n. “pulp”
⚠️ᴱQ. pihyë n. “sap, juice”; see instead:
ᴹQ. pirya “juice, syrup, *sap”
ᴺQ. !pirina adj. “juicy, oozy”
ᴹQ. pirya n. “juice, syrup, *sap”
⚠️ᴹQ. pitë n. “juice”; see instead:
ᴹQ. pirya “juice, syrup, *sap”
⚠️ᴱQ. pulquë n. “juice”; see instead:
ᴹQ. pirya “juice, syrup, *sap”
ᴹQ. sáva n. “juice”
⚠️ᴱQ. vasa n. “juice”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sáva “juice”

5.999 Food (Other)

ᴺQ. !cacáva n. “cocoa”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. colucë n. “strainer”
ᴺQ. !culvelyávë n. “pumpkin”
ᴺQ. !sinapio n. “mustard”
ᴺQ. !tyávelassë n. “spice, (lit.) taste-leaf”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyé n. “tea”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !yullas “tea”
ᴺQ. !tyocolat n. “chocolate”
ᴺQ. !yullas (yullass-) n. “tea”

6. Clothing and Adornment

6.11 to Clothe, Dress

⚠️ᴺQ. !hap-¹ v. “to clothe, enfold”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vaita- “to enfold, [ᴱQ.] wrap”
ᴺQ. vaimata- “to robe, *clothe; to get dressed, put on clothing”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. vaimata- v. “to robe, *clothe; to get dressed, put on clothing”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. vaina² adj. “clad”

6.12 Clothes, Clothing

ᴺQ. !hampë n. “clothing, garment”
Q. #larma n. “raiment”

6.13 Tailor, Seamstress

Q. serindë [þ] n. “broideress, needlewoman, *seamstress”

6.21 Cloth

ᴹQ. lannë n. “tissue, cloth”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lapil n. “swathe, flowing cloth”
ᴹQ. talat n. “sheet”

6.22 Wool

⚠️ᴱQ. carpan n. “hank (of wool etc.)”
⚠️ᴱQ. oa n. “wool”; see instead:
ᴹQ. “wool”
⚠️ᴱQ. oallë n. “blanket”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^toallë “blanket”
⚠️ᴱQ. oara adj. “of wool”; see instead:
ᴹQ. toa “of wool, woollen”
ᴹQ. n. “wool”
⚠️ᴱQ. toa n. “wool”; see instead:
ᴹQ. “wool”
ᴹQ. toa adj. “of wool, woollen”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^toallë n. “blanket”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^tuë n. “fleece”
⚠️ᴱQ. ue n. “fleece”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^tuë “fleece”

6.23 Flax, Linen

ᴺQ. !pásë [þ] n. “linen”
ᴺQ. !páselannë [þ] n. “linen-cloth”
ᴺQ. !páselarma [þ] n. “linen-raiment”

6.25 Silk

⚠️ᴱQ. samin (samind-) n. “silk”
⚠️ᴱQ. saminda adj. “silken”

6.26 Lace

Q. raiwë n. “lace”

6.28 Fur

⚠️ᴱQ. fara n. “fur, fell”
ᴺQ. !helet (helets-) n. “fur, fur-coat”
⚠️ᴱQ. vórë (vóri-) n. “fur”
⚠️ᴱQ. vórina adj. “of fur”
⚠️ᴱQ. vóriva adj. “like fur”

6.29 Leather

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. alu n. “(dressed) leather”
ᴺQ. !alumo n. “leather-worker”
ᴹQ. latta² n. “strap”
⚠️ᴱQ. límen n. “thong, band”; see instead:
ᴹQ. latta² “strap”

6.31 to Spin

⚠️ᴱQ. piri- v. “to spin, turn”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quirna- “to stir, make spin”
⚠️ᴱQ. quiri-¹ v. “to stir (make spin)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quirna- “to stir, make spin”
ᴺQ. !quirilda adj. “twirling, pirouetting”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quirna- v. “to stir, make spin”
⚠️ᴱQ. werelinda adj. “twirling, pirouetting”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !quirilda “twirling, pirouetting”

6.32 Spindle

⚠️ᴱQ. quindl n. “a spindle, top”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !quiril “spindle; [spinning] top, *whirligig”
ᴺQ. !quiril n. “spindle; [spinning] top, *whirligig”
⚠️ᴱQ. werelin (werelind-) n. “whirligig”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !quiril “spindle; [spinning] top, *whirligig”

6.33 to Weave

⚠️ᴱQ. #canga- v. “to weave, spin”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lanya- “to weave”
ᴹQ. lanat n. “weft, woof”
ᴺQ. !lanina adj. “woven”
ᴹQ. lanya- v. “to weave”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quint n. “loop, stitch for knitting”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^quit- v. “to knit”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quitima adj. “for knitting”
⚠️ᴱQ. quity- v. “to knit”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^quit- “to knit”
⚠️ᴺQ. !vírina adj. “woven”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lanina “woven”
⚠️Q. were- v. “to weave”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lanya- “to weave”
⚠️ᴱQ. winda n. “woof”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lanat “weft, woof”
⚠️ᴱQ. wistë n. “weft”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lanat “weft, woof”

6.34 Loom

ᴹQ. lanwa n. “loom”
⚠️ᴱQ. tantl n. “shuttle”
⚠️ᴱQ. windelë n. “loom”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lanwa “loom”

6.35 to Sew

ᴺQ. !lilma n. “patch”
⚠️ᴱQ. neme- v. “to sew”; see instead:
Q. #ser- “*to sew”
Q. #ser- [þ] v. “*to sew”

6.36 Needle

ᴺQ. !leppa n. “thimble”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. nelma n. “needle”

6.38 Thread

Q. ipsin n. “fine thread”
Q. #lanya n. “thread, warp, twine”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lia n. “fine thread, spider filament; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] twine”
⚠️ᴱQ. nemba n. “thread”; see instead:
Q. ipsin “fine thread”
⚠️ᴱQ. tendl n. “string”; see instead:
ᴺQ. serma “string, ⚠️cord”

6.41 Cloak

⚠️ᴱQ. carapë n. “cloak, outer garment”
Q. collo n. “cloak”

6.412 Overcoat

⚠️ᴱQ. vailë n. “covering”; see instead:
Q. vailë “[strong] wind, *gale”
ᴹQ. telmë “hood, covering”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. vaima n. “wrap, robe”

6.43 Coat

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. vacco n. “jacket, coat”

6.44 Shirt

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. laupë n. “tunic, shirt”

6.47 Apron

ᴺQ. !quiltalannë n. “apron”

6.51 Shoe

⚠️ᴱQ. hyapa n. “shoe”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hyapat “shoe”
ᴹQ. hyapat n. “shoe”

6.52 Boot

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. saipo n. “boot”

6.53 Slipper

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. patinca n. “slipper, ⚠️shoe”

6.55 Hat, Cap

ᴺQ. !carpë n. “hat”
Q. ría n. “garland, wreath”
Q., ᴹQ. rië¹ n. “garland, [ᴹQ.] crown”
Q. ríma n. “fillet, snood, *hairnet”
Q., ᴹQ. rína adj. “garlanded, crowned”
ᴺQ. !sarnunta [þ] n. “diadem”
⚠️ᴱQ. serin (serind-) n. “wreath, crown”; see instead:
Q. rië¹ “garland, [ᴹQ.] crown”
⚠️ᴱQ. táta n. “hat”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !carpë “hat”

6.57 Belt, Girdle

Q. #lesta n. “*girdle, belt”
⚠️ᴱQ. qualta adj. “girdled, girt”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !quiltaina “girdled, girt”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quilta n. “belt, ⚠️girdle”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^quilta- v. “to gird, encircle”
ᴺQ. !quiltaina adj. “girdled, girt”
⚠️ᴱQ. quilti- v. “to gird, encircle”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^quilta- “to gird, encircle”

6.58 Glove

⚠️ᴱQ. mantelë n. “gauntlet”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^mantil n. “glove”
⚠️ᴱQ. mantl n. “glove”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mantil “glove”

6.63 Pin, Brooch

⚠️ᴱQ. piec (piecc-) n. “pin”
⚠️ᴱQ. piexin n. “brooch”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. pirin (pirind-) n. “thin rod, pin”
Q. tancal(a) n. “brooch, clasp”
⚠️ᴹQ. tancil n. “brooch, clasp, pin; fastener”; see instead:
Q. tancal(a) “brooch, clasp”
ᴹQ. tangwa n. “hasp, clasp”

6.71 Adornment (personal)

Q. carrëa n. “tressure”
Q. netil n. “trinket, (?small thing) of personal adornment”
Q. netya- v. “to trim, adorn”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quilin adj. “adorned, bright-coloured, embroidered”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quilinoitë adj. “broidered”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quiltassë n. “(em)broidery”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quilya- v. “to adorn, embellish, colour”

6.72 Gem, Jewel

ᴺQ. !culmírë n. “jasper, (lit.) orange-jewel”
ᴺQ. !eässar (eässarn-) n. “pearl, (lit.) sea-pebble/stone”
ᴺQ. !fanorcarnë n. “sardonyx”
ᴺQ. !laimaril n. “emerald”
⚠️ᴺQ. !laiquaril n. “emerald”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !laimaril “emerald”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^luilë n. “blue stone, sapphire”
⚠️ᴱQ. lúlë n. “blue stone, sapphire”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^luilë “blue stone, sapphire”
⚠️ᴱQ. lúlëa adj. “sapphirine”
ᴺQ. !malatsar (malatsard-) n. “chrysolite”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. malicon n. “amber”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. malicondëa adj. “of amber”
⚠️ᴱQ. marilla n. “pearl”
Q., ᴹQ. mírë n. and adj. “jewel, gem, precious thing, treasure; precious”
Q. mírëa adj. “jewelled, *gemmed”
ᴹQ. miril (mirill-) n. “shining jewel”
ᴺQ. !nambírë n. “jasper, (lit.) orange-jewel”
⚠️ᴱQ. nindon (nindond-) n. “lapis lazuli”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. nyelecca n. “onyx”
ᴺQ. !orvamir n. “chrysoprase, (lit.) apple-jewel”
ᴺQ. !ostimmir n. “topaz, (lit.) blend-jewel”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. [ᴱQ.] ^sincë (sinci-) n. “mineral, ⚠️gem, metal”
ᴺQ. !sinilë n. “agate”
⚠️ᴱQ. sinquë n. “jewel, gem”; see instead:
Q. mírë “jewel, gem, precious thing, treasure; precious”
⚠️ᴱQ. sinque?? adj. “sparkle as with gems”
⚠️ᴱQ. sinquevoitë adj. “gemmed”; see instead:
Q. mírëa “jewelled, *gemmed”
ᴺQ. !tinwírë n. “sparkling gem, diamond”

6.73 Finger Ring

⚠️ᴹQ. colma n. “ring (?on finger)”; see instead:
Q. #corma “ring”
Q. #corma n. “ring”
⚠️Q. #millë n. “?ring”; see instead:
Q. #corma “ring”

6.75 Necklace

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. firinga n. “carcanet, necklace”

6.91 Comb

ᴹQ. hat (haht-) n. “comb, ridge”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. pequ- v. “to comb, card wool, tease”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. pequen n. “comb”

6.95 Soap

ᴹQ. lipsa n. “soap”
ᴺQ. !lipsanë n. “lather”
⚠️ᴱQ. ‽poimë (poimi-) n. “soap”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lipsa “soap”

6.96 Mirror

Q. angal n. “mirror”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ceniril(lë) n. “mirror”; see instead:
Q. cilintilla “looking-glass, *mirror”
Q. cilintilla n. “looking-glass, *mirror”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nalma [ñ] n. “reflector, mirror”; see instead:
Q. angal “mirror”

6.999 Adornment (other)

ᴺQ. !antolatta n. “bridle, (lit.) mouth-strap”
ᴹQ. atsa² n. “tassel, fryse, fringe”
⚠️ᴱQ. enyarin n. “device, escutcheon, blazon”; see instead:
ᴹQ. aulë “invention”
⚠️ᴱQ. fatsalë n. “(tasseled) fringe”
⚠️ᴱQ. fatsevoitë adj. “tasseled”
⚠️ᴱQ. quinquenna n. “Solomon’s-seal”
ᴺQ. !tarolwen n. “sceptre, (lit.) royal branch”

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.11 to Live, Dwell

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. laulema adj. “inhabiting”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. laulemo n. “inhabitant”
⚠️ᴱQ. manda- v. “to dwell, remain”; see instead:
Q. mar- “to abide, be settled or fixed, [ᴱQ.] dwell, live”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. mar- v. “to abide, be settled or fixed, [ᴱQ.] dwell, live”
⚠️ᴱQ. mardo n. “dweller”
ᴺQ. !marindo n. “settler”
⚠️ᴱQ. wasta- v. “to dwell”; see instead:
Q. mar- “to abide, be settled or fixed, [ᴱQ.] dwell, live”

7.12 House

ᴹQ. car¹ (card-) n. “building, house”
Q. coa n. “house; outhouse, shed, hut, booth; building used for a dwelling or other purposes; †body”
ᴺQ. !coantur n. “householder, master of the house”
⚠️ᴱQ. indo n. “house”; see instead:
Q. mar(da) “house, dwelling, residence, mansion, a thing or place dwelt in, ⚠️home; [ᴱQ.] world”
Q. indo “(state of) mind, (inner) thought, mood; will, resolve; [ᴹQ.] heart”
⚠️ᴱQ. indor n. “master of house”; see instead:
Q. heru “lord, master”
Q., ᴱQ. mar(da) (mard-) n. “house, dwelling, residence, mansion, a thing or place dwelt in, ⚠️home; [ᴱQ.] world”
Q. martan (martam-) n. “dwelling-house”
⚠️ᴱQ. os (ost-) n. “cottage, house”; see instead:
Q. coa “house; outhouse, shed, hut, booth; building used for a dwelling or other purposes; †body”
⚠️ᴱQ. san² (samb-) n. “hall, dwelling house”; see instead:
Q. martan “dwelling-house”

7.122 Home

ᴺQ. !avamarwa adj. “homeless”
⚠️ᴱQ. caimë n. “dwelling, home”; see instead:
Q. már “home, dwelling, habitation; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] house; earth”
⚠️ᴱQ. indoitë adj. “indoors, at home, homely, domestic”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !mardaitë “indoors, at home, homely, domestic”
⚠️ᴱQ. indolis n. “domicile”
⚠️ᴱQ. indositsina adj. “domestic(ated)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. már (mar-) n. “home, dwelling, habitation; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] house; earth”
ᴺQ. !mardaitë adj. “indoors, at home, homely, domestic”
ᴹQ. mar(dar) adv. “homewards”
ᴹQ. marrë adv. “at home”
⚠️ᴹQ. marta² n. “home”; see instead:
Q. mar(da) “house, dwelling, residence, mansion, a thing or place dwelt in, ⚠️home; [ᴱQ.] world”
Q. mélamar n. “(emotional) home”
⚠️ᴱQ. osta n. “homestead”

7.14 Tent

ᴺQ. !estolië n. “camp”
ᴺQ. !lancoa n. “tent, (lit.) cloth house”

7.15 Yard, Court

ᴺQ. !lietarwa n. “park, (lit.) people-garden”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. palis n. “sward, green, lawn”
⚠️ᴺQ. !paswa n. “sward”; see instead:
ᴺQ. palis “sward, green, lawn”

7.21 Room

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. caimasan (caimasamb-) [þ] n. “bedchamber”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. sambë [þ] n. “room, chamber”
Q. solma² n. “hall”

7.22 Door, Gate

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ando n. “gate, (great) door; †entrances, approaches”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. andon (andond-) n. “great gate, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] door, gate”
ᴺQ. !andosan (andosamb-) [þ] n. “vestibule, (lit.) gate room”
ᴹQ. fenda n. “threshold”
ᴺQ. !fendassë n. “doorway, gateway”
Q. fendë n. “door”
ᴺQ. !fennatir n. “door-watcher”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lat n. “flap, small hinged door, lid”
⚠️ᴱQ. pondo n. “gate”; see instead:
Q. ando “gate, (great) door; †entrances, approaches”
⚠️ᴱQ. posta n. “door”; see instead:
Q. fendë “door”
⚠️ᴱQ. #tarnon n. “door”; see instead:
Q. fendë “door”
Q. ando “gate, (great) door; †entrances, approaches”

7.24 Key

ᴺQ. !latil n. “key”
⚠️ᴺQ. !patil n. “key”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !latil “key”

7.25 Window

⚠️ᴺQ. !hendelë n. “window”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lattin “window”
⚠️ᴺQ. !henet (henets-) n. “window”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lattin “window”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lattin n. “window”

7.26 Floor

ᴺQ. !ettalan n. “balcony”
Q., ᴹQ. talan (talam-) n. “flat space, platform; [ᴹQ.] floor, ground”
⚠️Q. talma² n. “flat space, platform”; see instead:
Q. talan “flat space, platform; [ᴹQ.] floor, ground”

7.27 Wall

⚠️ᴱQ. ossa n. “wall and moat”
Q., ᴹQ. ramba n. “wall”

7.28 Roof

ᴹQ. coromindo n. “cupola, dome”
Q., ᴹQ. rondo¹ n. “vaulted or arched roof, vaulted hall; [ᴹQ.] cavern, ⚠️cave”
⚠️ᴱQ. tel (teld-) n. “roof”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tópa “roof”
⚠️ᴱQ. telda adj. “having a roof”; see instead:
Q. telda “last, final”
⚠️ᴱQ. telëa adj. “*roofed”
⚠️ᴱQ. telin (telimb-) n. “roof, covering”; see instead:
ᴹQ. telmë “hood, covering”
⚠️ᴱQ. telintulë (telintuli-) adj. “bearing a roof, roofed”
Q. telluma n. “dome, cupola, vault”
⚠️ᴱQ. teltassë n. “awning”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. telumë n. “roof, canopy; heaven, sky; [ᴹQ.] vault, dome (of heaven), [ᴱQ.] firmament”
ᴹQ. telumet (telumett-) n. “canopy”
ᴹQ. tópa n. “roof”
ᴹQ. tópa- v. “to roof”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. túpelë n. “roofing, tiles, ⚠️roof”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tupin adj. “roofed, having a lid, having hat on”
ᴹQ. tupsë n. “thatch”

7.29 House (other)

ᴹQ. ampano n. “building (especially of wood), wooden hall, construction, edifice”
⚠️ᴺQ. !arcoa n. “palace, (lit.) noble-house”; see instead:
ᴺQ. túrion “palace”
ᴹQ. ataquë n. “construction, building”
ᴺQ. !aucelië n. “sewer, (lit.) away-flowing”
⚠️ᴺQ. !autamar (autamard-) n. “museum, (lit.) hall of the past”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !vanwamar “museum, (lit.) hall of the past”
ᴺQ. !combemen n. “museum”
ᴺQ. !látacar n. “pub, public house, (lit.) open-house”
⚠️ᴱQ. turindo n. “palace”; see instead:
ᴺQ. túrion “palace”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. túrion (túriond-) n. “palace”
ᴺQ. !vanwamar (vanwamard-) n. “museum, (lit.) hall of the past”

7.31 Hearth, Fireplace

⚠️ᴱQ. arin n. “hearth”; see instead:
Q. ruimen “fireplace, hearth”
⚠️ᴱQ. arinya adj. “fireside”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !ruimenya “fireside”
ᴹQ. arinya “morning, early”
⚠️ᴱQ. purin (purind-) n. “hearth”; see instead:
Q. ruimen “fireplace, hearth”
Q. ruimen n. “fireplace, hearth”
ᴺQ. !ruimenya adj. “fireside”

7.32 Stove

ᴺQ. !mastasan (mastasamb-) [þ] n. “kitchen”

7.412 Furniture (other)

⚠️ᴱQ. anc (anqu-) n. “loop, handle, ring”
ᴹQ. farma n. “?carpet”
ᴺQ. !palusta n. “shelf, bookshelf”
Q. rantala [þ] n. “ladder”
Q. tolma n. “protuberance contrived to serve a purpose, knob, short rounded handle”
Q. tyellë n. “grade, order, step (in a stairway or ladder)”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tyellesta n. “ladder”; see instead:
Q. rantala “ladder”

7.42 Bed

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. caima n. “bed, [ᴱQ.] couch”
⚠️ᴱQ. camba n. “bed”; see instead:
ᴹQ. caima “bed, [ᴱQ.] couch”
ᴹQ. nirwa n. “bolster, cushion”
ᴹQ. quesset (*quessec-) n. “pillow”

7.43 Chair

⚠️ᴺQ. !hamba n. “seat”; see instead:
Q. hanwa “seat, *chair”
⚠️ᴹQ. hamma n. “chair”; see instead:
Q. hanwa “seat, *chair”
⚠️ᴹQ. handa² n. “chair”; see instead:
Q. hanwa “seat, *chair”
Q. hanwa n. “seat, *chair”
Q. mahalma n. “throne”
ᴺQ. !sarassë [þ] n. “hassock, footstool”
⚠️ᴱQ. sonda n. “seat, chair”; see instead:
Q. hanwa “seat, *chair”
⚠️ᴱQ. sóra¹ n. “seat”; see instead:
Q. hanwa “seat, *chair”
⚠️ᴱQ. sorin (sorind-) n. “throne”; see instead:
Q. tarhanwa “throne, (lit.) high seat”
Q. tarhanwa n. “throne, (lit.) high seat”
⚠️ᴱQ. tult (tulp-) n. “leg of chair, etc.”; see instead:
Q. telco “leg; stem (of a tengwa symbol)”

7.44 Table

⚠️ᴱQ. palasar (palasard-) n. “great table”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^paluhta “table”
⚠️ᴱQ. palucta n. “table”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^paluhta “table”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^paluhta n. “table”
⚠️ᴱQ. palumë n. “plain”; see instead:
ᴹQ. palar “plain, flat field, ‘wang’”
⚠️ᴱQ. sarno n. “table”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^paluhta “table”

7.45 Lamp

Q. calar n. “lamp”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. calma n. “lamp, (device for shining) light, [ᴱQ.] ⚠️candle; (day)light”
Q. calmatan n. “lampwright”
ᴺQ. !calmatarma n. “lampstand”
⚠️ᴱQ. calumë n. “an (artificial) light”; see instead:
Q. calma “lamp, (device for shining) light, [ᴱQ.] ⚠️candle; (day)light”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. calumet (calumett-) n. “lamp”; see instead:
Q. calma “lamp, (device for shining) light, [ᴱQ.] ⚠️candle; (day)light”

