Early Quenya Semantic Categories



1. Physical World

1.1 World

irmin n. “the inhabited world”
marda n. “world”

1.21 Earth, Land

talat n. “dry land”

1.212 Ground, Soil

han (hamb-) n. “ground, earth”
kemen n. “soil, earth”
kemi n. “earth, soil, land”
sar n. “earth, soil”

1.213 Dust, Powder

mul (muld-) n. “fine powder”
mulda adj. “powdery”

1.214 Mud, Mire

lúke n. “slime”
lúkima adj. “slimy”
lukso (luksu-) n. “mud”
luksor n. “swamp, bog”
lutl n. “gum, paste, sticky matter”
suksina adj. “resinous”
sukte (suksi-) n. “resin, gum”
sulka adj. “sticky, viscous”
sutl n. “sticky matter, slime, gum”
viksa adj. “sticky”
vikte n. “gum”
vite (vitsi-) n. “sap, juice”
vitevíse n. “*resin, gum, (lit.) sap-blood”

1.215 Sand, Grit

ára n. “dry sand, grit”
arqilis n. “desert”
mar⁴ (mard-) n. “grit, course grain or powder”
marma n. “sand”
tyusse n. “sand”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

aiko (aiku-) n. “cliff”
aiqasse n. “precipice”
ambo n. “hill”
amun (amund-) n. “hill”
kolman n. “peak, summit”
kumpo n. “pile”
nóla n. “summit, head, top (only used of mountains etc.); (round) hill”
orme¹ n. “summit, crest, hilltop”
oro n. “hill”
#penda² adj. “*sloping”
pulme n. “lump, knob”
rakte n. “pile, heap”
róma n. “upward path, mountain side, (mountain) slope, alp”
soron² n. “pinnacle, high peak, crag”
tolda n. “hill (with a flat top), hill top; town on a hill”
tolos (toloss-) n. “knob, lump”
torme n. “mountain (peak)”
tupse n. “lump, knob”
tyúma n. “lump, mass”

1.23 Plain, Field

endl n. “plain, vale”
enga n. “mead”
fal(a)toisi n. “meadow, grassland”
lá¹ n. “moor, heath, open space”
laire n. “meadow”
n. “a sward, glade”
nendo n. “water mead”
pelto n. “hedge, hedged field”

1.24 Dale, Valley

falqa n. “(mountain) pass, ravine, cliff, cleft”
kirme n. “cleft, gully”
nal (nald-) n. “dale, dell”
nalda adj. “lowly, valley (aj.), dale (aj.)”
nalle n. “dell”
nes¹ n. “mead, valley, land”
tumbo n. “dale, valley”
umbe n. “dale, dell”

1.25 Isle, Island

tol (toll-) n. “island, isle”
tolome n. “island”

1.27 Shore, Beach

ailin² n. “shore”
ailo n. “lake, pool”
arakte n. “(stony) beach”
falas(se) (falass-) n. “shore, beach, surf”
marmale n. “beach”
ollo n. “cliff, seaward precipice”
rímen n. “border, shore”
sorakte n. “beach”

1.31 Water

linqe n. and adj. “water, stream; flowing, wet”
linqea adj. “watery”
nen¹ (nend-) n. “river, water”
ninda¹ n. “water, river”

1.32 Sea

haloisi n. “the sea (in storm)”
laivar n. “ocean”
ua n. “the sea”
vea² n. “sea”

1.33 Lake, Pond

ailin¹ (ailind-) n. “lake, pool”
liqilla n. “(clear) pool”
moile n. “tarn”

1.34 Gulf, Bay

fingil n. “narrows, straits, gulf”

1.35 Wave, Surge

falasta- v. “to surge, make a sound like surf”
falma n. “foam, wave”
falmar n. “wave (as it breaks), foamcrest”
hoiye n. “foam”
mirmila adj. “rippling”
palasse n. “foam, splashing”
palassea adj. “foaming (of the sea)”
palastor n. “surf”
palaswin (palaswing-) n. “wave-crest”
palasya- v. “to splash, foam”
poimine n. “lather, foam; mermaid”
qalume² adj. “heaving”
solme n. “wave”
solor (solos-) n. “surf, surge; wavebreak, coast”
^solta- v. “to wave, heave, surge (up and down)”
solto- v. “to wave, heave, surge (up and down)”
uilosse n. “foam”
vaska adj. “making a plash or rush”
winge¹ (wingi-) n. “(blowing) foam, spindrift, froth, scud, spray”
winge² n. “wave”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

aksa¹ n. “waterfall”
kelu(me) n. “stream; fountain, spring”
kelusindi n. “river near its source”
sindi n. “river”
síre n. “stream”
wenda n. “brook”
wente n. “brook, small river”
wereven(da) (werevend-) n. “winding rill”