7.46 Candle

⚠️ᴱQ. catinca n. “candle”; see instead:
Q. lícuma “taper, candle”
Q. líco (lícu-) n. “wax”
Q. lícuma n. “taper, candle”
ᴺQ. !lihta n. “seal”
ᴺQ. !lihta- v. “to seal”
ᴺQ. !lihtaina adj. “sealed”
Q. loicolícuma n. “corpse-candle”
⚠️ᴱQ. neitë n. “wax”; see instead:
Q. líco “wax”
ᴺQ. !urulanya n. “wick, (lit.) fire-thread”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.11 Farmer

ᴺQ. !alamo n. “cultivator, grower”
ᴺQ. !cemendur n. “farmer”

8.12 Field for Cultivation

⚠️ᴱQ. arwa n. “field”; see instead:
Q. resta “sown field, tilled ground, acre; *fair”
⚠️ᴱQ. milnar(wa) n. “sown field”; see instead:
Q. resta “sown field, tilled ground, acre; *fair”
⚠️ᴱQ. pingwa adj. “fat, rich (of soil)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lárëa “fat, rich”
Q., ᴹQ. resta n. “sown field, tilled ground, acre; *fair”

8.13 Garden, Orchard

⚠️ᴱQ. laucien (lauciend-) n. “vegetable or kitchen garden”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !quëatarwa “vegetable or kitchen garden”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. !lotarwa n. “[flower] garden”
ᴺQ. !quëatarwa n. “vegetable or kitchen garden”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tarwa n. “garden, enclosure”
ᴺQ. !tarwandur n. “gardener”

8.14 Barn

ᴺQ. !salquecolca n. “manger, (lit.) grass-box”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tumpo n. “shed, barn”

8.212 Furrow (n)

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. ríma n. “line of seeds planted, row, series, furrow”

8.22 to Dig, Delve

⚠️ᴱQ. cava- v. “to dig”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sap- “to dig”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilt n. “a dig or stab”
ᴺQ. !rosta- v. “to hollow out, excavate”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ., ᴱQ. sap- v. “to dig”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^sappa adj. “hollow, dug-out, excavated”
⚠️ᴱQ. satwa adj. “hollow, dug-out, excavated”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^sappa “hollow, dug-out, excavated”

8.23 Spade (n)

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sampa n. “spade, *shovel”

8.29 Blade, Share

⚠️ᴱQ. hyanda¹ n. “blade, share”; see instead:
Q. #hyando “cleaver, [ᴹQ.] hewer (sword)”
Q. maica² n. “blade of a cutting tool or weapon (especially sword-blade)”
⚠️ᴱQ. valcë (valci-) n. “edge, sharp blade”; see instead:
Q. maica² “blade of a cutting tool or weapon (especially sword-blade)”

8.30 Plough

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. hyar n. “plough”

8.31 to Sow; Seed

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ala-¹ v. “to plant, grow (of plants); *to thrive, flourish”
Q., ᴹQ. erdë n. “singularity; [ᴹQ.] seed, germ”
ᴺQ. !erdevainë n. “seed pod, pea”
ᴺQ. !laréra adj. “fallow, (lit.) not sown”
⚠️ᴱQ. milë (mili-) n. “seed”; see instead:
Q. erdë “singularity; [ᴹQ.] seed, germ”
⚠️ᴱQ. milin n. “grain of seed”; see instead:
Q. erdë “singularity; [ᴹQ.] seed, germ”
⚠️ᴱQ. orë (ori-) n. “seed, grain”; see instead:
Q. erdë “singularity; [ᴹQ.] seed, germ”
⚠️ᴱQ. orivainë n. “pod, seed pod, pea; peapod (a boat)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !erdevainë “seed pod, pea”
⚠️ᴱQ. orya- v. “to sow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #rer- “to sow”
Q. orya-¹ “to rise”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. polu n. “kernel”
ᴹQ. #rer- v. “to sow”
ᴺQ. !réra adj. “sown”
ᴺQ. !rerindo n. “sower”
⚠️ᴱQ. rista- v. “to plant”; see instead:
Q. ala-¹ “to plant, grow (of plants); *to thrive, flourish”
ᴹQ. rista- “to cut”
⚠️ᴱQ. ristalë n. “sowing time”
⚠️ᴱQ. ristar n. “sower”

8.32 to Mow, Reap

⚠️ᴺQ. !cer- v. “reap”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cirihta- “to reap, harvest”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cerihtando n. “reaper”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cirihtando “reaper”
ᴺQ. !cirihta- v. “to reap, harvest”
ᴺQ. !cirihtando n. “reaper”
⚠️ᴱQ. hyanda- v. “to mow, cleave”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hyar- “to cleave; [ᴱQ.] to plough”
ᴺQ. ^salca- “to mow, scythe, mow down”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^salca- n. “to mow, scythe, mow down”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^salcima adj. “ready for cutting, *harvestable”
⚠️ᴱQ. silci- v. “to mow, scythe, mow down”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^salca- “to mow, scythe, mow down”
⚠️ᴱQ. silcima adj. “ready for cutting”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^salcima “ready for cutting, *harvestable”

8.33 Scythe, Sickle

⚠️ᴱQ. calca n. “sickle”; see instead:
Q. circa “sickle”
Q., ᴹQ. circa n. “sickle”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. salca n. “scythe”

8.41 Crop, Harvest

⚠️ᴺQ. !cermië n. “harvest”; see instead:
Q. yávië “autumn, harvest [time or act]”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^salcessë n. “harvest [product], *produce”
⚠️ᴱQ. silcessë n. “harvest”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^salcessë “harvest [product], *produce”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. yausta n. “crop”
⚠️ᴱQ. yáva n. “fruit, produce”; see instead:
Q. yávë “fruit”
⚠️ᴱQ. yávan n. “harvest, autumn”; see instead:
Q. yávië “autumn, harvest [time or act]”
Q. yávië n. “autumn, harvest [time or act]”

8.42 Grain (generic, British Corn)

ᴺQ. !máhis n. “maize, either sweet corn or field corn”
ᴺQ. !ospor n. “chaff”
ᴺQ. !porisalquë n. “corn, (lit.) flour-grass”

8.44 Barley

ᴺQ. !findorë n. “barley”

8.46 Oats

⚠️ᴱQ. polenta n. “oatmeal”
⚠️ᴱQ. polina adj. “oaten”

8.51 Grass

⚠️ᴱQ. fen (feng-) n. “reed”; see instead:
ᴹQ. liscë “reed, [ᴱQ.] sedge”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. liscë n. “reed, [ᴱQ.] sedge”
ᴹQ. n. “reed, grass-stem”
⚠️ᴱQ. salcë (salci-) n. “grass”; see instead:
ᴹQ. salquë “grass, [ᴱQ.] long mowing grass”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. salquë n. “grass, [ᴱQ.] long mowing grass”
ᴹQ. sara [þ] n. “stiff dry grass, bent [as a type of grass]”
Q. súriquessë n. “species of grass, (lit.) wind feather”

8.52 Hay

⚠️ᴱQ. nessë n. “(green) fodder, herb, grass”

8.53 Plant, Herb

Q. laima n. “plant”
Q. laiquë n. “herb”
Q. #olva n. “growing things with roots in the earth, *plant”

8.54 Root

⚠️ᴱQ. mólë n. “root”; see instead:
Q. sundo “base, root, [ᴹQ.] root-word”
ᴹQ. sulca “root (especially as edible)”
ᴺQ. mólë “labour, work”
ᴹQ. sulca n. “root (especially as edible)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tarca n. “root”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sulca “root (especially as edible)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tarcelë n. “great system of roots”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sulca “root (especially as edible)”
ᴹQ. turut n. “tree-stem”

8.55 Branch

ᴺQ. !nessornë n. “sapling”
Q. olba n. “branch”
⚠️ᴹQ. olwa n. “branch”; see instead:
Q. olba “branch”
⚠️ᴱQ. olwe(n) n. “branch, wand, stick”; see instead:
Q. olba “branch”
⚠️ᴱQ. rista n. “shoot (sowing), plant, seedling”; see instead:
ᴺQ. tuista “twig, shoot, ⚠️sprout, spray”
Q. rista “[ᴹQ.] cut”
⚠️ᴱQ. siripta n. “slender stem”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sirpë “stalk, slender tube, ⚠️stem, etc.”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sirpë [þ] n. “stalk, slender tube, ⚠️stem, etc.”
⚠️ᴱQ. tetsë n. “bud”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tuima “sprout, bud”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tuista n. “twig, shoot, ⚠️sprout, spray”

8.56 Leaf

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lassë n. “leaf; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] petal”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lassëa adj. “with leaves, leafy”
ᴹQ. lassecanta adj. “leaf-shaped”
Q. lillassëa adj. “having many leaves”
Q. olass(i)ë n. “foliage, collection of leaves”
⚠️ᴱQ. pat (papt-) n. “small leaf”; see instead:
Q. lassë “leaf; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] petal”

8.565 Thorn

⚠️ᴱQ. eccë (ecci-) n. “thorn”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ecco “spine, point, thorn”
⚠️ᴱQ. eccia adj. “thorny”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^eccoia “thorny”
ᴹQ. ecco n. “spine, point, thorn”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^eccoia adj. “thorny”
⚠️ᴱQ. ehta¹ n. “thorn”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ecco “spine, point, thorn”
ᴹQ. erca n. “prickle, spine”
ᴹQ. nassë n. “thorn, spike”
Q. necel n. “thorn”

8.57 Flower

⚠️Q. alba n. “flower”; see instead:
Q. alma “flower”
Q. alma n. “flower”
Q. lilótëa adj. “having many flowers”
⚠️ᴱQ. loctë (loxi-) n. “blossom, (flower) cluster, bunch”; see instead:
Q. lótë “flower, single blossom, [ᴱQ.] bloom”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lótë n. “flower, single blossom, [ᴱQ.] bloom”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lotella n. “floret”
⚠️ᴱQ. lótequilna adj. “broidered with flowers”
Q. lotsë n. “small (single) flower”
⚠️ᴱQ. meril n. “flowers”; see instead:
Q. lótë “flower, single blossom, [ᴱQ.] bloom”
⚠️ᴱQ. tetl n. “small flower”; see instead:
Q. lotsë “small (single) flower”

8.571 Bloom

⚠️Q. alalbë n. “inflorescence”; see instead:
Q. alalmë “inflorescence”
Q. alalmë n. “inflorescence”
Q. lós [þ] n. “inflorescense, mass of flowers”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lossë² n. “[ᴹQ.] (white) blossom, flower; [ᴱQ.] (white) flower; [Q.] inflorescence (of white flowers); ⚠️[ᴱQ.] rose”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lótëa adj. “full of blossom, *blooming, flowering”
⚠️ᴱQ. lotórë n. “blooming, flowering, best time, flower”
Q. olos¹ (olós-) [þ] n. “inflorescense, mass of flowers (on one plant)”
Q. olótë n. “bloom, the flowers collectively of a single plant”
⚠️ᴺQ. !olotsë n. “collection of flowers”; see instead:
Q. alalmë “inflorescence”
Q. olos¹ “inflorescense, mass of flowers (on one plant)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tettelë n. “burgeoning, efflorescence”; see instead:
Q. alalmë “inflorescence”

8.572 to Sprout, Bud, Blossom

⚠️ᴱQ. locta- v. “to sprout, bud, put forth leaves or flowers”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tuilu- “to bud, open (of flowers and leaves)”
Q. losta- v. “to bloom”
⚠️ᴱQ. lóto- v. “to bloom”; see instead:
Q. losta- “to bloom”
ᴹQ. tuia- v. “to sprout, spring”
ᴹQ. tuilu- v. “to bud, open (of flowers and leaves)”
ᴹQ. tuima n. “sprout, bud”
⚠️ᴱQ. tuita- v. “to bud, burst, burgeon, grow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tuilu- “to bud, open (of flowers and leaves)”

8.575 Lily

⚠️ᴱQ. ailinon n. “water lily”; see instead:
Q. indil “lily, other large single flower”
ᴺQ. !helissar n. “hyacinth”
ᴺQ. !iasintë n. “hyacinth”
Q. indil n. “lily, other large single flower”
Q. linquë¹ n. “(leaf of a) hyacinth”
ᴺQ. !linquemir n. “hyacinth”
⚠️ᴱQ. narwë¹ n. “(sweet) lily”; see instead:
Q. indil “lily, other large single flower”
⚠️ᴱQ. nénu n. “yellow water lily”; see instead:
Q. indil “lily, other large single flower”
⚠️ᴱQ. nénuvar n. “pool of lilies”
⚠️ᴱQ. quiquilla n. “Lily of the Valley”; see instead:
Q. indil “lily, other large single flower”

8.58 Rose

⚠️ᴱQ. campilossë n. “wild-rose”
⚠️ᴱQ. campin n. “hips, (wild-rose) berries”
ᴺQ. !merillë n. “rose”

8.59 Violet

⚠️ᴱQ. helin n. “pansy, violet”
⚠️ᴱQ. helinillë n. “violet”
⚠️ᴱQ. helinillëa adj. “*violet”
⚠️ᴱQ. helinwa adj. “of pansies; (of colour) a blue-violet”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helwa “(pale) blue”

8.599 Flower (other)

⚠️ᴱQ. camillo n. “large poppy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lórelot “poppy, (lit.) flower of sleep”
⚠️ᴱQ. camilot n. “red clover”
⚠️ᴱQ. cancale-malina n. “daffodil, *(lit.) yellow laughter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^lalië-malina “daffodil, *(lit.) yellow laughter”
⚠️ᴱQ. fumella n. “(red) poppy, (lit.) flower of sleep”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lórelot “poppy, (lit.) flower of sleep”
ᴺQ. !lairemírë n. “daisy, (lit.) meadow-jewel *(or summer-jewel)”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^lalië-malina n. “daffodil, *(lit.) yellow laughter”
Q., ᴹQ. lávar n. “(golden) blossom”
ᴺQ. !lórelot n. “poppy, (lit.) flower of sleep”
ᴺQ. !luinyellë n. “bluebell”
ᴹQ. malo¹ (malu-) n. “pollen, yellow powder”
ᴹQ. nil (nild-) n. “blue-bell, harebell”
Q. pirindë n. “flower that opened and shut quickly with any change of light”
⚠️ᴱQ. quillë¹ (quilli-) n. “blue-bell”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nil “blue-bell, harebell”
⚠️ᴱQ. quillinin (quillinind-) n. “blue-bell”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nil “blue-bell, harebell”
ᴺQ. !súriellë n. “windflower, anemone”

8.60 Tree (generic)

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. alda n. “tree, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] branch”
Q. aldarembina adj. “tree-meshed”
ᴹQ. aldarwa adj. “having trees, tree-grown”
⚠️ᴱQ. aldëa adj. “tree-shadowed”; see instead:
Q. Aldëa “*Tuesday, Tree-day (Númenórean)”
Q. aldinga n. “tree-top”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ornë n. “(tall) tree, [ᴹQ.] high isolated tree”
⚠️ᴱQ. taulë¹ n. “great tree”; see instead:
Q. táva “great tree”
Q. táva n. “great tree”

8.61 Oak

ᴹQ. lindornëa adj. “having many oak-trees”
⚠️ᴱQ. nor (norn-) n. “oak”; see instead:
Q. norno “oak”
⚠️Q. nordo n. “oak”; see instead:
Q. norno “oak”
⚠️ᴱQ. nornë n. “oak (tree), oak in general”; see instead:
Q. norno “oak”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #nornëa adj. “*of oak”
⚠️ᴱQ. nornelassëa adj. “having oak-leaves”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^nornolassëa “having oak-leaves”
Q., ᴹQ. norno n. “oak”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^nornolassëa adj. “having oak-leaves”
⚠️ᴱQ. oromë n. “oak”

8.62 Beech

ᴹQ. ferinya adj. “beechen”
ᴹQ. fernë n. “beech-tree”
⚠️ᴱQ. líneneldora adj. “having many beeches”
⚠️ᴱQ. neldor n. “beech”; see instead:
ᴹQ. fernë “beech-tree”
S. neldor “beech”
⚠️ᴱQ. neldorin n. “beech-tree”; see instead:
ᴹQ. fernë “beech-tree”
⚠️ᴱQ. neldorion n. “beech wood”

8.63 Birch

Q. hwindë n. “birch”
⚠️ᴱQ. polondë n. “alder”
⚠️ᴱQ. sarco² n. “elder [tree]”
⚠️ᴱQ. silqueléni n. “silver birch, (lit.) long tresses”; see instead:
Q. hwindë “birch”
⚠️ᴱQ. silwin (silwind-) n. “birch”; see instead:
Q. hwindë “birch”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulwë n. “alder tree”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulwëa adj. “alder-grown”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulwenoitë adj. “alderlike”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulwe nornelassëa n. “oakleaved alder”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulwessë n. “alder-thicket”

8.635 Elm

⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. alalmë n. “elm-tree”; see instead:
Q. alvë “elm”
Q. alalmë “inflorescence”
Q. alalvëa adj. “having many elms”
Q. alvë n. “elm”

8.64 Pine

⚠️ᴱQ. aicor n. “pine-tree”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sono “pine”
⚠️ᴱQ. aiquairë n. “fir, pine (tree)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sono “pine”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. finë n. “larch”
⚠️ᴱQ. hórë (hóri-) n. “pine, stone pine”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sono “pine”
⚠️ᴱQ. horinel n. “pine-needle”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sononel “pine-needle”
⚠️Q. sánë (sáni-) [þ] n. “pine”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sono “pine”
⚠️ᴺQ. !sónë [þ] n. “pine tree”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sono “pine”
ᴺQ. !sono [þ] n. “pine”
ᴺQ. !sononel [þ] n. “pine-needle”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. súcë [þ] n. “resinous trees, pine or fir”

8.655 Tree (other)

Q. culumalda n. “laburnum, *(lit.) orange-tree”
Q. farnë (farni-) n. “️ash, rowan; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] foliage”
⚠️ᴱQ. lailexë n. “willow”; see instead:
Q. tasar(ë) “willow”
Q. lairelossë n. “summer-snow-white, species of tree in Númenor”
Q. laurinquë n. “yellow-flowered tree”
ᴹQ. lavaralda n. “tree with long green leaves with golden undersides and pale flowers with a yellow flush”
⚠️ᴱQ. lindeloctë n. “labernum, (lit.) singing cluster”
⚠️ᴱQ. lintasarindëa adj. “having many willows”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lintyulussëa adj. “having many poplars”
⚠️ᴱQ. maisilanda n. “sycamore”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^palalassë “sycamore, (lit.) flat leaf”
⚠️ᴱQ. maitë² n. “maple”
Q. malinornë n. “mallorn, (lit.) golden/yellow tree”
Q. mallorn n. “Mallorn”
⚠️ᴱQ. mapalin n. “plane, sycamore”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^palalassë “sycamore, (lit.) flat leaf”
Q. nessamelda n. “species of tree in Númenor, (lit.) beloved of Nessa”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nindornë n. “palm-tree”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^paltalda “palm tree”
Q. oiolairë n. “ever-summer (a species of tree)”
Q. ornemalin n. “bearing yellow flowers”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^palalassë n. “sycamore, (lit.) flat leaf”
⚠️ᴱQ. palapaptë n. “*sycamore”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^palalassë “sycamore, (lit.) flat leaf”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^paltalda n. “palm tree”
⚠️ᴱQ. paltyalda n. “palm tree”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^paltalda “palm tree”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. siquilessë n. “weeping willow; ⚠️lamentation”
⚠️ᴱQ. tamuril n. “yew”
Q. taniquelassë n. “*high-white-leaf”
⚠️ᴱQ. tapatenda mavoisi n. “Spanish [chestnut]”
Q., ᴹQ. tasar(ë) (tasari-) [þ] n. “willow”
⚠️ᴱQ. tasarin n. “willow”; see instead:
Q. tasar(ë) “willow”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tyulussë n. “poplar-tree”
Q. vardarianna n. “fragrant evergreen tree”

8.67 Vine

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. etil n. “ivy”
⚠️ᴱQ. etl n. “ivy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. etil “ivy”
⚠️ᴱQ. liantassë n. “vine”
ᴹQ. uilë n. “long trailing plant”

8.68 Tobacco

Q. alanessë n. “nicotiana, pipeweed”
ᴺQ. !uscil(lë) n. “cigarette”

8.99 Vegetation (other)

ᴺQ. !airasëa [þ] n. “hyssop”
ᴹQ. arat n. “weed”
Q. cëa n. “*hedge”
ᴹQ. ëaruilë n. “seaweed”
ᴺQ. !eccahta n. “hawthorn, (lit.) thorn-hedge”
⚠️ᴱQ. ectar² n. “hawthorn, thorn”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !eccahta “hawthorn, (lit.) thorn-hedge”
⚠️ᴱQ. eldasilquë n. “maidenhair fern, (lit.) elf tress”
ᴹQ. ercassë n. “holly”
⚠️ᴹQ. ercë n. “holly”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ercassë “holly”
⚠️ᴹQ. farnë n. “foliage”; see instead:
Q. farnë “️ash, rowan; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] foliage”
Q. olass(i)ë “foliage, collection of leaves”
⚠️ᴱQ. filquë n. “fern”
⚠️ᴱQ. fuiyáru n. “deadly nightshade”
⚠️ᴱQ. heliloctë n. “wisteria, (lit.) purple cluster”
ᴹQ. hwan (hwand-) n. “sponge, fungus”
ᴺQ. !laiquelis (laiqueliss-) n. “rue (plant)”
ᴺQ. !lóma n. “moss”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nastalaima n. “thistle, (lit.) spear plant”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nelmasirpë “thistle, (lit.) needle-stalk”
⚠️ᴱQ. nehta n. “hawthorn”
ᴺQ. !nelmasirpë [þ] n. “thistle, (lit.) needle-stalk”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. oricon n. “heather”
⚠️ᴱQ. #oron¹ (orond-) n. “bush”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tussa “bush”
Q. oron “mountain”
Q. pilinehtar n. “an unidentified plant, (lit.) ?arrow thorns”
⚠️ᴱQ. piosenna n. “holly”
⚠️ᴱQ. pi(pi)nectar n. “whitethorn, hawthorn”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !eccahta “hawthorn, (lit.) thorn-hedge”
ᴺQ. !sortoa [þ] n. “aloe, (lit.) eaglewood”
⚠️ᴱQ. tarassë n. “hawthorn”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !eccahta “hawthorn, (lit.) thorn-hedge”
Q. taras “great towering building (fort/city/castle), tower; mount, hill”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. telumbë n. “mushroom”
ᴹQ. tussa n. “bush”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