1.37 Spring, Well

ehtil n. “spring, fount, source”
ektele n. “fountain”
kapalinda n. “spring of water”
kekta n. “jet, spring”
kektele n. “fountain”
kektelu- v. “to bubble up”
qelu n. “well, spring, source”
qelu- v. “to well up”
tampo n. “well”
vaskelu n. “fountain”

1.41 Woods, Forest

málos n. “forest”
nan (nand-) n. “woodland, *land”
tauno n. “(great) forest”
taure n. “forest”
tavas (tavast-) n. “woodland”

1.42 Tree, Oak

alalme (alalmi-) n. “elm (tree)”
alda n. “tree, branch”
aldea adj. “tree-shadowed”

1.43 Wood, Timber

aldare n. “wood”
kinda n. “splinter”
tundo n. “firewood, fuel”
turu n. “wood (as material), (orig.) firewood”
turúva adj. “wooden”
turuvoite adj. “rich in timber”
tusture n. “tinder, chips, firewood”

1.44 Rock, Stone

aikuvoite adj. “cliffy, rocky”
alas (alast-) n. “marble”
alasta adj. “of marble, marble”
alaswa adj. “like marble”
arak n. “shingle, piles of stones”
#hon¹ (hond-) n. “stone, rock”
hyelle n. “pebble”
lalle (lalli-) n. “pebble”
on(d) n. “(a) stone”
ondo n. “stone, rock”
onwa adj. “stony”
silik (siliq-) n. “flint”
siliq(in)a adj. “flinty”
tolot (tolokt-) n. “pebble, cobble-stone”

1.46 Cave

asampe(a) adj. “cavernous”
orot n. “cave”
ronda n. “cavern”
rótele n. “cave”
rotl n. “cave, hollow, grot”
sampe n. “cave, hollow”
sinqele n. “mine”

1.51 Sky, Heavens

iluqinga n. “rainbow”
ilwe n. “sky, heavens”
ilweran(ta) n. “bridge of heaven, rainbow”
taime n. “sky”
taitelúme n. “firmament”
telimbo n. “canopy; sky”
telume n. “the heavens, (vault of) heaven, firmament”
vaite adj. “skied”
vaiya¹ n. “sky, skies”

1.52 Sun

ahúrasilqi n. “sun and moon”
aure (auri-) n. “sunlight, sunshine, gold light, warmth”
aurea adj. “sunny, sunlit”
aurinke adj. “sunny”
auro n. “sun”
aurqil(e)a adj. “golden, sunlit”
osto n. “gates of the Sun”
ránuringwi n. “sun and moon”

1.53 Moon

n. “crescent moon”
Rána n. “Moon”
rinku n. “orb of Moon”
Sil (Sill-) n. “Moon; Rose”
silme n. “moon”
silmea adj. “*of the moon”
silmerána n. “gleaming moon, silver moon”

1.54 Star

íle n. “star”
letinwesse n. “constellation”
lintitinwe adj. “having many stars, many-starred”
tint v. “(silver) spark”
tinwe n. “star”
titinwe n. “small star, a sparkle of dew”

1.542 Starlight

silma n. “ray of moonlight”

1.55 Flash, Lightning

wintil n. “a glint”
winwe (winwi-) n. “a sparkling, flash”
winya- v. “to flash, glint”

1.56 Noise, Thunder

fundu(na)- v. “?to thunder”
lausta-² v. “to roar, rush [making a rushing sound]”
lausto adv. “*noisily”
limpalasse n. “much roaring”
limpalassea adj. “much roaring”
londa- v. “to boom, bang”
lon(de) (lond-) n. “loud noise”
patakan n. “rattling, clatter”
patakanda adj. “rattling, clattering”
patakatapaka n. “rat-a-tat”
patake n. “clatter”
patakta- v. “to clatter”
qíne n. “squeaking”
qínea adj. “squeaking”
qíni- v. “to speak high, squeak”
ran (ram-) n. “noise”
tompo- v. “to bang”
tompo-tompo n. “noise of drums (or guns)”
yalle n. “a hollow ring”

1.61 Light

alka n. “ray (of light), light of day; shining”
firin¹ n. “ray of sun”
kala¹ n. “light, daytime (sunlight), 12 hours”
kal(l)u- v. “to illuminate, to light up”
kate (kati-) n. “gleam, ray”

1.62 Darkness

hui n. “dark, murk, fog; night, evening”
ilkala n. “*nighttime, darkness”
yara n. “a gloom, blight, lowering darkness”

1.622 Dark, Murky

hiswa adj. “dim, fading”
huiva adj. “murky”
lur- v. “?to be dark”
maska adj. “dusky, misty”
móre (móri-) n. and adj. “night, darkness; black, dark”
yanda adj. “dark, gloomy”

1.63 Shade, Shadow

#lómea adj. “*gloomy”
lómin n. “shade, shadow”
lómina adj. “shadowy”