⚠️ᴹQ. alcárima adj. “impossible to make”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lacárima “not feasible, impossible”
ᴺQ. !cacar- v. “to continue, go on doing”
ᴹQ. cacarra- v. “to keep on doing”
ᴺQ. !cacátu- v. “to design, shape or fashion slowly”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. car- v. “to do, make, [ᴹQ.] build”
ᴹQ. carië n. “making”
Q., ᴹQ. cárima adj. “feasible, possible (to do), able to be done, [ᴹQ.] able to be made”
Q., ᴱQ. carina adj. “done, [ᴱQ.] finished”
Q. #-carya suf. “doing”
⚠️ᴺQ. !eccat- v. “to fashion, make”; see instead:
Q. cat- “to shape, fashion”
Q. finya- v. “to do/make a thing (with fine work)”
ᴺQ., Q. lacárima adj. “not feasible, impossible”
Q. lacarina adj. “undone, *unfinished”

9.112 Doer, Agent

⚠️ᴹQ. -ando suf. “agent (male)”; see instead:
Q. -ndo “masculine agent”
⚠️ᴱQ. #-(a)r suf. “masculine/agental suffix”
⚠️ᴹQ. cáro n. “doer, actor, agent”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tyaro “doer, actor, agent”
Q. -ldë² suf. “feminine agent”
Q. -llë¹ suf. “feminine agent”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. -mo suf. “agental suffix”
Q. -ndë suf. “feminine agent”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. -ndo suf. “masculine agent”
Q. #-r(o) suf. “agental suffix”
ᴹQ. #-ro suf. “agental suffix”
ᴹQ. tyaro n. “doer, actor, agent”

9.114 Action

ᴺQ., Q. ahtar- v. “to do back, react; ⚠️to requite, avenge”
ᴺQ. !ahtarië v. “reaction; ⚠️vengeance”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “deed, act, fact”; see instead:
Q. carda “deed”
ᴹQ. enna¹ “fact”
⚠️ᴺQ. !car n. “act, an action”; see instead:
Q. #carë “action, doing, making”
⚠️ᴹQ. car² (card-) n. “deed”; see instead:
Q. carda “deed”
Q., ᴹQ. caraitë (caraiti-) adj. “active, busy; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] able to make, handy, crafty, craftsmanlike, skilled”
Q. caraitië n. “activity, business”
Q. carda n. “deed”
Q. #carë n. “action, doing, making”
⚠️ᴱQ. carma n. “shape, fashion; act, deed”; see instead:
Q. canta² “shape, framework, [ᴹQ.] frame; shaped”
Q. carda “deed”
⚠️ᴱQ. caro n. “deed, act, action”; see instead:
Q. #carë “action, doing, making”
Q. lacaraitë adj. “*inactive; ⚠️impossible”
Q. lacarë n. “not-doing, inaction”
ᴺQ. ! n. “design”
ᴺQ. !ocaraitië n. “program, a set of activities”
⚠️Q. vecca adj. “active”

9.12 Work, Labor

ᴺQ. !fintemótalë n. “industry, (lit.) making toil”
ᴺQ., Q. mólë n. “labour, work”
⚠️ᴺQ. !molië n. “labour, work”; see instead:
ᴺQ. mólë “labour, work”
ᴺQ. !mólië “slavery, thralldom”
⚠️ᴺQ. !molindo n. “worker”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !mótaro “worker”
ᴹQ. mólomë n. “hard work, burden”
ᴺQ. !mótamen n. “office”
ᴺQ. !mótaro n. “worker”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tarassë n. “labour”; see instead:
ᴺQ. mólë “labour, work”
Q. taras “great towering building (fort/city/castle), tower; mount, hill”

9.13 to Work, Toil

Q. moia- v. “to be afflicted, *be laboured; ⚠️to labour”
ᴹQ. móta- v. “to labour, toil, *work”

9.14 to Bend

⚠️ᴱQ. cauta- v. “to bend”
ᴹQ. cucumba- v. “to nod repeatedly, (lit.) keep on bowing”
Q. cúna adj. “bent, curved”
Q. cúna- v. “to bend”
ᴹQ. cuv- v. “to bow”
Q. locin adj. “bent”
Q. luhta- v. “to bow”
Q. lúva n. “bow (in forming tengwar), bight, bend, curve”
Q. numba adj. “bent, humped”

9.16 to Bind

⚠️ᴺQ. !avanut- v. “to untie”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !únut- “to untie”
⚠️ᴱQ. hepe- v. “to bind”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #nut- “to tie, *bind”
ᴺQ. !hep- “to keep”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lia- v. “to entwine”
⚠️ᴱQ. lim- v. “to bind”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #nut- “to tie, *bind”
ᴹQ. #nut- v. “to tie, *bind”
⚠️ᴱQ. serta- v. “to tie”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #nut- “to tie, *bind”

9.17 Bond (n)

⚠️ᴹQ. aman n. “bond”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nútë “bond, knot”
ᴹQ. vérë “bond, troth, compact, oath”
⚠️ᴱQ. hetl n. “bond”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nútë “bond, knot”
Q. naxa¹ “bond, fetter”
Q. naxa¹ n. “bond, fetter”
ᴹQ. nútë n. “bond, knot”

9.18 Chain (n)

⚠️ᴺQ. !angwenda n. “chain”; see instead:
ᴺQ. limil “chain”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. limil n. “chain”

9.19 Rope, Cord

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. hempa n. “cord”
Q. hísilanya [þ] n. “mist thread, grey elvish rope”
ᴺQ. !nurda n. “cord, rope”
ᴺQ. !rappa n. “rope”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. serma [þ] n. “string, ⚠️cord”

9.192 Knot (n)

ᴹQ. narda n. “knot”

9.21 to Hit, Strike, Beat

ᴺQ. !falpa- v. “to flog”
⚠️ᴱQ. hyalta- v. “to strike, make ring”
ᴹQ. lah- v. “to kick”
⚠️ᴱQ. lampa- v. “to beat, hit”; see instead:
ᴹQ. palpa- “to beat, batter”
⚠️ᴱQ. otto- v. “to knock”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ton- “to tap, knock”
ᴹQ. palca- v. “to beat flat”
ᴹQ. palpa- v. “to beat, batter”
⚠️ᴱQ. panta-² v. “to beat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. palpa- “to beat, batter”
⚠️ᴱQ. pete- v. “to knock, strike”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tamba- “to knock, keep on knocking”
⚠️ᴱQ. pilt (pilty-) n. “blow, cuff, box on ear”
⚠️ᴱQ. pilty- v. “to strike (esp. with flat hand)”
ᴹQ. tam- v. “to tap”
ᴹQ. tamba- v. “to knock, keep on knocking”
⚠️ᴱQ. tanga- v. “to beat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. palpa- “to beat, batter”
⚠️ᴱQ. taran (taramb-) n. “bang, buffet”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^narambo “bang, buffet”
ᴹQ. ton- v. “to tap, knock”

9.22 to Cut

Q. #aucir- v. “to cut off (and get rid of or lose a portion)”
Q., ᴱQ. #cir- v. “to cut, [ᴱQ.] cleave; *to sail”
ᴺQ. !cirila adj. “cutting”
⚠️ᴱQ. #feng- v. “to cut”; see instead:
Q. #cir- “to cut, [ᴱQ.] cleave; *to sail”
⚠️ᴱQ. fenqua adj. “keen, cutting”; see instead:
ᴹQ. laica “keen, sharp, acute”
ᴺQ. !cirila “cutting”
Q. #hócir- v. “to cut off (so as to have or use a required portion)”
Q., ᴹQ. rista n. “[ᴹQ.] cut”
ᴹQ. rista- v. “to cut”
⚠️ᴱQ. vilci- v. “to cut”; see instead:
Q. #cir- “to cut, [ᴱQ.] cleave; *to sail”

9.23 Knife (tool)

Q. #cirma n. “knife”
Q. cirmacin (cirmacim-) n. “knife-edge”
⚠️ᴱQ. naica¹ n. “dagger”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sicil “dagger, knife”
ᴹQ. sicil n. “dagger, knife”

9.24 Shears, Scissors

⚠️ᴱQ. †oalúmë n. “shearing time”

9.25 Ax

⚠️ᴱQ. hanta n. “a blow with an axe”
ᴺQ. !ondopelet (ondopelecc-) n. “pickaxe”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. pelecco (peleccu-) n. “axe”
⚠️ᴱQ. taila n. “(axe) blade”; see instead:
Q. maica² “blade of a cutting tool or weapon (especially sword-blade)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tuacca n. “battle axe”; see instead:
ᴺQ. pelecco “axe”

9.26 to Break

ᴹQ. #ascat- v. “to rend, break asunder”
ᴹQ. hat-¹ v. “to break asunder”
⚠️ᴱQ. laira- v. “to wear out, break up”; see instead:
ᴹQ. yerya- “to wear (out), get old”
ᴹQ. nwara- “to gnaw, erode, wear away”
Q. rac- v. “to break”
Q. rácina adj. “broken”
⚠️ᴱQ. ranca adj. “broken”; see instead:
Q. rácina “broken”
⚠️ᴱQ. rusta adj. “broken”
ᴺQ. !ruv- v. “to burst, rupture”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. rúvina adj. “burst, ruptured”
Q. #ruxa- v. “to crumble”
ᴹQ. terhat- v. “to break apart”

9.27 to Split

⚠️ᴱQ. circis n. “cleft, crack”; see instead:
ᴹQ. cirissë “slash, gash”
⚠️ᴱQ. ciris (cirist-) n. “cleft, crack”; see instead:
Q. cirya² “cleft, pass”
ᴹQ. cirissë “slash, gash”
ᴹQ. cirissë n. “slash, gash”
⚠️ᴱQ. cisin adj. “cleft”; see instead:
Q. cirya² “cleft, pass”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. hyar- v. “to cleave; [ᴱQ.] to plough”
⚠️ᴺQ. !hyasta-² v. “to hack through”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hyar- “to cleave; [ᴱQ.] to plough”
ᴺQ. hyasta- “to rush, rustle”
ᴹQ. hyatsë n. “cleft, gash”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sahta- [þ] v. “to split”
ᴹQ. sanca [þ] adj. “cleft, split”

9.28 to Tear

ᴹQ. naraca adj. “harsh, rending, violent of (?sounds)”
ᴹQ. narca- v. “to rend”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^narcë n. “*rend, tear; [ᴱQ.] snap of a dog; spiteful remark”
⚠️ᴱQ. sanca¹ n. “rend, jab”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^narcë “*rend, tear; [ᴱQ.] snap of a dog; spiteful remark”
ᴹQ. sanca “cleft, split”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulqu- v. “*to rend”; see instead:
ᴹQ. narca- “to rend”

9.29 to Flay, Skin

ᴺQ. !helta- v. “to strip, bar, peel; *to despoil, denude”
⚠️ᴱQ. par- v. “to peel”; see instead:
Q. par- “to learn”
⚠️ᴱQ. rara- v. “to scrape, peel, strip”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !helta- “to strip, bar, peel; *to despoil, denude”
⚠️ᴱQ. rasta n. “file, scraper”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. ripta- v. “to cut in strips, tear up; to stripe, mark in parallel lines; to flay, flog”

9.31 to Rub

ᴺQ. !aupsar- v. “to wipe away”
Q., ᴹQ. †psar- v. “to rub”
ᴹQ. sapsarra- v. “to keep on rubbing, fray away”
⚠️ᴱQ. #wara- v. “to rub”; see instead:
Q. †psar- “to rub”

9.32 to Stretch

⚠️ᴱQ. lenu- v. “to stretch”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lat- “to be extended, stretch, [ᴱQ.] spread, extend; [ᴹQ.] to be situated (of an area), lie (of lands or regions)”
⚠️ᴱQ. racta-¹ v. “to stretch out, reach”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^rahta- “to stretch out, reach”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^rahta- v. “to stretch out, reach”
Q., ᴹQ. #tailë n. “lengthening, [ᴹQ.] extension”
Q. #taima n. “extension”
ᴹQ. #taima n. “extension”
Q., ᴹQ. taina¹ adj. “stretched, elongated; [ᴹQ.] lengthened, extended, prolonged”
ᴹQ. taita- v. “to prolong, *lengthen”
⚠️ᴱQ. tapa- v. “to taper, stretch out (intr.), extend thin”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lat- “to be extended, stretch, [ᴱQ.] spread, extend; [ᴹQ.] to be situated (of an area), lie (of lands or regions)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tapatenda adj. “taper fingered, light fingered, long fingered”

9.33 to Draw, Pull

⚠️ᴱQ. cilt n. “tuck”
⚠️ᴱQ. #cilti- v. “to jerk, tuck”; see instead:
ᴹQ. rihta- “to jerk, give quick twist or move, twitch, *wrench”
ᴺQ. !ettuc- v. “to draw out”
⚠️ᴱQ. #halmë n. “drawing”
⚠️ᴱQ. hyecca n. “jerk”
⚠️ᴱQ. hyehta- v. “to jerk”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. luc- v. “to haul, drag, [ᴱQ.] pull”
ᴹQ. rihta- v. “to jerk, give quick twist or move, twitch, *wrench”
ᴹQ. rinca n. “twitch, jerk, sudden move, ⚠️trick”
⚠️ᴱQ. riqui- v. “to wrench, twist”; see instead:
ᴹQ. rihta- “to jerk, give quick twist or move, twitch, *wrench”
ᴹQ. tuc- v. “to draw, *pull (behind)”
ᴺQ. !tucië n. “drawing, pulling”

9.34 to Strew, Spread Out

ᴺQ., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. capta- v. “to make spring, scatter, [ᴱQ.] startle”
ᴺQ. !rerestë n. “scattering, diaspore”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. rína adj. “scattered, sown”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. rísima adj. “scattered, ubiquitous, universal”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. rísimandë adv. “passim [Latin]; *scatteredly, here and there, at random”
ᴺQ. !úpartalë n. “unorder, *disorder”
Q. winta- v. “to scatter, blow about”

9.342 to Press

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. mal- v. “to crush, squeeze; to hurt, pain”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. malda- v. “to pound, crush”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. sanga- v. “[ᴱQ.] to pack tight, compress, press; ⚠️to gather”
ᴹQ. sanguma n. “press, *thing that presses”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyac- v. “to stick”

9.35 to Pour

ᴹQ. calpa- v. “to draw water, scoop out, bale out”
ᴺQ. !etulya- v. “to pour forth, pour out”
Q. púlima adj. “pourable, liquid”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulto- v. “to pour (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ulya- “to pour, flow”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulu- v. “to pour, gush (intr.)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ulya- “to pour, flow”
ᴹQ. ululla- v. “to keep on pouring”
ᴹQ. ulya- v. “to pour, flow”

9.36 to Wash

ᴺQ. !alasóvinë adj. “unwashed”
⚠️ᴱQ. allu- v. “to wash”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sov- “to wash, *bathe”
⚠️ᴱQ. allumë n. “washing”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sovallë “washing, bathing, purification”
ᴺQ. !poitië “(act of) cleaning, cleansing”
⚠️ᴱQ. fascalan n. “bath”; see instead:
ᴺQ. saunë “bath, small pool”
⚠️ᴱQ. lusta n. “warm bath”; see instead:
ᴺQ. saunë “bath, small pool”
⚠️ᴱQ. lusta- v. “to bathe in warm water”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sov- “to wash, *bathe”
⚠️ᴱQ. lutto- v. “to swill, wash”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sov- “to wash, *bathe”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. poita- v. “to cleanse, *clean”
ᴺQ. !poitië n. “(act of) cleaning, cleansing”
⚠️ᴱQ. poitya- v. “to make clean, tidy, straighten”; see instead:
ᴺQ. poita- “to cleanse, *clean”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. saunë n. “bath, small pool”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sausa n. “bath water, hot water”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sov- v. “to wash, *bathe”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sovallë n. “washing, bathing, purification”

9.41 Craft, Trade

Q. arimaitë adj. “[supremely] skillful”
Q., ᴱQ. curu n. “skill; [ᴱQ.] magic, wizardry”
Q., ᴹQ. curwë n. “[ᴹQ.] craft, [Q.] skill of the hand, technical skill and invention”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. maitë (maiti-) adj. “handy, skillful, [ᴹQ.] skilled; [Q.] having a hand, handed; shapely”
ᴺQ. !móletyeller n. “career, (lit.) work-steps”
ᴺQ. !nórarwa n. “economy, (lit.) country-possessions”
Q. taman n. “thing made by handicraft”

9.412 Art

Q. carmë n. “art; making, production; structure”
Q. mairë n. “work of high and beautiful art, the process of producing a work”
Q. maita- v. “to make with art, design, compose”
Q. maitalë n. “the act of doing [artistic] work”
Q. maitar n. “artist; poet”
ᴺQ. !tirmen n. “theater”

9.413 Horn, Trumpet

ᴹQ. hyóla n. “trump, *trumpet”
ᴺQ. !hyólamo n. “trumpeter”
⚠️ᴱQ. licin n. “horn, curled horn”; see instead:
Q. romba “horn, trumpet”
⚠️ᴱQ. licinda- v. “to blow a trumpet”
⚠️ᴱQ. licinda n. “trumpet”; see instead:
Q. romba “horn, trumpet”
⚠️ᴱQ. licinnë n. “blowing of horns”; see instead:
Q. róma “horn; [ᴹQ.] loud sound, trumpet-sound, *blare”
Q., ᴹQ. róma n. “horn; [ᴹQ.] loud sound, trumpet-sound, *blare”
Q., ᴹQ. romba n. “horn, trumpet”
⚠️ᴱQ. tumbë n. “trumpet, (large) horn”; see instead:
Q. romba “horn, trumpet”

9.42 Artisan, Craftsman

ᴺQ., Q., ᴹQ. ahto n. “wright, maker”
ᴺQ. !carmatan n. “toolsmith”
ᴺQ. !maicatan n. “weaponsmith”
ᴺQ. !noremmatan n. “cartographer”

9.422 Tool

ᴺQ. !auma n. “machine”
Q. carma² n. “tool, implement, means, weapon”
ᴺQ. !cómë n. “[computer] file, *document”
Q. curo (curu-) n. “skillful (?device)”
ᴺQ. !curwesta n. “technology”
⚠️ᴱQ. enya n. “device, method, trick; machine, engine”; see instead:
Q. lé¹ “way, method, manner”
Q. #fintalë “trick”
ᴹQ. aulë “invention”
ᴹQ. tanwë “craft, thing made, device, construction”
ᴺQ. !imbenatsë n. “internet”
⚠️ᴺQ. !imberaima n. “internet”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !imbenatsë “internet”
ᴺQ. !lialóra adj. “cordless, wireless”
ᴺQ. !maxárma n. “software”
ᴺQ. !natsemen n. “website, (lit.) web-spot”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nonwa n. “computer, (lit.) implement for reckoning”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nótar “computer, calculator”
ᴺQ. !nótar n. “computer, calculator”
ᴺQ. !palallon n. “telephone, (lit.) far-sound”
ᴺQ. !palancen n. “television, (lit.) far-sight”
ᴺQ. !palancenta n. “telecommunication”
ᴺQ. !palanóma n. “phone”
ᴺQ. !palantilla n. “telescope”
ᴹQ. sorasta n. “equipment”
Q. tamma n. “tool”
⚠️ᴱQ. yaima n. “implement”; see instead:
Q. carma² “tool, implement, means, weapon”
ᴺQ. !yungwa n. “appliance”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yuqua n. “appliance”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !yungwa “appliance”

9.423 to Use

ᴹQ. alwara adj. “useless”
Q., ᴹQ. mahta- v. “to handle, wield, use, make use of; to manage, deal with, treat, control; [ᴹQ.] to stroke, feel; to wield a weapon, fight”
ᴺQ. !sorastarwa adj. “furnished, equipped”
ᴺQ. !yuhta- v. “to use, employ”
ᴺQ. !yuhtaimalë n. “usefulness”
ᴺQ. !yuhtaina adj. “used”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yunca adj. “used”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !yuhtaina “used”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yungwë n. “usefulness”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !yuhtaimalë “usefulness”

9.43 Carpenter

ᴹQ. samno [þ] n. “carpenter, wright, builder”
Q. tautamo n. “carpenter (carver)”

9.44 to Build

ᴺQ. !amacarastië n. “upbuilding”
ᴹQ. #ampan- v. “to build”
ᴹQ. ampanóta- v. “to build, erect a (large) building”
ᴹQ. ampanotalëa adj. “architectural”
ᴹQ. ampanotastë n. “architecture”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^carasta n. “making, manufacture, construction”
Q. carasta- v. “to build, construct”
⚠️ᴹQ. carastë n. “making, manufacture, construction”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^carasta “making, manufacture, construction”
ᴺQ. !cariendë n. “production”
Q. cat- v. “to shape, fashion”
ᴺQ. !nutanwë n. “infrastructure”
Q. tamna adj. and n. “artificial; artifact”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tan- v. “to make, fashion”; see instead:
Q. cat- “to shape, fashion”
ᴹQ. tanwë n. “craft, thing made, device, construction”
⚠️ᴱQ. taqua- v. “to build, fashion, construct, make”; see instead:
Q. carasta- “to build, construct”
Q. cat- “to shape, fashion”
⚠️ᴱQ. tump-¹ v. “to build; to beat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #ampan- “to build”
ᴹQ. palpa- “to beat, batter”

9.45 to Hew

Q., ᴱQ., ᴱQ. mac- v. “to hew (with a sword); ⚠️[ᴱQ.] to slay; to die”
Q., ᴹQ. #nac- v. “to hew, cut; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] to kill, slay; to hate”
⚠️ᴱQ. pelecta- v. “to hew”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyacta- v. “hew”; see instead:
Q. mac- “to hew (with a sword); ⚠️[ᴱQ.] to slay; to die”
ᴹQ. hyar- “to cleave; [ᴱQ.] to plough”

9.455 to Poke, Prick, Stab

⚠️ᴱQ. cen- v. “to prick”; see instead:
ᴹQ. erca- “to prick”
Q. cen- “to see, behold, look, *perceive”
⚠️ᴱQ. coli- v. “to prick”; see instead:
ᴹQ. erca- “to prick”
⚠️ᴱQ. colimen n. “prick”
ᴺQ., ᴹQ. ehta- v. “to stab”
ᴹQ. erca- v. “to prick”
⚠️ᴱQ. #irt- v. “to peck, prick”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^irta- “to peck, prick”
⚠️ᴱQ. irt (irty-) n. “peck, pinprick”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^irtë “peck, pinprick”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^irta- v. “to peck, prick”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^irtë (irti-) n. “peck, pinprick”
ᴹQ. nasta- v. “to prick, sting”
⚠️ᴱQ. piecta- v. “to prick, pin-prick”

9.46 to Bore

ᴺQ. !rotta- v. “to bore (a hole or tunnel)”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. ter- v. “to pierce”
ᴺQ. !térala adj. “piercing”
⚠️ᴱQ. ‽terendl n. “lathe”

9.47 Auger

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. teret n. “auger, borer, gimlet”

9.48 Saw (n)

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. carcasarma adj. “large saw”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sara- v. “to saw [wood]”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sarma n. “saw”

9.49 Hammer (n)

⚠️ᴱQ. artan (artam-) n. “hammer”; see instead:
ᴹQ. namba “hammer”
ᴹQ. namba n. “hammer”
ᴹQ. namba- v. “to hammer”
⚠️ᴱQ. petl n. “hammer”; see instead:
ᴹQ. namba “hammer”
⚠️ᴱQ. tonga n. “great hammer”; see instead:
ᴹQ. namba “hammer”

9.50 Nail, Peg

⚠️ᴱQ. tanca² n. “fastening, rivet”; see instead:
Q. tancal(a) “brooch, clasp”
ᴹQ. tanca “firm, fixed, sure, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] fast; steady, (stead)fast”
⚠️ᴱQ. tas (tax-) n. “nail”; see instead:
ᴹQ. taxë “nail”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. taxë n. “nail”

9.51 Beam

ᴹQ. andul n. “long pole”
ᴹQ. hana n. “post”
ᴺQ. !orpano n. “ridgepole”
ᴺQ. !otarmië n. “colonnade”
ᴺQ. !ramma n. “lever”
ᴹQ. ran (ramb-) n. “beam of wood”
⚠️Q. rondo² n. “staff (of hardwood)”
ᴹQ. samna¹ [þ] n. “wooden post”
⚠️ᴱQ. súlë n. “column, pillar”; see instead:
Q. tarma “pillar”
Q. #talca n. “post, mark”
Q. tarma n. “pillar”
⚠️ᴱQ. taulë² n. “pillar”; see instead:
Q. tarma “pillar”
⚠️ᴱQ. tulwë n. “tall thin pillar, standard, pole; banner”
⚠️ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^vandil n. “staff”; see instead:
ᴺQ. vanga “staff”
⚠️ᴱQ. vandl n. “staff”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vandil “staff”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. vanga n. “staff”

9.52 Board

ᴹQ. pano n. “piece of shaped wood, *board, plank”
⚠️ᴱQ. panta² n. “board”; see instead:
ᴹQ. pano “piece of shaped wood, *board, plank”
ᴹQ. panta “open, [ᴱQ.] wide, spreading”
⚠️ᴱQ. sarat (saract-) n. “plank”; see instead:
ᴹQ. pano “piece of shaped wood, *board, plank”
Q. sarat “letter (of the Rúmilian alphabet)”
⚠️ᴱQ. saratwa n. “made of planks”

9.54 Brick

ᴹQ. ambal n. “shaped stone, flag”
⚠️ᴱQ. soraxa n. “shingle”; see instead:
Q. sarnië “shingle, pebble bank”
⚠️ᴱQ. telar n. “brick, tile”

9.60 Smith

Q. sintamo n. “smith”
⚠️ᴱQ. talca¹ n. “smith”
Q. tamo n. “smith, builder”
⚠️ᴹQ. tano n. “craftsman, smith”; see instead:
Q. tamo “smith, builder”
ᴺQ. !telpetan n. “silversmith”
⚠️ᴱQ. tongar n. “smith”; see instead:
Q. sintamo “smith”
ᴺQ. !urustan n. “copper-smith”

9.61 to Forge

ᴺQ. !maca- v. “to forge”
⚠️ᴱQ. tamilla n. “forge”; see instead:
ᴺQ. tamin “forge”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tamin n. “forge”
ᴺQ. !ticuta- v. “to smelt”

9.62 Anvil

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. onin n. “anvil”

9.635 Metal

⚠️ᴹQ. rauta n. “metal”; see instead:
Q. tinco “metal”
⚠️ᴱQ. sinquina adj. “metallic”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !tincina “metallic”
ᴺQ. !tincina adj. “metallic”
Q., ᴹQ. tinco n. “metal”

9.64 Gold

⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. culu n. “gold (metal)”; see instead:
Q. malta “gold (metal), gold as material”
⚠️ᴱQ. cululta adj. “of gold”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !maltaina “of gold”
⚠️ᴱQ. culurin n. “piece of gold; orange”; see instead:
ᴹQ. culuma “orange [fruit]”
⚠️ᴱQ. culusta n. “gold coin”
⚠️ᴱQ. culuva adj. “of gold”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !maltaina “of gold”
⚠️ᴱQ. culuvoitë (culuvoisi-) adj. “golden”; see instead:
Q. laurëa “golden (of hue)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. laurë n. “gold (light or colour)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. laurëa adj. “golden (of hue)”
Q. laurië n. and adv. “goldenness; like gold”
⚠️ᴱQ. laurina adj. “golden”; see instead:
Q. laurëa “golden (of hue)”
Q., ᴹQ. malta n. “gold (metal), gold as material”
ᴺQ. !maltaina adj. “of gold”

9.65 Silver

⚠️ᴱQ. ilsa n. “(the mystic name of) silver”; see instead:
Q. telpë “silver; [ᴱQ.] money”
ᴹQ. telemna adj. “*silver”
⚠️ᴹQ. telepsa adj. “of silver”; see instead:
Q. telepta “silver, [ᴱQ.] of silver”
Q., ᴱQ. telepta adj. “silver, [ᴱQ.] of silver”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. telpë (telep-) n. “silver; [ᴱQ.] money”
⚠️ᴱQ. telpëa adj. “silvern”; see instead:
Q. telperin “like silver (in hue or worth)”
Q. telperin adj. “like silver (in hue or worth)”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. telpina adj. “of silver”
Q., ᴹQ. †tyelpë (tyelep-) n. “silver”

9.66 Copper, Bronze

Q. calarus (calarust-) n. “polished copper”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. calas (calass-) n. “brass”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. calassina adj. “made of brass”
Q. lairus (lairust-) n. “verdigris”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tambë (tambi-) n. “bronze, ⚠️copper”
⚠️ᴱQ. tambina adj. “of copper”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !urusta “of copper”
Q. urus (urust-) n. “copper”
ᴺQ. !urusta adj. “of copper”
ᴺQ. !urustamitta n. “copper-piece”

9.67 Iron

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. anga n. “iron”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. angaina adj. “of iron”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. axë n. “steel”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. axina adj. “(of) steel, like steel”
⚠️ᴱQ. ere(n) n. “iron, steel”; see instead:
Q. anga “iron”
Q. tornanga “iron hard; hard-iron, *steel”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. malo² (malu-) n. “rust”
⚠️ᴱQ. tong??a adj. “of iron”; see instead:
ᴹQ. angaina “of iron”
⚠️ᴱQ. tongo n. “iron”; see instead:
Q. anga “iron”
⚠️ᴱQ. tongwa adj. “like iron”; see instead:
ᴹQ. angaina “of iron”
⚠️ᴱQ. yaxë¹ n. “steel”; see instead:
ᴺQ. axë “steel”
⚠️ᴱQ. yaxina adj. “of steel”; see instead:
ᴺQ. axina “(of) steel, like steel”
⚠️ᴱQ. yeraina adj. “of iron”; see instead:
ᴹQ. angaina “of iron”
⚠️ᴱQ. yere(n) n. “pig iron”; see instead:
Q. anga “iron”
⚠️ᴱQ. yerenwa adj. “like iron”; see instead:
ᴹQ. angaina “of iron”

9.68 Lead

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. canu n. “lead”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. canuina adj. “of lead”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. canuva adj. “leaden”
⚠️ᴱQ. núlë n. “lead”; see instead:
ᴺQ. canu “lead”
Q. núlë “black arts, sorcery”

9.69 Tin, Tin-Plate

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. latúcen n. “tin (metal)”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. latucenda adj.
⚠️ᴺQ. !sin (sint-) [þ] n. “tin (metal)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. latúcen “tin (metal)”

9.71 Potter

ᴹQ. cemnaro n. “potter”
ᴺQ. !cemnassë n. “earthenware, pottery”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cennassë n. “pottery, ceramic vessel ”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cemnassë “earthenware, pottery”
⚠️ᴺQ. !centánië n. “ceramics, pottery-craft”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cemnassë “earthenware, pottery”
⚠️ᴹQ. centano n. “potter”; see instead:
ᴹQ. cemnaro “potter”
⚠️ᴱQ. cerë n. “earthenware; earthen jar”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cemnassë “earthenware, pottery”
⚠️ᴱQ. ceres (cerest-) n. “earthenware”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cemnassë “earthenware, pottery”
⚠️ᴱQ. ceresto n. “potter”; see instead:
ᴹQ. cemnaro “potter”
⚠️ᴱQ. cerexa adj. “of earthenware”; see instead:
ᴹQ. cemna “of earth, earthen”

9.74 Glass

Q. calca n. “glass”
ᴺQ. !calcata- v. “to glaze”
ᴺQ. !calcëa adj. “glassy, of glass”
⚠️Q. cilin n. “glass”; see instead:
Q. calca “glass”
ᴺQ. !hencalcat n. “eye-glasses, spectacles”
⚠️ᴹQ. hyellë n. “glass”; see instead:
Q. calca “glass”
⚠️ᴺQ. !imirë n. “crystal”; see instead:
ᴹQ. maril “glass, crystal”
⚠️ᴺQ. !imirin adj. “of crystal”; see instead:
ᴹQ. maril “glass, crystal”
⚠️ᴱQ. lipil n. “a tiny (fay-)glass”; see instead:
Q. cilinyul “drinking-vessel (made of glass)”
ᴹQ. maril n. “glass, crystal”
Q. naltalma [ñ] n. “heliograph”
Q. silima n. “crystal substance devised by Fëanor”
Q., ᴹQ. silma n. and adj. “crystal (white); [ᴹQ.] silver, shining white”
⚠️ᴱQ. sintl n. “crystal”; see instead:
ᴹQ. maril “glass, crystal”
Q. silma “crystal (white); [ᴹQ.] silver, shining white”
⚠️ᴱQ. talcu- v. “to glaze”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !calcata- “to glaze”
⚠️ᴱQ. talquë (talqui-) n. “glass”; see instead:
Q. calca “glass”
⚠️ᴱQ. talquëa adj. “glassy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !calcëa “glassy, of glass”
⚠️ᴱQ. talquina adj. “made of glass”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !calcëa “glassy, of glass”
ᴺQ. !tirma n. “spyglass”
⚠️ᴱQ. vírin n. “glass substance [used to make the Moon]”

9.76 Basket

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. colca n. “box”
ᴺQ. !colcallë n. “phylactery, (lit.) little box”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. poco n. “bag”
ᴺQ. !pocollë n. “pouch”
ᴺQ. !taucolca n. “(wooden) chest”
ᴺQ. !vircolca n. “basket, (lit.) woven-box”

9.81 to Carve

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. nyas- v. “to scratch”
⚠️ᴺQ. !rimpë² n. “scratch”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nyas “scratch, score, line, mark”
ᴺQ. rimpë¹ “stripe, strip”
⚠️ᴺQ. !rip- v. “to scratch”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nyas- “to scratch”

9.82 Sculptor

Q. ondomaitar n. “sculptor in stone”
Q. ontamo n. “mason (sculptor)”

9.83 Statue

ᴺQ. !cantemma n. “shaped image, sculpture”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. ondolë n. “(stone) monument; stone-cairn”

9.87 Painting, Picture

ᴺQ. !calatengwë n. “photograph, (lit.) light-writing”
⚠️ᴺQ. !calta n. “picture, photography”; see instead:
Q. emma “*picture, image”
Q. #calta- “to kindle, [ᴹQ.] (cause to) shine, light up, [ᴱQ.] set light to”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cemma n. “picture, (lit.) something seen”; see instead:
Q. emma “*picture, image”
Q. emma n. “*picture, image”
ᴺQ. !levemma n. “movie, motion picture”
⚠️ᴺQ. !menemma n. “movie, motion picture”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !levemma “movie, motion picture”
ᴺQ. !noremma n. “map”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nórihalmë n. “map”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !noremma “map”
Q. quantemma n. “facsimile, (lit.) *full-picture”
ᴺQ. !tecemma n. “drawn image, drawing, painting”

9.90 Thing

Q. engwë n. “thing”
Q. erma n. “(physical) matter”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nat n. “thing”
⚠️ᴱQ. natto (nattu-) n. “thing, affair”; see instead:
Q. tama “that matter”

9.91 Be

⚠️ᴱQ. e-² v. “to be”; see instead:
Q. ëa- “to be, exist, [ᴹQ.] have being, be found extant in the real world”
Q., ᴹQ. ëa- v. “to be, exist, [ᴹQ.] have being, be found extant in the real world”
Q. ëala n. “being, spirit (not incarnate)”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^ëasta n. “being, existence”
⚠️ᴹQ. ëastë n. “being, essence”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^ëasta “being, existence”
Q. nassë “nature, true-being, *essence; person, individual”
ᴹQ. érë n. “existing”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ná- v. “to be, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] exist”
⚠️ᴱQ. ó- v. “to be”; see instead:
Q. ëa- “to be, exist, [ᴹQ.] have being, be found extant in the real world”
⚠️ᴱQ. sóma n. “state, condition”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !tarmë “state, status, condition”
ᴺQ. !tarmë n. “state, status, condition”
⚠️ᴹQ. ye- v. “to be”; see instead:
Q. ëa- “to be, exist, [ᴹQ.] have being, be found extant in the real world”
⚠️ᴹQ. yestë n. “being, existence”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^ëasta “being, existence”

9.92 Become

⚠️ᴱQ. nó- v. “to be born, become”; see instead:
Q. #nóna “born”
Q., ᴹQ. ol- v. “to become”

9.93 Need, Necessity

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. iquis n. “requirement”
ᴺQ. !maura- v. “to need, require”
ᴹQ. maurë n. “need”
Q. #sangië n. “necessity”
Q. turindura adj. “done necessarily”

9.943 Fitting, Suitable

ᴺQ. !camtanë n. “adaptation”

9.95 Can, May

⚠️ᴱQ. -alca suf. “able to”; see instead:
Q. -itë “adjectival ending; capable of doing, generally (and naturally) doing”
⚠️ᴹQ. #cav- v. “to be able”; see instead:
Q. pol- “can, to be able to”
Q. #cav- “to receive, *accept”
Q. ec- v. “to have a chance of; may, can”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. -ima suf. “-able, [ᴹQ.] -ible, able to be done, [ᴱQ.] possible”
Q., ᴹQ. -itë (-iti-) suf. “adjectival ending; capable of doing, generally (and naturally) doing”
⚠️ᴱQ. lata- v. “to be able to (used of opportunity, permission)”; see instead:
Q. ec- “to have a chance of; may, can”
⚠️ᴱQ. mala-² v. “to be able to (used of capacity, ability)”; see instead:
Q. pol- “can, to be able to”
⚠️ᴱQ. málë n. “ability”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !polië “ability”
Q. málë “good health”
⚠️ᴱQ. málëa adj. “able”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !polëa “able”
ᴺQ. !málëa “healthy”
Q. pol- v. “can, to be able to”
ᴺQ. !polëa adj. “able”
ᴺQ. !polië n. “ability”
ᴺQ. !polta- v. “to (physically) enable”

9.96 Easy

Q. ancárima adj. “easy, (lit.) very doable”
Q. as(a)- [þ] pref. “easily”
Q. asalastë [þ] adj. “easily heard”
ᴺQ. !asamahtë [þ] adj. “simple, (lit.) easily handled”
⚠️Q. asanótë [þ] adj. “*easily counted”
ᴺQ. !ascarë adj. “easily done”
ᴺQ. !ascárima [þ] adj. “easy [to do]”
ᴺQ. !ascénië [þ] adv. “obviously, *(lit.) easily seen”
Q. ascénima [þ] adj. “visible, easily seen”
ᴺQ. !asquétima [þ] adj. “easy to say”
⚠️Q. hrai(a)² adj. “easy”; see instead:
Q. hrai(a)¹ “awkward, difficult, stiff”

9.97 Difficult

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. auqua adj. “awkward, clumsy (of things), difficult”
Q. empollië adv. “*harder”
Q. hrai- pref. “hard, *difficult”
Q. hrai(a)¹ adj. “awkward, difficult, stiff”
Q. hraicénima adj. “scarcely visible, hard to see”
⚠️Q. hrainotë adj. “*hard to count”
Q. hranga adj. “awkward, difficult, stiff, hard”
ᴺQ. !hrangwë n. “problem, difficulty”
ᴺQ. !taryassë n. “stiffness, toughness, difficulty”
Q. úcárima adj. “hard to do, difficult”
Q. urda adj. “hard, difficult, arduous”
Q. ur(u)- pref. “hard, difficult”
Q. urucárima adj. “hard to make / do”
Q. urucarin adj. “made with difficulty”

9.98 to Try

Q. nev- v. “to try, *experiment”
Q. #ric-¹ v. “to try, put forth effort, strive, endeavour”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tyas- v. “to test, try [out], pick, choose”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tyasta- v. “to (put to the) test, *verify”
ᴺQ. !tyastaima adj. “testable”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tyestima adj. “testable”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !tyastaima “testable”

9.99 Try

ᴺQ. !nevië n. “experiment”
ᴺQ. !rihta n. “effort”
⚠️ᴺQ. !riquë n. “experiment”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nevië “experiment”

9.992 Way, Manner

Q. lé¹ n. “way, method, manner”
ᴺQ., Q. lenga- v. “to behave”
ᴺQ. !lengalë n. “behavior”
ᴺQ., Q. lengë n. “gesture, characteristic look, gesture or trait”

9.993 to Happen

ᴺQ. !ecesta n. “opportunity, chance”
⚠️ᴱQ. enget n. “a hap”; see instead:
Q. almë “good (or blessed) thing, blessing, piece of good fortune, *luck”
⚠️ᴹQ. lár- v. “to happen”
ᴹQ. tulma n. “event”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.11 to Move

⚠️ᴱQ. hatsë n. “headlong movement”; see instead:
ᴹQ. alaco “rush, rushing flight, wild wind”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lev- v. “to move (intr.)”
ᴺQ. !levë n. “movement”
⚠️ᴺQ. !menesta² n. “motion, movement”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^menesta¹ “intention, *goal”
⚠️ᴱQ. túma adj. “moving”; see instead:
Q. rúma- “to shift, move, heave (of large and heavy things)”

10.12 to Turn

⚠️ᴱQ. cere- v. “to turn”
Q. quer- v. “to turn, *revolve”
ᴺQ. !querda n. “turn (e.g. in a game)”
Q. #querna adj. “*turned”

10.13 to Turn Around

ᴺQ., Q. !nanquer- v. “to turn back, turn around”
Q., ᴹQ. nuquerna adj. “reversed, inverted, (lit.) *under-turned”
⚠️ᴺQ. !pelë n. “revolution”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !querë “revolution”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. peltas (peltax-) n. “pivot”; see instead:
Q. peltas “fence of fixed stakes, a ‘pale’”
Q. #queren “pivot, revolving center”
⚠️ᴱQ. pipiri- v. “to twirl, twizzle”
⚠️ᴱQ. pirucë n. “swirl, twisting, pirouetting”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !quirilda “twirling, pirouetting”
⚠️ᴱQ. pirúc(end)ëa adj. “pirouetting, whirling lightly”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !quirilda “twirling, pirouetting”
ᴺQ. !querë n. “revolution”
Q. #queren (querend-) n. “pivot, revolving center”
⚠️Q. #ric-² v. “to twist”; see instead:
ᴹQ. rihta- “to jerk, give quick twist or move, twitch, *wrench”
Q. #ric-¹ “to try, put forth effort, strive, endeavour”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. rinqua adj. “revolving, returning, recurrent; ⚠️round, circular”
ᴺQ. !talmacasta adj. “upside down”

10.14 to Wind, Wrap

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lap- v. “to wrap, swathe, wind”
⚠️ᴱQ. lingwilla n. “coil, spire”
⚠️ᴱQ. maxë n. “net”; see instead:
Q. raima “net”
⚠️ᴱQ. maxella n. “mesh”; see instead:
Q. rembë “mesh, net (for catching), hunter’s or fisher’s net”
⚠️ᴱQ. maxeta- v. “to enmesh”; see instead:
Q. remba- “to net, entrap”
ᴹQ. natsë n. “web, net”
Q. raima n. “net”
Q. raina¹ adj. “netted, enlaced, caught in a net”
Q. raita-¹ v. “to make network or lace; to catch in a net”
Q. remba- v. “to net, entrap”
Q. rembë n. “mesh, net (for catching), hunter’s or fisher’s net”
Q. rembina adj. “entangled, meshed, netted, woven”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vaita- v. “to enfold, [ᴱQ.] wrap”
ᴹQ. vai(y)a n. “envelope”

10.15 to Roll

⚠️ᴱQ. conta- v. “to roll up, roll, pack”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^corta- “to roll up, roll, pack”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^corta- v. “to roll up, roll, pack”
ᴺQ. !pelta- v. “to roll”
⚠️ᴱQ. tolu- v. “to roll up, furl”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^corta- “to roll up, roll, pack”
ᴹQ. tolu- “to stand up, get up, leave one’s seat”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. velu- v. “to unfurl”

10.21 to Rise

⚠️ᴹQ. chus- v. “to come up, emerge”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ef- “to emerge (especially from water)”
ᴺQ., ᴹQ. ef- v. “to emerge (especially from water)”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. órë n. “rising, *rise; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] dawn, Sunrise, East”
ᴺQ. !orina adj. “risen”
Q. #ormo n. “riser”
⚠️ᴱQ. oro- v. “to rise”; see instead:
Q. orya-¹ “to rise”
⚠️ᴹQ. ororia- v. “to keep on rising (and falling)”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. orosta n. “ascension”
⚠️ᴹQ. orro- v. “to rise (from ground)”; see instead:
Q. orya-¹ “to rise”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ. orta-² v. “to rise”; see instead:
Q. orya-¹ “to rise”
Q., ᴹQ. orya-¹ v. “to rise”
Q. oryandë n. “arising”
ᴺQ. !ret- v. “to climb”
Q. retto n. “*climber”
⚠️ᴱQ. róna- v. “to arise, rise, ascend”; see instead:
Q. orya-¹ “to rise”
⚠️ᴱQ. rosta- v. “*to rise”; see instead:
Q. orya-¹ “to rise”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tyulya- v. “to rise”; see instead:
Q. orya-¹ “to rise”