1.71 Air, Ether

ilu n. “ether”
vílyava adj. “airy”

1.72 Wind

noswe n. “a wet wind (SW)”
n. “(noise of) wind”
suiva adj. “soughing, moaning”
súlime n. “wind”
súru n. “air-spirit; wind, gale”
susúlima adj. “full of wind, windy, airy”
súye n. “air, breezes, winds”
víle n. “gentle breeze”
vilina adj. “airy, breezy, light”
n. “wind”
wanwavoite adj. “windy”

1.722 Storm

húro n. “storm”
laume¹ n. “storm, overcast sky”
laumea adj. “dark, stormy”
wanwa n. “great gale”

1.73 Cloud, Mirk

aulo n. “cloud”
fanya n. “cloud”
lumbo n. “dark lowering cloud”

1.74 Mist, Fog, Haze

híse n. and adj. “dusk, mist, haze; bleared”
mirde n. “mist”
nóte n. “dew”
qosse n. “mist”
rin² (ring-) n. “dew”
timpa n. “spray, nozzle of hose”
timpina adj. “fine, powdered, sprayed”
timpine n. “spray”
timpínea adj. “made of spray, full of fine showers, showery (of weather)”
usqe n. “fog”

1.75 Rain (n)

mie¹ n. “mist, drizzle”
note (notsi-) n. “drizzle”
notsiva adj. “drizzling”
timpe n. “fine rain”
úqil n. “rain”
#uqu- v. “to rain”

1.752 Rainbow

ukku n. “rainbow”

1.76 Snow (n)

fauta- v. “to snow”
fáwe n. “snow”
is (ist-) n. “light snow”
nieninqe n. “snowdrop, (lit.) white tear”
nieninqea adj. “like a snowdrop”
niqetil (niqetild-) n. “snow cap”
niqileninqe adj. “snow-white”
niqilis n. “fine snow”
niqis (niqiss-) n. “snow”
niqissea adj. “snowy”
niqista- v. “to snow”
tiqilin (tiqilind-) n. “thaw, melting snow, slush”

1.77 Ice, Frost

helke n. “ice”
liqilitl n. “icicle, *(lit.) clear drop”
ringwe n. “rime, frost; cold”
yalka n. “ice”
yelma n. “(a bout of) frost; a cold; chill”

1.772 to Freeze

halkin adj. “frozen”
hilk- v. “to freeze”

1.78 Weather

kalle n. “fair weather, clear sky, blue sky”
kalleva adj. “fair (weather or complexion)”
lúre n. “dark weather, bad weather”
lúrea adj. “dark, overcast”
lúvina adj. “dark, overcast”
luvu- v. “to lower, hang, brood”

1.81 Fire (n)

pur (purn-) n. “a fire, an artificial fire”
n. “fire”
sár(e)a adj. “fiery”
tan(y)a n. “fire”
uru n. “fire”
urupurnie n. “conflagration”
urúva adj. “like fire”
uruvoite adj. “fiery, having fire”
urwa adj. “on fire, afire”

1.82 Flame (n)

purma n. “blaze, flame”
velka n. “flame”

1.83 Smoke (n)

qonda n. “choking smog, smoke”
rukta- v. “to belch smoke, spout smoke; to cause to smoke; to smoke at a pipe”
ruku n. “smoke, reek”
ruku- v. “to steam, smoke, reek”

1.85 to Burn, Scorch

hus- v. “to burn (tr.)”
kanda- v. “to blaze”
puru- v. “to burn”
purya- v. “to set fire to”
sanga-² v. “to scorch”
sisi- v. “to scorch, singe, fry”
tustima adj. “inflammable”
urya- v. “to burn (intr.)”
usta- v. “to burn (tr.)”

1.86 to Light, Kindle

kalta- v. “to kindle, set light to”
tunda- v. “to kindle”
turya- v. “to catch fire”

1.87 Match, Fire Stick

tusturin (tusturind-) n. “match”

2. Mankind

2.1 Human Being

#nanwa adj. “being”
nasta n. “existence, being, creature”

2.21 Man

ner n. “man, husband; warrior”

2.22 Woman

anai n. “woman”
anaina adj. “womanly”
n. “woman”
nyél n. “woman”
qimelle n. “little woman”

2.23 Male

anu n. “a male, man”
anúre n. “manliness, masculinity”
anúvie n. “manhood, doughtyness”
anuvoite adj. “male, masculine”
nerea adj. “manly, stout, brave”
nerevoite adj. “manly”
nérinwa adj. “*of man”
#-nu suf. “masculine suffix”
via adj. “male”
wenga adj. “*male”
wie n. “*man, male of the Elda”