10.22 to Lift, Raise

Q. #amorta- v. “to heave”
⚠️ᴱQ. amu- v. “to raise”; see instead:
Q. orta-¹ “to raise, cause to rise, lift (up)”
Q., ᴹQ. orta-¹ v. “to raise, cause to rise, lift (up)”
ᴹQ. ortalima adj. “able to be raised”
ᴹQ. ortarë n. “lifting up”
⚠️ᴱQ. orto- v. “to raise”; see instead:
Q. orta-¹ “to raise, cause to rise, lift (up)”
⚠️Q. orya-² v. “*to raise”; see instead:
Q. orta-¹ “to raise, cause to rise, lift (up)”

10.225 to Hang, Dangle

⚠️ᴱQ. †cinca- v. “to hang (intr.)”
⚠️ᴱQ. cincata- v. “to hang (tr.)”
Q., ᴹQ. *linga- v. “[ᴹQ.] to hang, dangle”
⚠️ᴱQ. pipte- v. “to fall (of folds or clusters), hang, trail”; see instead:
Q. *linga- “[ᴹQ.] to hang, dangle”

10.23 to Fall

Q. atalantë n. “collapse, downfall”
Q. atalantëa adj. “ruinous, downfallen”
ᴹQ. atalta- v. “to collapse, fall in, fall down, slip down in ruin”
ᴹQ. ataltarë n. “collapse”
⚠️ᴱQ. iltanca adj. “unsteady”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lanta n. and adj. “fall; falling, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] fallen”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ., ᴱQ. lanta- v. “to fall; [ᴱQ.] to drop”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lantanwa adj. “fallen”
Q. #lantë n. “fall”
⚠️ᴱQ. númeta- v. “to get low (of the Sun), go down in the west”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. núta- v. “to lower; [ᴹQ.] to set, sink (of Sun or Moon); [ᴱQ.] to stoop”
Q. nútaitë (nútaiti-) adj. “?lowering (naturally), degrading”
Q. nútima adj. “*lowerable”
Q. núya- v. “to descend”
⚠️ᴱQ. suqu- v. “to fall, fail, go down, die down”; see instead:
Q. lanta- “to fall; [ᴱQ.] to drop”
Q. núya- “to descend”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. talta adj. “tottering, unsteady, [ᴱQ.] shaky, wobbling; [ᴹQ.] sloping, tilted, leaning, inclined, [ᴱQ.] slanting”
Q., ᴹQ. talta- v. “to slip, slide down, collapse, fall, [ᴹQ.] slip down, slope”
⚠️ᴹQ. unta- v. “to come down, descend”; see instead:
Q. núya- “to descend”

10.24 to Drop

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^lipta- v. “to drip”
⚠️ᴱQ. lipte- v. “to drip”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^lipta- “to drip”
⚠️ᴱQ. litl n. “tiny drop”; see instead:
ᴹQ. limba “drop”

10.25 to Throw

ᴺQ., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. hat- v. “[ᴱQ.] to hurl, fling, *throw”
ᴺQ. !nanhat- v. “to cast back, reflect”
⚠️ᴹQ. #rip- v. “to hurl”; see instead:
ᴺQ. hat- “[ᴱQ.] to hurl, fling, *throw”

10.26 to Shake

⚠️ᴺQ. !alapálima adj. “unshakable”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quas- “to shake, flap, nod, ⚠️rustle”
⚠️ᴱQ. pal- v. “to shake”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quas- “to shake, flap, nod, ⚠️rustle”
PAL “wide, broad, extended; [ᴹ√] wide (open); [ᴱ√] flatness”
⚠️ᴱQ. palmë n. “a shaking”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. pampilë n. “trembling”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. pampilëa adj. “tremulous”
⚠️ᴱQ., ᴱQ. pampinë n. “tremor, earthquake”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. pap- v. “to tremble”
⚠️ᴱQ. quap- v. “to throb, flutter”
⚠️ᴱQ. quapta-² v. “to flap”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quas- “to shake, flap, nod, ⚠️rustle”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quas- v. “to shake, flap, nod, ⚠️rustle”
ᴺQ. !quequer- v. “to wag”
Q., ᴹQ. raf- v. “to wave, brandish; [ᴹQ.] to snatch, seize”

10.31 to Boil (intrans.)

⚠️ᴱQ. pumpo n. “bubble; bladder; blister”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^welvë “bubble”
⚠️ᴱQ. pumpolë n. “bubble; merboy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^welvë “bubble”
⚠️ᴱQ. pus (pust-) n. “boil”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. wel- v. “to boil, bubble”
⚠️ᴱQ. welba adj. “boiling, bubbling”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^welva “boiling, bubbling”
⚠️ᴱQ. welbë n. “bubble”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^welvë “bubble”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^welva adj. “boiling, bubbling”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^welvë n. “bubble”

10.32 to Flow

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. celeta n. “trickle”
Q. celima adj. “fluent, *(lit.) able to flow freely”
⚠️ᴱQ. celta- v. “to draw water”; see instead:
ᴹQ. calpa- “to draw water, scoop out, bale out”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. celu- v. “to (begin to) flow, spring forth (of water)”
Q. celundë n. “welling forth”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^celusta n. “outflow”
⚠️ᴹQ. celustë n. “outflow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^celusta “outflow”
⚠️ᴱQ. linya- v. “to run or flow smoothly”; see instead:
Q. sirya- “to flow [smoothly]”
Q. luimë n. “flood, floodwater, flooded land; flood tide, high tide”
Q. luita- v. “to flood, inundate, drench”
⚠️ᴱQ. lúto n. “flood”; see instead:
Q. luimë “flood, floodwater, flooded land; flood tide, high tide”
Q. nanwë n. “ebb, lowtide”
Q. oloirë n. “great flood”
Q. oloiya- v. “to inundate, flood”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. sir- v. “to flow”
Q. sirëa adj. “flowing, liquid”
⚠️ᴱQ. sírima adj. “liquid, flowing”; see instead:
Q. sirëa “flowing, liquid”
Q., ᴹQ. sirya- v. “to flow [smoothly]”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. sóla n. “tide”
ᴺQ. !suhta- v. “to drain”
ᴹQ. úlëa adj. “pouring, flooding, flowing”
ᴹQ. ulundë n. “flood”

10.33 to Sink

ᴺQ., ᴹQ. sumba- v. “to submerge, *baptize”
⚠️ᴱQ. sunqua adj. “going down, descending; abysmal, deep, profound”; see instead:
Q. andú- “going down, setting (of sun), west”
⚠️ᴱQ. sunquë n. “going-down, descent, down-fall; abyss, depth”; see instead:
Q. andú- “going down, setting (of sun), west”
⚠️ᴱQ. sunquelaina adj. “falling, fading, setting”; see instead:
Q. andú- “going down, setting (of sun), west”
⚠️ᴱQ. sunquelë n. “sinking, falling, setting of heavenly bodies”; see instead:
Q. andú- “going down, setting (of sun), west”
⚠️ᴱQ. sunquelëa adj. “westering, setting”; see instead:
Q. andú- “going down, setting (of sun), west”
ᴺQ., ᴹQ. suv- v. “to sink (esp. in water)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tum- v. “to dive”; see instead:
ᴺQ. tumba- “to cast down; *to dive”
ᴺQ., ᴹQ. tumba- v. “to cast down; *to dive”
ᴺQ. !tumya- v. “to dip, ⚠️baptize”
Q. undulav- v. “to drown, swallow, submerge, (lit.) lick down”

10.34 to Float

ᴺQ., ᴱQ., ᴱQ. lut- v. “to float, flow, sail, *swim”

10.36 to Sail

ᴹQ. ciryasta n. “sail, *sailing”
⚠️ᴱQ. salta- v. “to sail”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lut- “to float, flow, sail, *swim”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. veluntë n. “sail”

10.37 to Fly

ᴺQ. !amavil- v. “to fly up, soar”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ramya- v. “to fly, sail; to wander”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ranya- “to stray, *wander”
ᴹQ. wil- “to fly, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] float, sail”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. wil- v. “to fly, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] float, sail”
Q. wilwa adj. “fluttering to and fro”

10.38 to Blow

Q. hlapu- v. “to blow, fly or stream in the wind”
ᴹQ. hwesta- v. “to puff”
⚠️ᴱQ. pus- v. “to puff, snort”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hwesta- “to puff”
⚠️ᴱQ. pusë n. “puff”; see instead:
Q. foa “breath, puff of breath”
⚠️ᴱQ. pusilla n. “puff, whiff, breeze”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hwesta “breeze, breath, puff of air”
⚠️ᴱQ. #pusta- v. “to blow”; see instead:
Q. hlapu- “to blow, fly or stream in the wind”
ᴹQ. pusta- “to stop, put a stop to, cease”
⚠️ᴱQ. pusulpë n. “gas-bag, balloon”
⚠️ᴱQ. pusulta- v. “to puff out with one’s breath”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hwesta- “to puff”
⚠️ᴱQ. sur- v. “to blow”; see instead:
Q. hlapu- “to blow, fly or stream in the wind”
Q. surya- [þ] v. “to blow (intr.)”
Q. sussë n. “puff (of air)”
Q. susta- [þ] v. “*to blow”
Q. súta- [þ] v. “to blow (tr.)”
Q. váva- v. “*to blow”
⚠️Q. váya- v. “to blow”

10.41 to Creep, Crawl

ᴹQ. hlic- v. “to creep”
ᴺQ. !lolóca- v. “to crawl”

10.43 to Jump, Leap

ᴹQ., ᴱQ., ᴱQ. cap- v. “to leap, [ᴱQ.] jump”
⚠️ᴱQ. capta-² v. “to leap”; see instead:
ᴺQ. capta- “to make spring, scatter, [ᴱQ.] startle”
ᴹQ. cap- “to leap, [ᴱQ.] jump”
⚠️ᴱQ. halta- v. “to leap”; see instead:
ᴹQ. cap- “to leap, [ᴱQ.] jump”
⚠️ᴱQ. hampa- v. “to hop”
ᴺQ. !lapa- v. “to hop”
⚠️ᴱQ. tanta-¹ v. “to bounce, bound, rebound”
⚠️ᴱQ. tantila- v. “to hop”
⚠️ᴱQ. tantya- v. “to set bouncing”

10.432 Leaping

ᴺQ. !capaitë adj. “leaping, bounding”
⚠️ᴱQ. capalima adj. “bounding, leaping”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !capaitë “leaping, bounding”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. capanda n. “jump”
ᴺQ. !capië n. “leap, ⚠️deep gorge”
⚠️ᴱQ. haloitë adj. “leaping”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !capaitë “leaping, bounding”
⚠️ᴱQ. tanta(ra) adj. “bouncing, resilient”

10.44 to Dance

⚠️ᴱQ. lilt- v. “to dance”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lilta- “to dance”
⚠️ᴱQ. lilt n. “dance”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^liltë “dance”
ᴹQ. lilta- v. “to dance”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^liltë n. “dance”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. liltië n. “dancing, dance”
Q. pirucendëa adj. “on the point of her toes”
Q. ruxoälë n. “Great Bear-dance”
⚠️ᴱQ. tanta-² v. “to dance (tr.), dandle, wave”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lilta- “to dance”
⚠️ᴱQ. tantarë n. “dance”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^liltë “dance”

10.45 to Walk

ᴺQ. !etevatta- v. “to trample out”
ᴺQ. !pat n. “step”
Q., ᴱQ. pata- v. “to walk, *stroll; [ᴱQ.] to rap, tap (of feet)”
⚠️ᴱQ. ramba- v. “to walk”
Q. #telconta- v. “to stride, *(lit.) to leg it”
ᴺQ. !tervanta- v. “to traverse”
ᴹQ. vanta n. “walk, *hike, march”
ᴹQ. vanta- v. “to walk, *trudge, trek”
ᴺQ. !vatta- v. “to trample”

10.46 to Run

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lop- v. “to gallop, *lope, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] run”
⚠️ᴱQ. lopeta- v. “to amble, lop”
⚠️ᴱQ. loquo- v. “to run (of human beings)”; see instead:
Q. nor-¹ “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^nonóra- v. “to run on, run smoothly and hum, *keep on running (especially of machines)”
Q. nor-¹ v. “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
Q. norië n. “running, ⚠️race”
Q. nórima adj. “strong/swift at running, swiftly running a course”
Q. normë n. “race (running)”
⚠️ᴱQ. nornoro- v. “to run on, run smoothly and hum”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^nonóra- “to run on, run smoothly and hum, *keep on running (especially of machines)”
Q. noroitë (noroiti-) adj. “(capable of) running”
Q. norolinda adj. “*tripping lightly”
⚠️ᴱQ. norolindë adj. “tripping lightly”
⚠️ᴱQ. nyoro- v. “to run”; see instead:
Q. nor-¹ “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
⚠️ᴱQ. pelte- v. “to run”; see instead:
Q. nor-¹ “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
⚠️ᴹQ. rohta- v. “?to run on foot”; see instead:
Q. nor-¹ “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yur- v. “to run”; see instead:
Q. nor-¹ “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
⚠️ᴱQ. yuro n. “a run, race”; see instead:
Q. normë “race (running)”
⚠️ᴱQ. yuru- v. “to run”; see instead:
Q. nor-¹ “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”

10.47 to Go

⚠️ᴱQ. ere-² v. “to go”; see instead:
Q. men- “to go, proceed, move (generally); ⚠️to come, arrive”
ᴺQ. !etelelya- v. “to go out, ⚠️go into exile”
ᴺQ. !etemen- v. “to go out, go forth”
⚠️ᴱQ. inta- v. “to go (indefinite), fare, proceed”
ᴺQ. !lelelya- v. “to travel”
Q. lelya-¹ v. “to go, proceed (in any direction), travel”
Q. lenda n. “journey, *travel, trip”
Q. lenda- v. “to go free”
⚠️ᴺQ. !lendë n. “journey”; see instead:
Q. lenda “journey, *travel, trip”
ᴺQ. !lendië n. “tourism, *traveling”
⚠️ᴹQ. lesto (lestu-) n. “journey”; see instead:
Q. lenda “journey, *travel, trip”
Q. lomentië n. “?journey away”
Q. men- v. “to go, proceed, move (generally); ⚠️to come, arrive”
ᴹQ. mena- v. “to be making for, be on way to”
Q. mentië n. “passage, journey, direction of travel”
⚠️ᴺQ. !rata- v. “to make a way, find a way”; see instead:
Q. ráta- “to excel, surpass”
⚠️ᴱQ. tie- v. “to go”; see instead:
Q. men- “to go, proceed, move (generally); ⚠️to come, arrive”
⚠️Q. tinga- v. “to go (for a long while)”; see instead:
Q. men- “to go, proceed, move (generally); ⚠️to come, arrive”
ᴹQ. tinga- “to twang”

10.48 to Come

⚠️ᴱQ. #antulu- v. “to return”; see instead:
Q. #entul- “to come again, *return”
⚠️ᴹQ. attul- v. “to come back, return”; see instead:
Q. #entul- “to come again, *return”
Q. #entul- v. “to come again, *return”
Q. entulessë n. “return”
ᴹQ. #ettul- v. “*to come forth, come out, issue”
Q. hótul- v. “to come away”
⚠️ᴱQ. *lé- v. “to come, be sent, approach”; see instead:
Q. tul- “to come, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] move (intr.); to bring, carry, fetch; to produce, bear fruit”
Q. tulta- “to send (from point of view of receiver), [ᴹQ.] to send for, send hither, fetch, summon, (lit.) cause to come”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ. #lenna- v. “to come; [ᴹQ.] to go, depart”; see instead:
Q. tul- “to come, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] move (intr.); to bring, carry, fetch; to produce, bear fruit”
Q. lelya-¹ “to go, proceed (in any direction), travel”
ᴹQ. #nan-² v. “to go back”
Q. nanwen- v. “to return, go/come back”
Q. ral- v. “to return (intransitive)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ., ᴱQ. tul- v. “to come, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] move (intr.); to bring, carry, fetch; to produce, bear fruit”
Q. tutulla- v. “to keep on coming (and going)”
ᴹQ. tutulla- v. “to keep on coming (and going)”

10.49 to Depart, Go Away

⚠️ᴹQ. apsa- v. “to away, go away”; see instead:
Q. apta- “to refuse, deny, say nay”
Q. auta-¹ “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
Q., ᴹQ. auta-¹ v. “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
ᴺQ. !autaila adj. “going, passing, nearly gone”
⚠️ᴱQ. #ava- v. “to depart”; see instead:
Q. auta-¹ “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
⚠️ᴱQ. avandë interj. “get hence!”; see instead:
Q. heca “be gone!, stand aside!”
⚠️ᴱQ. avanwa adj. “going, passing, nearly gone”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !autaila “going, passing, nearly gone”
Q. avanwa “refused, forbidden, banned”
Q. etsurya- [þ] v. “to go out”
Q. heca v. “be gone!, stand aside!”
Q. lenwë n. “leaving, departure”
Q. lenweta- v. “to go away, migrate, leave one’s abode”
⚠️ᴹQ. lesta- v. “to leave”; see instead:
Q. auta-¹ “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
⚠️ᴱQ. vana- v. “to pass, depart, vanish, go away”; see instead:
Q. auta-¹ “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vanwa adj. “gone, lost, departed, vanished, past, over, no longer to be had, passed away, dead, [ᴹQ.] gone for good; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] on the road”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ. vanya- v. “to pass, [ᴹQ.] go, depart, disappear”; see instead:
Q. auta-¹ “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
⚠️Q. var adv. “*from, away to”

10.50 to Fade

Q. fifíru- v. “to slowly fade away”
⚠️ᴱQ. #hista- v. “to fade”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sinta- “to fade, *(lit.) become grey”
⚠️ᴱQ. minda- v. “to diminish, fade, lessen, vanish”; see instead:
Q. píca- “to lessen, dwindle, wane”
⚠️ᴱQ. minga adj. “waning”; see instead:
Q. píca- “to lessen, dwindle, wane”
Q. píca- v. “to lessen, dwindle, wane”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #quel- v. “to fade; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] †to fail; [ᴱQ.] to perish”
ᴹQ. sinta- [þ] v. “to fade, *(lit.) become grey”
⚠️ᴹQ. vinda- v. “to fade”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sinta- “to fade, *(lit.) become grey”

10.51 to Flee

ᴺQ. !lerca- v. “to flee”
ᴺQ. !lercië n. “flight”

10.52 to Follow

ᴺQ. !hilmë n. “following (act of)”
ᴹQ. hilya- v. “to follow”
ᴹQ. neuro n. “follower, successor”

10.53 to Pursue

ᴹQ. alfárima adj. “impossible to pursue”
⚠️ᴱQ. rawa- v. “to run, chase”; see instead:
Q. nor-¹ “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
ᴹQ. roita- “to pursue, *chase”
ᴹQ. roita- v. “to pursue, *chase”

10.54 to Overtake

ᴺQ. !at- v. “to catch, capture”
⚠️ᴱQ. lac (laqu-) n. “snare”; see instead:
Q. remma “snare”
ᴹQ. neuma “snare, *noose”
⚠️ᴱQ. laqua- v. “to catch, seize, snare”; see instead:
Q. raf- “to wave, brandish; [ᴹQ.] to snatch, seize”
Q. #rem- “to snare”
ᴹQ. mapa- “to grasp, seize, [ᴱQ.] take; ⚠️to ravish, seize and carry off forcibly”
ᴹQ. neuma n. “snare, *noose”
Q. #rem- v. “to snare”
Q. remma n. “snare”

10.55 to Reach, Arrive

Q. anya- v. “to reach, go to, arrive at”
ᴺQ. !anyaitië n. “range, reach, distance of capability”
ᴺQ. !eterahta- v. “to reach out”
⚠️Q. ten- v. “to arrive, come to”; see instead:
Q. anya- “to reach, go to, arrive at”
⚠️Q. †tenya- v. “to arrive, end (not at speaker’s[?] place)”; see instead:
Q. anya- “to reach, go to, arrive at”
Q. tulusta n. “advent, arrival”
⚠️ᴹQ. tulustë n. “arrival”; see instead:
Q. tulusta “advent, arrival”

10.56 to Approach

ᴺQ. !analelya- v. “to approach”
Q. úva- v. “to impend, be imminent, draw near”

10.57 to Enter

⚠️ᴱQ. elte- v. “to thrust in”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ter- “to pierce”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. mitta- v. “to insert; [ᴹQ.] to come in, [ᴱQ.] enter”
Q. #mittar(ë) n. “*entering”
⚠️ᴱQ. pen prep. “through”; see instead:
Q. ter “through”
⚠️ᴱQ. perma n. “passage; pass, aperture”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ter prep. “through”

10.61 to Bear, Carry

Q. #col- v. “to bear, carry, wear”
Q. #colindo n. “bearer”
Q. colla adj. and n. “borne, worn; vestment, cloak”
Q. coloitë (coloiti-) adj. “capable of bearing, tolerant (of), enduring”
Q. coloitië n. “endurance, staunchness, fortitude”
⚠️ᴱQ. tala- v. “to carry, bring; to weigh (intr.)”; see instead:
Q. #col- “to bear, carry, wear”
Q. tulya- “*to lead; [ᴱQ.] to bring, ⚠️send”
⚠️ᴱQ. yulu- v. “to carry”; see instead:
Q. #col- “to bear, carry, wear”
Q. yul- “to drink”

10.62 to Bring

ᴺQ. !autulya- v. “to deport, (lit.) bring away”
ᴺQ. !autulyalë n. “deportation”
⚠️ᴱQ. tulalca adj. “able to bring”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !tulyaitë “able to bring”
ᴺQ., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. túlima adj. “[ᴱQ.] bringable, worth bringing, able to be brought”
⚠️ᴱQ. tulinya adj. “(bringable) worth bringing”; see instead:
ᴺQ. túlima “[ᴱQ.] bringable, worth bringing, able to be brought”
Q., ᴱQ. tulya- v. “*to lead; [ᴱQ.] to bring, ⚠️send”
ᴺQ. !tulyaitë adj. “able to bring”
Q. tulyandë n. “fetching”

10.63 to Send

ᴺQ. !atamenta- v. “to transmit”
ᴺQ. !atamentië n. “transmission”
⚠️ᴱQ. esta- v. “to send”; see instead:
Q. menta-¹ “to send, cause to go (in a desired direction)”
ᴹQ. esta-¹ “to name”
⚠️ᴺQ. !etementa- v. “to banish, send out, (lit.) out-send”; see instead:
Q. #etya “exiled”
Q. #lelta- v. “to send, (lit.) *cause to go”
Q. #menta n. “sending, message”
Q. menta-¹ v. “to send, cause to go (in a desired direction)”
⚠️Q. menta-² v. “have as object, (in)tend, proceed, make for, go towards”; see instead:
Q. men- “to go, proceed, move (generally); ⚠️to come, arrive”
Q., ᴹQ. tulta- v. “to send (from point of view of receiver), [ᴹQ.] to send for, send hither, fetch, summon, (lit.) cause to come”
Q. tultaima adj. “*fetchable, summonable”

10.64 to Lead

Q. mittanya- v. “*to lead (into)”
ᴺQ. !nópata- v. “to precede, (lit.) to walk before”
ᴺQ. !tulyando n. “leader”

10.645 to Wander, Stray

ᴹQ. mista- v. “to stray about”
ᴺQ. !mistana adj. “stray”
⚠️ᴱQ. palava- v. “to stray, wander”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ranya- “to stray, *wander”
⚠️ᴱQ. paláva adj. “wandering”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !ranyaila “wandering”
⚠️ᴱQ. palwa- v. “to make wander”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ranya- “to stray, *wander”
ᴹQ. ránë n. “straying, wandering”
ᴹQ. ránen adj. “errant”
Q., ᴹQ. ranya n. “erratic wandering; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] free”
ᴹQ. ranya- v. “to stray, *wander”
ᴺQ. !ranyaila adj. “wandering”
ᴺQ. !ranyar n. “wanderer”

10.65 to Drive

⚠️ᴱQ. #ele- v. “to drive; to come”; see instead:
Q. nir- “to press, thrust, force (in a given direction)”
Q. tul- “to come, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] move (intr.); to bring, carry, fetch; to produce, bear fruit”
⚠️ᴹQ. #lhit- v. “to speed”; see instead:
ᴹQ. horta- “to send flying, speed, urge”

10.66 to Ride

⚠️ᴱQ. lehesta n. “ride, riding, raid”
⚠️ᴱQ. lehta- v. “to ride, move (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lehta- “to loose, slacken”
Q. norta- “to make run (specially used of riding horses or other animals), ride”
Q. norta- v. “to make run (specially used of riding horses or other animals), ride”
Q. roquen n. “knight, horseman, rider”

10.67 to Push, Shove

⚠️ᴱQ. elta n. “a thrust”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nista “thrust, push, shove”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilt- v. “to thrust home, come in”
Q. nir- v. “to press, thrust, force (in a given direction)”
Q. nírë n. “force”
Q. nírítë adj. “forceful, exerting great thrust or pressure, driving”
ᴺQ. !nista n. “thrust, push, shove”
Q. rúma- v. “to shift, move, heave (of large and heavy things)”

10.71 Road

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. aldeon (aldeond-) n. “avenue (of trees)”
ᴺQ. !ómen n. “crossroads”
ᴹQ. tëa n. “straight line, road”
⚠️ᴱQ. vasta n. “road”; see instead:
ᴹQ. mallë “street, (made or stone) road”

10.72 Path

Q., ᴹQ. men n. “way; [ᴹQ.] place, spot”
ᴺQ., ᴹQ. ranta n. “course”
⚠️ᴺQ. !rata n. “path, track”; see instead:
Q. tië “path, road, way, line, [ᴹQ.] course, direction, [ᴱQ.] route”
Q. ráta- “to excel, surpass”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ratta n. “street, course, river-bed”; see instead:
Q. ratta “track”
ᴹQ. mallë “street, (made or stone) road”
Q. ratta n. “track”
⚠️ᴱQ. raumë n. “running, course”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ranta “course”
Q. norië “running, ⚠️race”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tië n. “path, road, way, line, [ᴹQ.] course, direction, [ᴱQ.] route”
⚠️ᴱQ. #van (vand-) n. “way, path”; see instead:
Q. tië “path, road, way, line, [ᴹQ.] course, direction, [ᴱQ.] route”
ᴹQ. ván “goose”
ᴺQ. !vata n. “beaten track, pathway”

10.73 Street

ᴺQ. !aramallë n. “side-street”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. mallë n. “street, (made or stone) road”

10.74 Bridge

⚠️ᴱQ. penda¹ n. “bridge”; see instead:
Q. yanta “bridge”
⚠️ᴱQ. ranta¹ n. “arch, bridge”; see instead:
ᴺQ. cúnë “crescent, arch, ⚠️bow”
Q. yanta “bridge”
⚠️ᴱQ. sarapenda n. “wood-bridge”; see instead:
Q. yanta “bridge”
Q., ᴹQ. yanta n. “bridge”

10.75 Cart, Wagon, Carriage

ᴺQ. !angaraxa n. “train”
ᴺQ. !ataquer n. “bike, bicycle”
ᴺQ. !immenwa n. “automobile”
Q. lunca n. “heavy transport wain”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. norollë n. “cart”
Q. ondolunca n. “stonewain”
Q. raxa n. “wain, *wagon”

10.76 Wheel

Q. querma n. “spinning wheel, turn-table, *wheel”
⚠️ᴱQ. quirin n. “wheel”; see instead:
Q. querma “spinning wheel, turn-table, *wheel”

10.78 Yoke

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. yalta n. “yoke”
⚠️ᴹQ. yanta² n. “yoke”; see instead:
Q. yanta “bridge”
ᴺQ. yalta “yoke”
⚠️ᴱQ. yarta n. “yoke”; see instead:
ᴺQ. yalta “yoke”

10.81 Ship

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. cirya¹ n. “(sharp-prowed) ship, [ᴹQ.] boat; [Q.] swift gliding”
⚠️ᴹQ. ciryahto n. “shipwright”; see instead:
Q. ciryatan “shipbuilder, shipwright”
⚠️ᴱQ. ciryassëa adj. “what is on board ship”
Q. ciryatan n. “shipbuilder, shipwright”
⚠️ᴱQ. vëacirya n. “sea-ship”

10.82 Sailor

Q. ciryamo n. “mariner”
Q. ciryando n. “sailor”
Q. ciryaquen n. “shipman, sailor”
Q. eärendur n. “(professional) mariner, (lit.) *servant of the sea”
⚠️ᴹQ. vainar n. “sailor”; see instead:
Q. ciryando “sailor”
⚠️ᴹQ. vëaner² (vëanér-) n. “sailor”; see instead:
Q. ciryando “sailor”
⚠️ᴱQ. veniel n. “mariner”; see instead:
Q. ciryamo “mariner”
Q. eärendur “(professional) mariner, (lit.) *servant of the sea”
⚠️ᴱQ. yarendila adj. “like a sailor”; see instead:
Q. ciryando “sailor”
⚠️ᴱQ. yarendilyon n. “sailor”; see instead:
Q. ciryando “sailor”

10.83 Boat

ᴺQ. !angulóceluntë n. “dragon boat”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. luntë n. “boat, [ᴱQ.] ship”
⚠️ᴱQ. marcirya n. “ark”

10.85 Oar

ᴺQ. !palma¹ n. “flat tool, flat plank, oar”

10.86 Rudder

ᴺQ. !tulla n. “rudder”

10.87 Mast

ᴹQ. ferna n. “mast, beechnuts”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tyulma n. “mast”

10.88 Sail (n)

⚠️ᴱQ. tala² n. “sail”

10.89 Anchor (n)

ᴺQ. !ciryampa n. “anchor, (lit.) boat-hook”

10.90 Port, Harbor

⚠️ᴺQ. !ciryapanda n. “haven, (lit.) ship-enclosure”; see instead:
Q. londë “(land-locked) haven; [ᴹQ.] road (in sea), fairway, entrance to harbour; gulf”
⚠️ᴱQ. cópa n. “harbour, haven, bay”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hópa “haven, harbour, small landlocked bay”
ᴹQ. hópa n. “haven, harbour, small landlocked bay”
ᴹQ. hopassë n. “harbourage”
Q., ᴹQ. londë n. “(land-locked) haven; [ᴹQ.] road (in sea), fairway, entrance to harbour; gulf”
Q. #londië n. “harbourage”

11. Possession and Trade

11.11 to Have

Q., ᴹQ. #harya- v. “to have, [ᴹQ.] possess”
⚠️ᴺQ. !inyenna adv. “have, (lit.) added to me”; see instead:
Q. #sam- “to have”
⚠️Q. mai-² v. “to have, possess”; see instead:
Q. #sam- “to have”
Q. #harya- “to have, [ᴹQ.] possess”
Q. #sam- v. “to have”

11.12 to Own, Possess

ᴹQ. arwa adj. and suf. “possessing, having, in control of”
Q. auvië n. “possession (abstract), *the act of possessing”
ᴺQ. !harno n. “possessor”
⚠️ᴱQ. mactë² (maxi-) n. “hold, grip, power, possession”; see instead:
ᴺQ. mahtë “hold, grip, *grasp; ⚠️power, possession”
⚠️ᴱQ. milc(i)- v. “to possess, have, keep”; see instead:
Q. #harya- “to have, [ᴹQ.] possess”
Q. #sam- “to have”
Q. oa- v. “to possess, own, keep”
ᴺQ. !oamo n. “owner”
⚠️ᴱQ. #yaim- v. “to possess”; see instead:
Q. #harya- “to have, [ᴹQ.] possess”

11.13 to Take

ᴺQ. !aucol- v. “to remove, (lit.) bear away”
ᴺQ. !haita- v. “to remove, (lit.) make distant”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lep- v. “to take [with fingers], *pick, pluck”
Q. nehta- v. “to deprive”
⚠️ᴹQ. ruc- v. “to pluck”; see instead:
Q. #ruc- “to feel fear or horror; *to flee (to)”
ᴺQ. lep- “to take [with fingers], *pick, pluck”

11.14 to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of

⚠️ᴱQ. #aqua- v. “to seize”; see instead:
Q. raf- “to wave, brandish; [ᴹQ.] to snatch, seize”
ᴹQ. mapa- “to grasp, seize, [ᴱQ.] take; ⚠️to ravish, seize and carry off forcibly”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. mahtë n. “hold, grip, *grasp; ⚠️power, possession”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ., ᴱQ. mapa- v. “to grasp, seize, [ᴱQ.] take; ⚠️to ravish, seize and carry off forcibly”
⚠️ᴺQ. !rapa- v. “to snatch”; see instead:
Q. raf- “to wave, brandish; [ᴹQ.] to snatch, seize”

11.15 to Hold

ᴺQ. !camya- v. “to contain, hold”
⚠️ᴱQ. culp- v. “to contain”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. vainë n. “sheath, pod”
⚠️ᴱQ. yava-² v. “to hold”

11.16 to Get, Obtain

⚠️Q. #cam- v. “to receive”; see instead:
Q. #cav- “to receive, *accept”
Q. #cav- v. “to receive, *accept”
ᴺQ. !cávima v. “acceptable”
⚠️ᴺQ. !maicámima adj. “acceptable, (lit.) well-receivable”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cávima “acceptable”
ᴺQ. !maicarindo n. “benefactor”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. net- [ñ] v. “to get”
⚠️ᴱQ. tuvu- v. “to receive, accept, take, require, cost”; see instead:
Q. #cav- “to receive, *accept”
Q. #tuv- “to find, discover”

11.17 to Keep, Retain

ᴺQ. !ambahep- v. “to maintain, (lit.) upkeep”
ᴺQ. !camma n. “receptacle”
ᴺQ. !fillannë n. “sack-cloth”
Q. hampa adj. “restrained, delayed, kept”
⚠️ᴺQ. !hap-² v. “to retain, keep, detain”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hep- “to keep”
ᴺQ. !hapya- “to delay, retain, keep (temporarily)”
ᴺQ. !hep- v. “to keep”

11.21 to Give

⚠️ᴱQ. an (and-) n. “gift”; see instead:
Q. anna “gift, (orig.) thing handed, brought or sent to a person, *present”
⚠️ᴱQ. anar (anard-) n. “giver”; see instead:
ᴹQ. anto “giver (m.)”
Q., ᴹQ. anna n. “gift, (orig.) thing handed, brought or sent to a person, *present”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. anta- v. “to give, present; †to add to”
ᴹQ. antë n. “giver (f.)”
ᴹQ. anto n. “giver (m.)”
ᴺQ. !aranta- v. “to turn over, (lit.) give by”

11.22 to Return, Give Back

⚠️ᴺQ. !atanta- v. “to give back”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nananta- “to give back, *return [something]”
ᴺQ. !minomë adv. “instead, in place of, in exchange of”
ᴺQ. !nampaitya- v. “to pay back”
ᴺQ. !nampaityalë n. “paying back, *restitution”
ᴺQ. !nananta- v. “to give back, *return [something]”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nancam- v. “to receive back”; see instead:
Q. #cav- “to receive, *accept”
ᴺQ. !nanwenta- v. “to send back”
ᴺQ. !ralya- v. “to return (intransitive)”

11.23 to Restore

ᴺQ. !apterya- v. “to repair, fix”
Q. ceulë n. “*renewal”
Q. ceura adj. “renewed”
Q. ceuta- v. “to renew, refresh”
⚠️ᴱQ. loista- v. “to refresh”; see instead:
Q. ceuta- “to renew, refresh”

11.24 to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe

⚠️ᴱQ. alantya adj. “*shielded, protected”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. alatya- v. “to shield, ward off, ⚠️protect”
Q. cauma n. “protection, shelter, shield”
⚠️ᴱQ. moina adj. “safe, secure”; see instead:
ᴹQ. varna “safe, protected, secure”
ᴹQ. moina “familiar, dear”
⚠️ᴱQ. quára n. “watch, ward”; see instead:
ᴺQ. tiris “watch, vigil, ward”
ᴺQ. !sótë n. “refuge”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ., ᴱQ. tarqua- v. “to dry, preserve; to pickle”
⚠️ᴹQ. varilë n. “protection”; see instead:
ᴹQ. varnassë “security”
Q. cauma “protection, shelter, shield”
ᴹQ. varna adj. “safe, protected, secure”
ᴹQ. varnassë n. “security”
ᴺQ. !varno n. “protector, guard”
ᴹQ. varya- v. “to protect”
ᴺQ. !varyando n. “protector”
ᴺQ. !vorta- v. “to preserve, make lasting”

11.25 to Save, Rescue

Q. etelehta- v. “*to deliver”
ᴺQ. !etelehto n. “deliverer”
Q. eterúna- v. “*to deliver”
Q. #rehta- v. “to rescue, save”
Q. rehtië n. “rescue, saving”
ᴺQ. !rehto n. “savior”
⚠️ᴱQ. resta- v. “to aid, come to aid of, rescue, save”; see instead:
Q. #rehta- “to rescue, save”
Q. runando n. “*redeemer”
ᴺQ. !sámë [þ] n. “salvation, saving, help”
ᴹQ. #sáro [þ] n. “saviour”

11.27 to Destroy

ᴺQ. !alanancárima adj. “indestructible”
Q. #nancar- v. “to undo, *destroy”
ᴺQ. !nancárima adj. “destructible”
ᴺQ. !nancarindo n. “destroyer”
ᴺQ. !nancáro n. “destroyer”
Q., ᴹQ. #nwar- [ñ] v. “to fret, wear away, [ᴹQ.] erode; to gnaw”

11.28 to Harm, Injure, Damage

Q. alahasta adj. “unmarred”
Q. †χarina adj. “marred”
Q. #hasta- v. “to mar”
Q. hastaina adj. “marred”
⚠️ᴱQ. hyan- v. “to injure”; see instead:
ᴹQ. harna- “to wound, *injure, hurt, damage”
⚠️ᴱQ. hyanda² n. “harm, damage”
⚠️ᴱQ. mala-¹ v. “to hurt, pain”
⚠️ᴹQ. sac- v. “to be hurt”; see instead:
ᴹQ. harna- “to wound, *injure, hurt, damage”
Q. sac- “to close”
Q. sahta adj. “marred”
Q. †úχarin adj. “unmarred”
Q. úvana adj. “marred”

11.29 to Spoil

⚠️ᴱQ. avalta- v. “to strip, despoil, denude”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !helta- “to strip, bar, peel; *to despoil, denude”
ᴺQ. !hastalë n. “corruption”
ᴺQ. !hastima adj. “corruptible”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. hessa adj. “withered, ⚠️dead”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. hesta- v. “to wither”
⚠️ᴱQ. il(l)oitë adj. “withered, dead”; see instead:
ᴺQ. hessa “withered, ⚠️dead”
⚠️ᴱQ. minu- v. “to make less, decrease, spoil, alter for worse”; see instead:
Q. píca- “to lessen, dwindle, wane”
⚠️ᴱQ. narqua adj. “faded, shrivelled”; see instead:
ᴺQ. hessa “withered, ⚠️dead”
⚠️ᴱQ. narqua- v. “to wither”; see instead:
ᴺQ. hesta- “to wither”
⚠️ᴱQ. narquelë n. “fading, withering”; see instead:
Q. #quelië “*fading”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^quelehtië n. “rot, corruption”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^quelehtima adj. “corrupt, rotten”
⚠️ᴱQ. quelexië n. “rot, corruption”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^quelehtië “rot, corruption”
⚠️ᴱQ. quelexima adj. “corrupt, rotten”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^quelehtima “corrupt, rotten”
Q. rúcina adj. “confused, shattered, disordered, ruined”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tyur- v. “to ‘turn’ milk, curdle (blood etc.)”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tyurda adj. “curdled”

11.31 to Seek

ᴺQ. !alacestaima adj. “unsearchable”
⚠️ᴺQ. !alacestima adj. “unsearchable”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !alacestaima “unsearchable”
Q. ces- [þ] v. “to search, examine (in order to find something)”
ᴺQ. !cesië [þ] n. “search”
Q. cesta-¹ v. “to seek, search for”
⚠️ᴱQ. saca- v. “to pursue, look for, search”; see instead:
Q. ces- “to search, examine (in order to find something)”
⚠️ᴱQ. satl n. “search, enquiry”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cesië “search”
ᴺQ. ^minasurië “enquiry, *research”
Q. *sur- v. “*to seek”
Q. *surië n. “*(an act of) seeking”
⚠️ᴱQ. tuctalla n. “*search”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cesië “search”
⚠️ᴱQ. tucu- v. “to go in search of, look for, fetch”; see instead:
Q. cesta-¹ “to seek, search for”

11.32 to Find

ᴺQ. !alahírima adj. “unfindable, impossible to find”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. cim- v. “to find; [ᴱQ.] to heed”; see instead:
Q. hir- “to find”
Q. tir- “to watch (over), guard, heed; to look (at), gaze, observe; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] to keep, preserve”
Q. ecces- [þ] v. “to find out, bring out by examining or eyeing[?]”
Q. hir- v. “to find”
Q., ᴹQ. #tuv- v. “to find, discover”
Q. túvima adj. “discoverable”

11.33 to Lose

⚠️ᴺQ. !laisa- v. “to let slip, lose, mislay; (intr.) to be lost”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !penta- “to lose”
ᴺQ. !etsen- “to let loose, release, forget”
ᴺQ. !penta- v. “to lose”
⚠️ᴺQ. !úhep- v. “to lose, (lit.) to un-keep”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !penta- “to lose”
⚠️ᴺQ. !úhepië n. “loss”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !penta- “to lose”
⚠️ᴺQ. !únet- [ñ] v. “to lose, (lit.) to un-get”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !penta- “to lose”
ᴺQ. !vanwë n. “loss (abstract/general)”

11.34 to Release

⚠️ᴱQ. erefainu n. “release”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !leryalë “release”
⚠️ᴱQ. fainu- v. “to release”; see instead:
Q. lerya- “to release, set free, let go”
⚠️ᴱQ. lapta- v. “?to relax, loosen”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lehta- “to loose, slacken”
ᴹQ. lehta- v. “to loose, slacken”
Q. lerya- v. “to release, set free, let go”
ᴺQ. !leryalë n. “release”
Q. rúna- v. “to free”
Q. sen- v. “to let loose, free, let go”
ᴺQ. !únut- v. “to untie”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. us- [þ] v. “to escape, get out”
⚠️ᴱQ. #úsiéra adj. “*escaped”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. uswë [þ] n. “escape, issue, outlet”

11.41 Property

Q. aura n. “possession, thing owned”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^aurië n. “wealth [in possessions], property”
⚠️ᴱQ. autë¹ n. “goods, property, wealth, money”; see instead:
ᴹQ. armar “goods”
ᴺQ. ^aurië “wealth [in possessions], property”
Q. telpë “silver; [ᴱQ.] money”
Q. satya adj. “private, separate, not common, excluded”
Q. véra adj. “personal, private, own”

11.42 Wealth, Riches

⚠️ᴱQ. ausië n. “wealth”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^aurië “wealth [in possessions], property”
ᴹQ. heren n. “fortune, (lit.) governance”
⚠️ᴱQ. milcin n. “wealth”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^aurië “wealth [in possessions], property”

11.43 Money

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. telpilin n. “silver piece, *silver coin”

11.46 Treasure

⚠️ᴱQ. foa n. “hoard, treasure”; see instead:
Q. haura² “hoard, store”
Q. foa “breath, puff of breath”
Q., ᴹQ. harma n. “treasure, [ᴹQ.] treasured thing”
ᴹQ. harwë¹ n. “treasure, treasury”
Q. maina n. “thing of excellence, treasure”

11.47 Bank

Q. haura² n. “hoard, store”
ᴺQ. !sarnomo n. “banker”

11.48 Heir

ᴹQ. aryon n. “heir”
ᴺQ. !aryonië n. “inheritance”
Q. atamir n. “heirloom”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #hildë n. “heir, follower; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] child”

11.51 Rich

⚠️ᴱQ. autë² (ausi-) adj. “rich”; see instead:
Q. alya “[ᴹQ.] rich, prosperous, abundant, blessed; ⚠️[Q.] fair, good”
ᴹQ. herenya “fortunate, wealthy, blessed, rich”
⚠️ᴱQ. avarna adj. “very rich”; see instead:
Q. alya “[ᴹQ.] rich, prosperous, abundant, blessed; ⚠️[Q.] fair, good”
ᴹQ. herenya adj. “fortunate, wealthy, blessed, rich”
⚠️ᴱQ. malcë (malci-) adj. “rich”; see instead:
Q. alya “[ᴹQ.] rich, prosperous, abundant, blessed; ⚠️[Q.] fair, good”

11.52 Poor

⚠️ᴱQ. mangë² n. “lack, want, shortage”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !penië “lack, want, shortage”
⚠️ᴱQ. oica adj. “poor”; see instead:
Q. penya “lacking, inadequate; *poor”
⚠️ᴱQ. oisë n. “poverty”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !penyalë “poverty, deprivation”
⚠️ᴱQ. oiswa adj. “poor”; see instead:
Q. penya “lacking, inadequate; *poor”
ᴺQ. !penië n. “lack, want, shortage”
Q. penna adj. and n. “lacking; vowel”
ᴺQ. !penno n. “poor man”
Q. penya adj. “lacking, inadequate; *poor”
ᴺQ. !penyalë n. “poverty, deprivation”
Q. #racina adj. “stripped, deprived”

11.53 Beggar

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. iqu- v. “to beg, ‘pray’”
ᴺQ. !iquindo n. “beggar”

11.56 to Steal

⚠️ᴱQ. naqua- v. “to steal”; see instead:
ᴺQ. pil- “to steal”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. pil- v. “to steal”

11.57 Thief

Q. arpo n. “seizer, thief”
ᴺQ. !aumapando n. “abductor, (lit.) away-seizer”
⚠️ᴱQ. naquar n. “thief”; see instead:
ᴺQ. pilu “thief, robber”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. pilu n. “thief, robber”

11.61 to Lend

ᴺQ. !yutya- v. “to lend, loan”

11.64 Debt

Q. #lucassë n. “*debt, trespass”
Q. #lucië n. “*debt, trespass”
Q. #lucindo n. “*debtor, one who trespasses”
Q. #luhta n. “*debt, trespass”
ᴹQ. nauta adj. “bound, obliged”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. paitya- v. “to repay, requite”
Q. #rocindë n. “*debtor, one who trespasses”
Q. #rohta n. “*debt, trespass”

11.65 to Pay

ᴺQ. !paityalë n. “reward, payment”

11.66 Account, Reckoning

Q., ᴹQ. #onot- v. “[ᴹQ.] to count up, *reckon”
Q. #onótië n. “*reckoning”
Q. onótimo n. “*reckoner”

11.67 Surety, Security

ᴺQ., ᴹQ. ovesta n. “contract, compact, treaty”
⚠️ᴹQ. vesta² n. “contract”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ovesta “contract, compact, treaty”

11.69 Tax (n)

⚠️ᴺQ. !hótocië n. “tax”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !tungwë “tax”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. toc- v. “to appraise, tax, assess, assay; ⚠️to try, test, essay, endeavour; to feel with the hand, handle”
ᴺQ. !tungwë n. “tax”
ᴺQ. !tungwemen n. “tax-office”
ᴺQ. !tungwemo n. “tax-collector”
⚠️ᴺQ. !túrëautocië n. “tax”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !tungwë “tax”

11.72 Cost, Expense

⚠️ᴱQ. vil(dë) n. “matter, business, affair, thing”; see instead:
Q. caraitië “activity, business”
⚠️ᴱQ. #vildi- v. “to matter; to be of significance, worth, moment”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^valda- “to matter; to be of significance, worth, moment”
⚠️ᴱQ. vildima adj. “essential, imperative”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^valdima “essential, imperative”

11.73 Gain, Profit

ᴺQ. !cambië n. “profit, gain, intake, income”

11.79 to Earn

ᴺQ. !namoia- v. “to work (hard) for; to earn”

11.81 to Buy

ᴺQ. !homanca- v. “to buy”

11.82 to Sell

ᴺQ. !aumanca- v. “to sell, (lit.) trade away”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^maxë n. “sale”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quampa n. “peddlar-goods”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quampa- v. “to hawk goods”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quampalë n. “chaffering, *haggling, bargaining”
⚠️ᴱQ. vaxë n. “sale”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^maxë “sale”
ᴹQ. vaxë “stain”

11.83 to Trade

ᴺQ. !eccol- v. “to export”
ᴹQ. manca- v. “to trade”
ᴹQ. mancalë n. “commerce, *trade [as an activity]”
ᴺQ. !micol- v. “to import”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quap- v. “to chaffer, bargain, swap, barter”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quapta n. “deal, bargain”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quapta- v. “to exchange”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quaptalë n. “exchange”
ᴺQ. !quaptando n. “money-changer, (lit.) exchanger”
ᴺQ. !sundoharmar n. “capital [funds], (lit.) base treasures”
ᴺQ. !telpevistando n. “money-changer”
⚠️ᴱQ. vactelë n. “trade”; see instead:
ᴹQ. mancalë “commerce, *trade [as an activity]”

11.84 Merchant, Tradesman

ᴹQ. macar n. “tradesman, *trader, merchant”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quampo n. “pedlar, huckster”
⚠️ᴱQ. vactelëar n. “merchant”; see instead:
ᴹQ. macar “tradesman, *trader, merchant”

11.85 Market (place)

ᴹQ. armar coll. “goods”
ᴺQ. !macca n. “article (for exchange), ware, thing”
⚠️ᴺQ. !mancamen n. “market, (lit.) trade-place”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !mancanómë “market, market-place”
ᴺQ. !mancanómë n. “market, market-place”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^manco n. “wares”
⚠️ᴺQ. !mangwa n. “article for trading, goods”; see instead:
ᴹQ. armar “goods”
⚠️ᴱQ. vanco n. “wares”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^manco “wares”
⚠️ᴱQ. #vat (vact-) n. “wares”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^manco “wares”

11.87 Price

ᴺQ. !mirma n. “value, *price”

11.88 Dear, Expensive

Q. mírima adj. “very valuable, very precious, very lovely”
Q. mirwa adj. “precious, valuable”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. valda n. and adj. “worth; worthy, dear”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^valda- v. “to matter; to be of significance, worth, moment”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. valdëa adj. “of moment, important”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^valdima adj. “essential, imperative”

11.89 Cheap

ᴺQ. !alamirwa adj. “cheap, not precious, not expensive”

12. Spatial Relations

12.11 Place

ᴺQ. !ainomë adv. “anyplace, anywhere”
⚠️ᴹQ. essë³ n. “place”; see instead:
Q. #nómë “place”
⚠️ᴹQ. essëa² adj. “in place, local”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nómëa “local”
⚠️ᴱQ. larma n. “area, space, room”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sambë “room, chamber”
ᴺQ. !latsë “area, space, room”
Q. #larma “raiment”
ᴹQ. larma “(?pig-)fat, flesh”
⚠️ᴱQ. larmavoitë adj. “roomy, spacious”; see instead:
Q. yonda² “wide, roomy, extensive”
ᴺQ. !latsë n. “area, space, room”
⚠️ᴺQ. !menessë adv. “instead, (lit.) in place”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !minomë “instead, in place of, in exchange of”
ᴺQ. !nairë [ñ] n. “space (as a physical dimension)”
ᴺQ. !nanomë adv. “someplace, somewhere”
Q. #nómë n. “place”
ᴺQ. !nómëa adj. “local”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nómessëa adj. “local”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nómëa “local”
ᴺQ. !osquetië n. “context”
⚠️ᴱQ. #panyara adj. “?setting”

12.12 to Put, Place, Set, Lay

ᴺQ. !antac- v. “to apply”
Q., ᴱQ. caita-² v. “*to lay (transitive); [ᴱQ.] to place, ⚠️lie down”
⚠️ᴱQ. casóro- v. “to make sit, set”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sesta- “to set, (lit.) to make rest (on)”
⚠️ᴹQ. esta-² v. “to place, set, plant”; see instead:
Q. caita-² “*to lay (transitive); [ᴱQ.] to place, ⚠️lie down”
⚠️ᴺQ. !etepanya v. “to put out”; see instead:
Q. caita-² “*to lay (transitive); [ᴱQ.] to place, ⚠️lie down”
Q. #pan- v. “*to arrange, set in order”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. panna n. “arrangement, grouping; *plan, course; ⚠️book”
⚠️ᴱQ. pano n. “series, course, plan, arrangement”; see instead:
ᴺQ. panna “arrangement, grouping; *plan, course; ⚠️book”
ᴹQ. pano “piece of shaped wood, *board, plank”
ᴺQ. !panwë n. “arrangement, plan; structure, ordering; (musical) theme”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. panya- v. “to fix, set; [ᴱQ.] to plan, arrange, ⚠️intend, mean”
⚠️ᴺQ. !sasta- v. “to put, place”; see instead:
Q. caita-² “*to lay (transitive); [ᴱQ.] to place, ⚠️lie down”
ᴺQ. !sesta- v. “to set, (lit.) to make rest (on)”
⚠️ᴱQ. sorto- v. “to set, settle”; see instead:
Q. mar- “to abide, be settled or fixed, [ᴱQ.] dwell, live”
ᴹQ. seru- “to settle on, sit or lie down, come to rest on”

12.13 to Sit

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. hac- v. “to squat”
⚠️ᴹQ. ham- v. “to sit (down), be situated in ”; see instead:
Q. har- “to sit, stay, [ᴱQ.] remain; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] to dwell, abide, reside”
⚠️ᴹQ. hamu- v. “to sit down, take a seat”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^haru- “to sit down, take a seat”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. har- v. “to sit, stay, [ᴱQ.] remain; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] to dwell, abide, reside”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^haru- v. “to sit down, take a seat”
ᴹQ. seru- v. “to settle on, sit or lie down, come to rest on”
⚠️ᴱQ. soro- v. “to sit”; see instead:
Q. har- “to sit, stay, [ᴱQ.] remain; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] to dwell, abide, reside”
⚠️ᴱQ. sorta- v. “to sit down”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^haru- “to sit down, take a seat”

12.14 to Lie, Recline

⚠️ᴱQ. caima- v. “to lie quiet”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ser- “to rest, repose; to stay, tarry, stop, be for a while, at the moment”
ᴺQ. ^quilda- “to stay quiet, be quiet, ⚠️rest”
ᴺQ. !cainu- v. “to lie down, *bend down; [with locative] to endure, suffer (from)”
Q., ᴹQ. caita-¹ v. “to lie ⚠️(down)”
⚠️ᴱQ. caitoilë n. “rest”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sérë “peace; [ᴹQ.] rest, repose”
⚠️ᴱQ. cama- v. “to lie down; (c. loc.) to endure, suffer”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cainu- “to lie down, *bend down; [with locative] to endure, suffer (from)”
⚠️ᴱQ. camu- v. “to lay down, bend down, reduce”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cainu- “to lie down, *bend down; [with locative] to endure, suffer (from)”
⚠️ᴱQ. caya- v. “to lie”; see instead:
Q. caita-¹ “to lie ⚠️(down)”
⚠️ᴹQ. erdë² n. “repose”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sérë “peace; [ᴹQ.] rest, repose”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lat- v. “to be extended, stretch, [ᴱQ.] spread, extend; [ᴹQ.] to be situated (of an area), lie (of lands or regions)”
ᴺQ. !nirya- v. “to lean against”

12.15 to Stand

⚠️ᴱQ. hyá- v. “to stand”; see instead:
Q. #tar-² “to stand”
ᴺQ. !nantar- v. “to stand back”
⚠️ᴱQ. nohto- v. “to stick out”; see instead:
Q. #ras- “to stick out”
Q. #ras- v. “to stick out”
Q. #tar-² v. “to stand”
⚠️ᴹQ. #thar-² v. “to stand”; see instead:
Q. #tar-² “to stand”
⚠️ᴹQ. #tol- v. “to stand”; see instead:
Q. #tar-² “to stand”
ᴹQ. tolu- v. “to stand up, get up, leave one’s seat”
Q. tolyo n. “sticker-up”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tyul- v. “to stand”; see instead:
Q. #tar-² “to stand”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tyulta- v. “to rear up, stick up”

12.16 to Stay, Wait, Remain

ᴹQ. hora- v. “to wait for”
⚠️ᴺQ. !larta- v. “to wait, stay, remain, last, endure”; see instead:
Q. har- “to sit, stay, [ᴱQ.] remain; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] to dwell, abide, reside”
Q. termar- “to stand, *endure, last, (lit.) through-abide”
ᴹQ. lemya- v. “to remain, tarry”
⚠️ᴹQ. lenda- v. “to linger”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lemya- “to remain, tarry”
Q. lenda- “to go free”
⚠️ᴱQ. masta- v. “to tarry, linger”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lemya- “to remain, tarry”
ᴹQ. masta- “to bake”
⚠️ᴺQ. !norta- v. “to stay”; see instead:
Q. har- “to sit, stay, [ᴱQ.] remain; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] to dwell, abide, reside”

12.17 to Remain, be Left Over

⚠️ᴱQ. #er- v. “to remain”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lemya- “to remain, tarry”
ᴹQ. lemba adj. “left behind”
⚠️ᴱQ. sal- v. “?to remain or remove”

12.18 to Leave, Relinquish

ᴺQ. !avarta- v. “to abandon”
ᴺQ. !etehat- n. “to throw out”
Q. hehta- v. “to put aside, leave out, exclude, abandon, forsake”
Q. hequa prep. and adv. “leaving aside, not counting, excluding, except”

12.19 Quiet (adj)

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. calaina adj. “serene”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. calainë n. “serenity, ⚠️serene”
⚠️ᴱQ. quië adj. “calm at sea”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quilda adj. “quiet, hushed, still”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^quilda- v. “to stay quiet, be quiet, ⚠️rest”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quildë n. “quiet, rest, hush”
⚠️ᴱQ. quildi- v. “to rest, stay quiet, be quiet”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^quilda- “to stay quiet, be quiet, ⚠️rest”
⚠️ᴹQ. quilir n. “quiet”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quildë “quiet, rest, hush”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. rua adj. “steady, still, tranquil”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. ruë n. “stillness, *steadiness, tranquility, ⚠️rest, remaining, steadfastness”

12.195 Whisper

⚠️ᴹQ. escë n. “rustle, noise of leaves”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^hlussa- v. “to whisper”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^hlussë n. “whispering sound, *whisper”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. hyassë n. “rushing noise, *rustling”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. hyasta- v. “to rush, rustle”
⚠️ᴹQ. lussa- v. “to whisper”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlussa- “to whisper”
⚠️ᴹQ. lussë n. “whispering sound”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlussë “whispering sound, *whisper”
ᴺQ. !nurrulë n. “murmuring”
⚠️ᴱQ. quiri-² v. “to murmur”; see instead:
Q. nurru- “to murmur, grumble, mumble”
⚠️ᴱQ. quirquirinda adj. “murmuring”
⚠️ᴱQ. quirquirindë n. “murmuring”
⚠️ᴱQ. quisi- v. “to whisper”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlussa- “to whisper”
⚠️ᴱQ. quisquiri- v. “to rustle, murmur”; see instead:
ᴺQ. hyasta- “to rush, rustle”
Q. nurru- “to murmur, grumble, mumble”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulmula adj. “mumbling”
⚠️ᴱQ. vassalë n. “rustling”; see instead:
ᴺQ. hyassë “rushing noise, *rustling”

12.21 to Gather, Collect

⚠️ᴱQ. arm- v. “to gather, collect”; see instead:
Q. hosta- “to gather (hastily together), collect, assemble, pile up”
⚠️ᴱQ. cilc- v. “to gather, reap”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cirihta- “to reap, harvest”
Q. comya- v. “to collect”
⚠️Q. conta- v. “[unglossed]”
⚠️ᴱQ. #cum- v. “to pile up”; see instead:
Q. hosta- “to gather (hastily together), collect, assemble, pile up”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. hosta- v. “to gather (hastily together), collect, assemble, pile up”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hostaitë adj. “able to gather”
⚠️ᴱQ. hostalca adj. “able to gather”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hostaitë “able to gather”
⚠️ᴱQ. lese- v. “to come together, gather (intr.)”; see instead:
Q. ócom- “to gather, assemble”
⚠️ᴱQ. lesta- v. “to collect (tr.)”; see instead:
Q. hosta- “to gather (hastily together), collect, assemble, pile up”
Q. ócom- v. “to gather, assemble”
⚠️ᴱQ. racta-² v. “to pile, hoard, amass, collect”; see instead:
Q. hosta- “to gather (hastily together), collect, assemble, pile up”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yocar- v. “to assemble, compose, construct”; see instead:
Q. carasta- “to build, construct”
Q. maita- “to make with art, design, compose”

12.22 to Join, Unite

ᴺQ. !erta- v. “to unite”
ᴺQ. !ertië n. “union”
ᴺQ. !himyalë n. “connection”
⚠️ᴱQ. lecte- v. “to join together, dovetail, fit in, splice”
⚠️ᴱQ. lequet (lequett-) n. “joint”
Q. #limë (limi-) n. “link, *joint”
ᴺQ. !limya- v. “to link, join”
⚠️ᴱQ. oxa n. “joint”; see instead:
Q. #limë “link, *joint”
⚠️ᴱQ. pac- v. “to apply, attach”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. quitin adj. “knitted, joined tight”
Q., ᴹQ. #sampanë n. “combination”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ., ᴱQ. tac- v. “to fasten, [ᴱQ.] fix”
ᴺQ. !yanta-¹ v. “to join”
⚠️ᴱQ. yanta² adj. “joined”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !yantaina “joined”
ᴺQ. !yantaina adj. “joined”
Q., ᴹQ. yanwë n. “joining, [ᴹQ.] isthmus, ⚠️bridge”

12.221 Together

Q. #as prep. “with”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lé² prep. “with, [ᴹQ.] by, *with or by means of, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] with (accompaniment)”
⚠️ᴱQ. ma- pref. “together, in one”; see instead:
Q. o- “together”
⚠️ᴱQ. -ngwë suf. “*together”
Q., ᴹQ. o- pref. “together”
Q. #ó prep. “with”
⚠️ᴱQ. so- pref. “grouped, together”; see instead:
Q. #yo- “together (used in words describing the union of three or more things)”
ᴺQ., Q. uo adv. “together”
⚠️ᴱQ. va- pref. “together”; see instead:
Q. o- “together”
Q. #yo- pref. “together (used in words describing the union of three or more things)”
Q. yó(m) prep. “[together] with”

12.222 And

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ar conj. “and; ⚠️[ᴱQ., ᴹQ.] but”
⚠️ᴱQ. ya(n) conj. “and”; see instead:
Q. yo “both ... and”
Q. -yë suf. “and (pairs)”
Q., ᴹQ. yo conj. “both ... and”

12.223 Also

⚠️ᴱQ. aru adv. “in addition, as well, besides”; see instead:
Q. ar(a) “beside, next [to], *near; ⚠️out, [ᴹQ.] outside”
Q. epetai conj. “consequently, thereupon, thence, whereupon, (lit.) following which (fact)”
Q. etta conj. “*therefore, (lit.) out of that”
Q. potai conj. “*therefore, (lit.) before which”
Q. sië adv. “thus”
Q. sin¹ adv. “*thus”
⚠️ᴱQ. yando adv. “also”; see instead:
Q. ta³ “so, like that, also; and also, then”
ᴹQ. adv. “too”

12.23 to Separate

ᴺQ. !ausatië adv. “especially, (lit.) setting aside”
ᴺQ. !cilta- v. “to divide, separate”
ᴺQ. !ciltië n. “division, separation”
ᴺQ. !etsatië adv. “especially”
⚠️ᴺQ. !salta- v. “to strain, winnow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^silta- “to sift, sort out, winnow”
⚠️ᴺQ. !saltama n. “winnowing-fork”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^silta- “to sift, sort out, winnow”
Q. sat- v. “to set aside, appropriate to a special purpose or owner”
⚠️ᴱQ. silt- v. “to sift, sort out, winnow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^silta- “to sift, sort out, winnow”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. silta n. “sieve”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^silta- v. “to sift, sort out, winnow”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. siltina adj. “winnowed”

12.232 to Divide

Q. estat- v. “to distribute (in even portions), *partition”
ᴺQ. !estatië n. “portion, share”
ᴺQ. !estatina adj. “divided, shared, distributed”
ᴺQ. !ósat- v. “to share”
ᴹQ. perya- v. “to divide in middle, halve”
⚠️ᴱQ. #ranta² n. “part”; see instead:
Q. asta “month; division, part (esp. one of other equal parts)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tirt (tirty-) n. “part, portion, share, section”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !estatië “portion, share”
Q. asta “month; division, part (esp. one of other equal parts)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tirtina adj. “divided, shared, distributed”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !estatina “divided, shared, distributed”
⚠️ᴱQ. tirty- v. “to partition, divide, part, distribute”; see instead:
Q. estat- “to distribute (in even portions), *partition”
ᴺQ. !úperima adj. “indivisible”

12.24 to Open

⚠️ᴱQ. apta- v. “to open”; see instead:
ᴹQ. panta- “to unfurl, spread out, open”
Q. apta- “to refuse, deny, say nay”
⚠️ᴱQ. aptë (*apti-) adj. “open”; see instead:
ᴹQ. panta “open, [ᴱQ.] wide, spreading”
Q. láta adj. “open (not closed)”
Q. látië n. “openness”
Q. latya n. “opening”
Q. latya- v. “to open anything (so as to allow entry)”
ᴹQ. palya- v. “to open wide, spread, expand, extend”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. panta adj. “open, [ᴱQ.] wide, spreading”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. panta- v. “to unfurl, spread out, open”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. pantië n. “unfolding, opening, ⚠️revealing”
⚠️ᴱQ. patsima adj. “wide open”; see instead:
ᴹQ. panta “open, [ᴱQ.] wide, spreading”

12.25 to Shut, Close

⚠️Q. avalatya- v. “to close, shut”; see instead:
Q. holya- “to shut, close”
Q. holla adj. “?shut”
Q. holya- v. “to shut, close”
Q. pahta¹ adj. “closed, shut, private”
Q. sac- [þ] v. “to close”

12.26 to Cover

⚠️ᴱQ. talda adj. “covered”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !tupina “covered”
Q. tal(da) “to the bottom”
ᴹQ. telmë n. “hood, covering”
ᴹQ. telta- v. “to canopy, overshadow, screen”
⚠️ᴱQ. #tildi- v. “to cover”; see instead:
Q. tup- “to cover, [ᴱQ.] put a lid on, put hat on, ⚠️roof”
⚠️ᴹQ. top- v. “to cover”; see instead:
Q. tup- “to cover, [ᴱQ.] put a lid on, put hat on, ⚠️roof”
⚠️ᴱQ. tump-² v. “to cover”; see instead:
Q. tup- “to cover, [ᴱQ.] put a lid on, put hat on, ⚠️roof”
Q., ᴱQ. tup- v. “to cover, [ᴱQ.] put a lid on, put hat on, ⚠️roof”
ᴺQ. !tupina adj. “covered”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. túpo n. “cover, lid, ⚠️roof”
Q. #untup- v. “to cover (over or up), (lit.) to cover down”

12.27 to Hide, Conceal

Q. #cuv- v. “to conceal, *hide”
Q. fanta- v. “to veil, cloak, mantle”
Q. fanwa n. “veil, screen”
ᴹQ. halya- v. “to veil, conceal, screen from light”
ᴹQ. *lihlicca- v. “to sneak about”
⚠️ᴱQ. lom- v. “to hide, lurk”; see instead:
Q. #nurta- “*to hide”
⚠️ᴱQ. moru- v. “to hide, conceal, lurk”; see instead:
Q. #cuv- “to conceal, *hide”
ᴺQ. !nannem- v. “to disappear”
Q. #nurta- v. “*to hide”
Q. vasar [þ] n. “veil”
Q. vasarya- [þ] v. “to veil”

12.272 Hidden, Concealed

Q. cúvima adj. “concealable”
Q. #cuvo n. “hider”
Q. cuvoitë (cuvoiti-) adj. “hiding, secretive; treacherous”
⚠️ᴱQ. foina adj. “hidden, secret”; see instead:
ᴹQ. muina “hidden, secret”
ᴹQ. nulla “dark, dusky, obscure; hidden, secret”
⚠️ᴱQ. furin adj. “hidden, concealed”; see instead:
ᴹQ. muina “hidden, secret”
⚠️Q. henfanwa n. “eye-screen, veil upon eyes”
Q. nurtalë n. “hiding”
ᴺQ. !úcénima n. “invisible”
Q. úfantima adj. “not concealable”
Q. úfanwëa adj. “not veiled, unveiled”

12.31 High

⚠️ᴱQ. aiquië n. “highness, height”; see instead:
Q. #tárië “height”
⚠️ᴱQ. alva adj. “?lofty”; see instead:
ᴹQ. alwa “well-grown”
⚠️ᴱQ. ancasse(a) adj. “lofty, tall, (lit.) up-headed, high-headed”; see instead:
Q. tára¹ “lofty, tall, high”
⚠️ᴱQ. anwa adj. “high up, place high”; see instead:
ᴹQ. anwa “true, real, actual”
⚠️ᴱQ. ordië n. “height, loftiness”; see instead:
Q. #tárië “height”
Q. oromar (oromard-) n. “lofty hall, high-mansion, high (lofty) dwelling”
⚠️ᴹQ. orro² adv. “up in the air, on high”
Q., ᴱQ. orwa adj. “high, lofty”
⚠️ᴱQ. tá¹ adj. and adv. “high; high above, high up”; see instead:
Q. tára¹ “lofty, tall, high”
⚠️ᴱQ. tahóra adj. “lofty”; see instead:
Q. tára¹ “lofty, tall, high”
Q., ᴹQ. tar-¹ affix. “high; [ᴹQ.] king or queen (in compounds)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tára¹ adj. “lofty, tall, high”
Q., ᴱQ. #tárië n. “height”

12.32 Low

⚠️ᴱQ. hunda adj. “low, lowly”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tumna “lowlying, low; deep, [ᴱQ.] profound; ⚠️dark, hidden”

12.33 Top

⚠️ᴱQ. ána n. “crown of head, top”
Q., ᴹQ. cas(ta) adv. “to(wards) the top, upwards”
Q., ᴹQ. inga n. “top, highest point, ⚠️[ᴹQ.] first”
⚠️ᴱQ. ormin n. “top”; see instead:
Q. cas “head, [ᴱQ.] top, ⚠️summit”

12.34 Bottom

⚠️ᴹQ. numbë n. “root, foundation”; see instead:
Q. #talma¹ “basis, [ᴹQ.] foundation, ⚠️base, root; [ᴱQ.] end”
Q. sundo “base, root, [ᴹQ.] root-word”
⚠️ᴱQ. sulmin n. “base of a pillar, base of column”; see instead:
Q. #talma¹ “basis, [ᴹQ.] foundation, ⚠️base, root; [ᴱQ.] end”
Q., ᴹQ. sundo [þ] n. “base, root, [ᴹQ.] root-word”
Q. tal(da) adv. “to the bottom”
⚠️ᴱQ. talpa n. “support, prop, base, basis, pediment (column)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tulco “support, prop”
Q. sundo “base, root, [ᴹQ.] root-word”
⚠️ᴱQ. tauma n. “basis, foundation, ground floor”; see instead:
Q. #talma¹ “basis, [ᴹQ.] foundation, ⚠️base, root; [ᴱQ.] end”
Q. talan “flat space, platform; [ᴹQ.] floor, ground”
ᴹQ. tulco (*tulcu-) n. “support, prop”
⚠️ᴱQ. tulpo n. “buttress, prop”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tulco “support, prop”

12.35 End

ᴺQ., ᴱQ. lappa n. “loose-end, end of rope, hem of robe”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^tel (teld-) n. “end”
Q. telma n. “conclusion, anything used to finish off a work or affair; [ᴹQ.] ending”
⚠️ᴹQ. tyel (tyeld-) n. “end”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^tel “end”
⚠️ᴹQ. tyelma n. “ending”; see instead:
Q. telma “conclusion, anything used to finish off a work or affair; [ᴹQ.] ending”

12.352 Point

⚠️Q. cendë n. “point”; see instead:
Q. tillë “tip, point; [within compounds] finger, toe; [ᴱQ.] eyelash”
⚠️ᴱQ. cent n. “a sharp point”; see instead:
Q. tildë “fine sharp point, [ᴹQ.] spike; (mountain) horn, [ᴱQ.] tip, ️peak”
⚠️ᴱQ. colmë n. “point, tip”; see instead:
Q. tillë “tip, point; [within compounds] finger, toe; [ᴱQ.] eyelash”
⚠️ᴱQ. colmecta adj. “pointed”; see instead:
Q. *mixa “sharp-pointed”
⚠️ᴱQ. colosildë n. “long thin point”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ecco “spine, point, thorn”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. mentë n. “point, end; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] peak, tip”
ᴺQ. !nassëa¹ adj. “spiked, pointed, barbed”
Q. ortil n. “up-point”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tildë n. “fine sharp point, [ᴹQ.] spike; (mountain) horn, [ᴱQ.] tip, ️peak”
Q., ᴱQ. tillë n. “tip, point; [within compounds] finger, toe; [ᴱQ.] eyelash”
⚠️ᴱQ. tinda n. “spike”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nassë “thorn, spike”
ᴹQ. tinda “glinting (silver)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tindë (tindi-) adj. “spiked, pointed, barbed”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nassëa¹ “spiked, pointed, barbed”
ᴹQ. tindë “glint, *flash”

12.353 Edge

⚠️ᴱQ. cantë n. “edge”; see instead:
Q. címa “edge of a cutting weapon/tool”
⚠️ᴱQ. cíla n. “edge, rim”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ríma “edge, hem, border”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cílëa adj. “edged”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cimëa “edged”
Q. címa n. “edge of a cutting weapon/tool”
Q. cimba n. “edge, brink”
ᴺQ. !cimëa adj. “edged”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. fas (fass-) n. “fringe, border; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] tassel”; see instead:
Q. pelma “border, fringe, edge, limiting device; [ᴱQ.] pen”
ᴹQ. atsa² “tassel, fryse, fringe”
Q. lanca n. “sharp edge (not of tools), sudden end”
Q. lanë (lani-) n. “hem”
⚠️ᴺQ. !maicëa adj. “edged”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cimëa “edged”
Q., ᴱQ. pelma n. “border, fringe, edge, limiting device; [ᴱQ.] pen”
ᴹQ. réna n. “edge, border, margin”
ᴹQ. ríma n. “edge, hem, border”
⚠️ᴱQ. rimbë n. “edge, lip, brim”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ríma “edge, hem, border”
Q. rimbë “host, great number, [ᴹQ.] crowd”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. tastë n. “fringe”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. telustë n. “extremity”

12.37 Middle

Q. #endëa adj. “middle”
ᴺQ. [Q.] ^endya adj. “central, ⚠️middle”
⚠️Q. entya adj. “central, middle”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^endya “central, ⚠️middle”
⚠️ᴹQ. enya adj. “middle”; see instead:
Q. #endëa “middle”
Q. holmo adv. “sincerely, heartily; (lit.) from the middle”
ᴹQ. holmo adv. “from the middle”
ᴹQ. †humpë adv. “in the middle”
⚠️ᴱQ. mecilwa adj. “central”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^endya “central, ⚠️middle”
⚠️ᴱQ. mequa adj. “middle”; see instead:
Q. #endëa “middle”

12.371 Between

Q. enel prep. “in the middle, between”
Q., ᴹQ. imbë¹ prep. and adv. “between, among; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] in(wards)”
Q. imíca prep. “among”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. mitta prep. and adv. “[ᴹQ.] inwards, into, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] in; [Q.] between”

12.38 Center

Q. enda n. “heart; center, *interior”
Q., ᴹQ. endë n. “centre, middle; [ᴹQ.] core”
⚠️ᴱQ. mecta adj. “centre”; see instead:
Q. endë “centre, middle; [ᴹQ.] core”
⚠️ᴱQ. mectë n. “heart; center”; see instead:
Q. enda “heart; center, *interior”
⚠️ᴱQ. metl (mecil-) n. “centre”; see instead:
Q. endë “centre, middle; [ᴹQ.] core”
⚠️ᴱQ. tólë¹ n. “centre”; see instead:
Q. endë “centre, middle; [ᴹQ.] core”
⚠️ᴱQ. tólëa adj. “central, middle”; see instead:
Q. #endëa “middle”

12.391 In, Inside

⚠️ᴱQ. hir (hird-) n. “inwards, interior, inside, heart”; see instead:
Q. enda “heart; center, *interior”
ᴹQ. hont adv. “inwards”
⚠️ᴱQ. int adv. “inwards”; see instead:
Q. mitta “[ᴹQ.] inwards, into, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] in; [Q.] between”
⚠️ᴱQ. ir (ird-) n. “interior, centre, inwards, inner parts”; see instead:
Q. enda “heart; center, *interior”
Q., ᴹQ. mi prep. “in, [ᴹQ.] within”
Q. mina prep. and adv. “into, in, [ᴹQ.] to the inside”
⚠️ᴹQ. minna prep. and adv. “into, to the inside”; see instead:
Q. mina “into, in, [ᴹQ.] to the inside”
ᴹQ. mir prep. and adv. “to the inside, into”
ᴺQ. !mitië n. “interior”
ᴹQ. mitya adj. “interior”
ᴹQ. to prep. “in”

12.392 Out, Outside

Q., ᴹQ. #ava¹ adv. and adj. “[ᴹQ.] outside, beyond; outer, exterior”
⚠️ᴱQ. ere-¹ pref. “out”; see instead:
Q. #et(e)- “[ᴹQ.] forth, out”
⚠️ᴱQ. eru¹ adv. “outward”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^esta “outwards”
⚠️ᴱQ. erúmëa adj. “outer, outermost”; see instead:
Q. #ava¹ “[ᴹQ.] outside, beyond; outer, exterior”
⚠️ᴱQ. erus(ta) adj. and n. “outside”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ettë¹ “outside”
⚠️ᴱQ. es- pref. “*out”; see instead:
Q. #et(e)- “[ᴹQ.] forth, out”
⚠️ᴱQ. est adj. “outwards”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^esta “outwards”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^esta adv. “outwards”
Q., ᴹQ. et prep. “out (of)”
Q., ᴹQ. #et(e)- pref. “[ᴹQ.] forth, out”
ᴹQ. etsë n. “outside, exterior”
ᴹQ. ettë¹ adj. and adv. “outside”

12.393 Across, Athwart

ᴺQ. !anat prep. “against”
ᴺQ. !anqua adj. and adv. “opposite, against”
⚠️ᴱQ. arta prep. “across, athwart”; see instead:
Q. lanna “athwart, *across”
⚠️ᴺQ. !essar- v. “to recross”; see instead:
Q. lahta- “to cross, pass over, go over; to surpass, excel”
Q., ᴱQ. lahta- v. “to cross, pass over, go over; to surpass, excel”
Q. langa n. “thing that crosses, ferry, ford, crossway, bridge, ⚠️cross-bar”
Q. lanna adv. “athwart, *across”
⚠️ᴱQ. ‽o prep. “over, across, along”
⚠️ᴺQ. !sar- [þ] v. “to cross”; see instead:
Q. lahta- “to cross, pass over, go over; to surpass, excel”
⚠️ᴱQ. tara- v. “to cross, go athwart, cross rivers”; see instead:
Q. lahta- “to cross, pass over, go over; to surpass, excel”
⚠️ᴱQ. tarna n. “passage, ford, crossing”; see instead:
Q. langa “thing that crosses, ferry, ford, crossway, bridge, ⚠️cross-bar”

12.394 Up, Above, Over

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #am- pref. “up, [ᴱQ.] upwards”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. amba¹ adv. “up(wards)”
⚠️ᴱQ. am(u)- pref. “up(wards)”; see instead:
Q. #am- “up, [ᴱQ.] upwards”
⚠️ᴱQ. amu adv. “up(wards)”; see instead:
Q. amba¹ “up(wards)”
⚠️ᴱQ. amunta adj. “up, risen (of the sun)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !orina “risen”
⚠️ᴱQ. cassë prep. “above”
Q., ᴱQ. or prep. “above, [ᴱQ.] upon; ⚠️on”
Q. oro- pref. “up, aloft”
ᴺQ. !orohalla adj. “superior”
⚠️ᴱQ. orta prep. “above”; see instead:
Q. or “above, [ᴱQ.] upon; ⚠️on”
⚠️ᴱQ. (or)tandë adv. “above (of motion upwards)”
⚠️ᴱQ. ta² prep. “on, above; by, beside; than”; see instead:
Q. “touching, against, on (above but touching); as regards, concerning, [ᴹQ.] about”
Q. ar(a) “beside, next [to], *near; ⚠️out, [ᴹQ.] outside”
Q. to prep. “on, above; [ᴹQ.] in”

12.395 Down, Below, Beneath

⚠️ᴱQ. hant adv. “down, to the ground”; see instead:
ᴹQ. taltë “down, at the bottom”
Q. prep. “beneath, not touching, under”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nu prep. “under, beneath”
⚠️Q. núla² prep. “under [beyond]”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nún adv. “down below, underneath, [ᴱQ.] beneath”
ᴹQ. tal adv. “downwards”
ᴹQ. taltë adv. “down, at the bottom”
⚠️ᴱQ. ú prep. “beneath”; see instead:
Q. nu “under, beneath”
⚠️ᴹQ. undo adv. “down, low down”; see instead:
Q. undu “down, under, [ᴹQ.] beneath”
Q., ᴹQ. undu prep. and adv. “down, under, [ᴹQ.] beneath”
⚠️ᴱQ. úva adj. “the under”; see instead:
Q. nu “under, beneath”

12.3955 In Front

ᴺQ. !empatyellë n. “advancement, progress”
⚠️ᴺQ. !hyámen n. “front”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !pentë “front”
ᴺQ. !nev- v. “to face, turn toward, *confront”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nimba adj. “facing, confronting”; see instead:
Q. cendelë “face, *facing, direction of looking”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nimba- v. “to face, go forward”; see instead:
Q. cendelë “face, *facing, direction of looking”
⚠️ᴱQ. nóva adj. “ahead, foremost, leading”
ᴺQ. !pentë n. “front”
Q. póna adv. “forward”

12.396 Behind, At the Rear

ᴺQ. !cána adv. “backward”
Q., ᴹQ. #ca(ta) prep. “behind, at back of place; [ᴹQ.] after”
Q. nanda¹ adj. “?back”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. pimpina adj. “trailing”
⚠️ᴱQ. pontë (ponti-) n. “back, rear”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tellë “rear”
ᴹQ. opto “back”
⚠️ᴱQ. potë (potsi-) adv. “after, behind (of place)”
⚠️ᴱQ. potsina adj. “rearward, back, rear, hinder; next, following; second”; see instead:
ᴹQ. neuna “second, *following, next”
ᴹQ. tellë n. “rear”

12.397 Beyond

⚠️ᴱQ. ala³ prep. “beyond, after; before”
Q. ambela adv. “further still beyond, far away beyond”
Q. han prep. “beyond”
Q. lá² prep. “beyond, over, across, athwart”
⚠️Q. olla prep. “over [beyond]”
Q. palla prep. and adv. “far beyond”
Q. pella prep. and adv. “beyond (boundary or limit)”

12.398 To, Towards

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. †an(a) prep. “to, towards, to a point near, alongside; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] until”
ᴺQ., Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ana- pref. “to, towards”
Q., ᴹQ. #†-r² suf. “motion to or towards a point, *archaic allative”
⚠️ᴱQ. -r² suf. “*allative”
Q. sir(a) adv. “hither”
⚠️ᴱQ. tandë adv. “thither”
Q. tanna² adv. “thither”
Q., ᴹQ. tar(a) adv. “thither; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] beyond”
ᴺQ. !yanna adv. “whereto”

12.399 From, Away

Q. au- pref. “away (from)”
Q., ᴱQ. au¹ adv. “away, off, not here (of position)”
⚠️ᴱQ. callo adv. and prep. “off, from off, from on top of, from on”
Q. hó- pref. “away, from, from among”
⚠️ᴹQ. ho prep. “from”; see instead:
Q. o “from”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. -llo suf. “(movement) from, [ᴱQ.] out of, [Q.] ablative suffix”
Q., ᴹQ. prep. “(away) from; by agent [of]; [ᴹQ.] ablative element”
Q., ᴱQ., ᴹQ. o prep. “from”
Q. oa adv. “away (of movement)”
Q. oar adv. “away from”
Q. silo adv. “hence”
Q. talo adv. “thence”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ., ᴱQ. va prep. “(away) from, [ᴹQ.] away, [ᴱQ.] gone forth; ⚠️with”
ᴹQ. vahai(y)a adv. “far away”
⚠️ᴱQ. vandë¹ adv. “away, hence, forth”; see instead:
Q. au¹ “away, off, not here (of position)”
ᴺQ. !yallo adv. “whence”

12.41 Right (vs. Left)

Q. forma n. “right-hand”
Q. #formaitë adj. “righthanded, dexterous”
ᴹQ. formaitë adj. “righthanded, dexterous”
ᴹQ. fortë (forti-) adj. “right or north”
ᴹQ. forya adj. “right (hand), dexter”
⚠️ᴱQ. póya adj. “[unglossed]”

12.42 Left (vs. Right)

Q. hyarma n. “left hand”
ᴹQ. hyarmaitë adj. “left-handed”
ᴹQ. hyarya adj. “left (hand)”
⚠️ᴱQ. malenca adj. “left handed”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hyarmaitë “left-handed”

12.43 Near (adj)

Q. am(be)na adv. “nearer to”
ᴺQ. !amna adv. “almost”
ᴹQ. an(ner) adv. “at hand”
Q., ᴹQ. ar- pref. “by-, beside, near; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] outside”
⚠️ᴱQ. ar² (as-) prep. “to, against, next, on (wall)”; see instead:
Q. #as “with”
Q. “touching, against, on (above but touching); as regards, concerning, [ᴹQ.] about”
Q. ar “and; ⚠️[ᴱQ., ᴹQ.] but”
Q., ᴹQ. ar(a) prep. and adv. “beside, next [to], *near; ⚠️out, [ᴹQ.] outside”
⚠️ᴱQ. arë¹ adv. “beside, along”; see instead:
Q. ar(a) “beside, next [to], *near; ⚠️out, [ᴹQ.] outside”
⚠️ᴱQ. har(ë) prep. “near”; see instead:
Q. ar(a) “beside, next [to], *near; ⚠️out, [ᴹQ.] outside”
ᴺQ. !harivë adv. “closely, nearly”
⚠️Q. adv. “here”; see instead:
Q. sís “here”
⚠️ᴱQ. hyá adv. “here by us”; see instead:
Q. sís “here”
⚠️ᴱQ. hya¹ pron. “this by us”; see instead:
Q. si¹ “this”
⚠️ᴱQ. hya² prep. “by”; see instead:
Q. ar(a) “beside, next [to], *near; ⚠️out, [ᴹQ.] outside”
⚠️ᴱQ. ma¹ prep. “*by”; see instead:
Q. lé² “with, [ᴹQ.] by, *with or by means of, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] with (accompaniment)”
Q., ᴹQ. sinomë adv. “here, (lit.) in this place”
Q. sís adv. “here”
⚠️ᴱQ. tangë¹ adv. “close to, by”; see instead:
Q. ar(a) “beside, next [to], *near; ⚠️out, [ᴹQ.] outside”
⚠️ᴱQ. tangë² (tangi-) adj. “close, near”; see instead:
Q. ar(a) “beside, next [to], *near; ⚠️out, [ᴹQ.] outside”

12.44 Far (adj)

ᴹQ. avahaira adj. “*far beyond, very remote”
ᴹQ. eccaira adj. “?out-far”
Q. haila adj. “far beyond”
ᴺQ. !hailë n. “removal, distancing”
ᴹQ. haira adj. “remote, far”
ᴺQ. !hairië n. “distance, (lit.) farness”
ᴹQ. haiya adv. “far off, far away”
⚠️ᴺQ. !hayassë n. “distance”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hairië “distance, (lit.) farness”
Q., ᴹQ. palan adj. and adv. “far, wide, afar, distant; [ᴹQ.] to a great extent, over a wide space, to a distance”
Q., ᴹQ. palantír n. “far-gazer, far-seer, (lit.) that which looks far away”
Q. tanomë adv. “there, (lit.) in the place (referred to)”
Q., ᴹQ. tassë adv. “there”

12.45 East

⚠️ᴱQ. Ambalar n. “the East”; see instead:
Q. Ambaróna “Eastern (Land)”
Q., ᴹQ. (h)róna adj. “eastern, east”
⚠️ᴱQ. oronto n. “East, rising (of the sun)”; see instead:
Q. rómen “east, uprising, sunrise”
Q. orróna adj. “eastern”
Q. ro- pref. “uprising, sunrise, e