2.24 Female

#-ni suf. “feminine suffix”
qim(en)ea adj. “womanly, feminine”
qimenoite (qimenoitsi-) adj. “feminine, female”
qin¹ (qim-) n. “woman, female”
qinde n. “womanliness, femininity; (concr.) women as a whole”
qinya adj. “womanly”
#-si suf. “feminine suffix”
#-sse³ suf. “feminine suffix”
venya adj. “womanl[y]”

2.26 Girl

mella n. “girl”
tessa n. “maid, maiden”
tessara adj. “maiden, maidenly”
tessare (tessari-) n. “little maid”
wende n. “maiden”
wendele n. “maidenhood”
wen(di) n. “maid, girl, maiden”

2.27 Child

ar¹ (arn-) n. “child”
hil(de) n. “child”

2.28 Infant

putse n. “baby, child”
tetta n. “baby”
tyetl n. “babe, a tiny baby”

2.31 Husband

heruvesto n. “husband, (lit.) lord husband”
veru n. “husband”
veruner n. “husband”
vestaner n. “?groom”

2.32 Wife

herivesti n. “wife”
veri n. “wife”
veruni n. “wife”
vesse n. “wife”
vestin n. “wife”

2.321 Bride

akairis (akairist-) n. “bride, wife”
akairisambe (akairisamb-) n. “bride chamber, thalamus”
vestani n. “?bride”

2.33 to Wed, Marry

(a)kainu- v. “to wed”
verin adj. “married”
vesta- v. “to wed, marry, join others in marriage; (refl.) to get married”

2.34 Wedding, Marriage

(a)kainusta n. “wedding, marriage”
akaire (akairi-) n. “‘living beside’, wedded life”
vesta n. “state of marriage”
vestale n. “wedding”
vestanoina adj. “related by marriage”

2.341 Married Couple

veringwi n. “husband and wife, married pair”

2.35 Father

atar n. “father”
atta¹ n. “father (child’s word)”
attu n. “father”

2.36 Mother

ama n. “mother”
ambi n. “mother”
amis (amist-) n. “mother”

2.37 Parent(s)

attawhi n. “parents”
puyando n. “parent”

2.41 Son

fion (fiond-) n. “son”
hilu n. “son”
-ion suf. “-son”
ion n. “son”
vondo n. “son”
n. “son”
yondo n. “son, male descendant, (great) grandson”

2.42 Daughter

aris (arits-) n. “daughter, maid”
-il suf. “*(feminine) patronymic”
silde n. “daughter”
sui n. “daughter”

2.43 Son or Daughter

2.44 Brother

herendo n. “brother”
hestaner n. “brother”
hestanu n. “brother”

2.45 Sister

heresse n. “sister”
hestani n. “sister”
hestaqin n. “sister”

2.452 Sibling(s)

hes (hest-) n. “brother, sister”
hesta n. “the nearest consanguinity”
hestanoina adj. “bearing the nearest consanguinity”

2.46 Grandfather

haru n. “grandfather”

2.47 Grandmother

haruni n. “grandmother”

2.53 Nephew

súyon n. “nephew, daughter’s son”

2.55 Cousin

etta n. “cousin”
ettani n. “female cousin”
ettanu n. “male cousin”
ettaresta n. “cousinship”
rendo n. “kinsman, cousin”
rendole n. “cousinship”
resse n. “kinswoman, cousin”

2.57 Descendant(s)

hilmi n. “family, offspring”

3. Animals

3.11 Animal

koisiva adj. “animal, bodily”
koite (koisi-) n. “living thing, being, animal”
lama n. “animal, beast; head of cattle or sheep”
roa n. “wild beast”
talar (talard-) n. “beast of burden”

3.16 to Pasture

nese- v. “to graze, pasture, give to feed, feed”

3.17 Pasture

nessele n. “pasture, mead; pasturage”

3.18 Herdsman

lamandar n. “herdsman, shepherd”
lámáre n. “flock”
mavar(do) n. “shepherd”
moar(do) (moard-) n. “shepherd”

3.21 Bull

tarukko n. “bull, ox”

3.22 Ox, Steer

yak(k)o n. “ox”

3.23 Cow

mui n. “cow”
yaksi n. “cow”

3.25 Sheep

arma n. “flock of sheep”
(m)ambe n. “mother”
moa n. “sheep”
moalin n. “sheepfold”
sauve n. “sheep”

3.26 Ram

kamo n. “ram”

3.29 Lamb

eule n. “lamb”
eulitse n. “*little lamb”

3.32 Boar

karkapolka n. “boar, *(lit.) tusk-pig”
úro n. “boar”

3.35 Pig

polka n. “pig”

3.36 Goat

nyéni n. “she-goat”

3.41 Horse (generic)

lópa n. “horse, mare”
mairu n. “(horse) mane, flowing hair; charger”

3.44 Mare

lopsi n. “mare”

3.51 Hen, Chicken (generic)

oi n. “bird, hen”
poroke n. “barn foul, hen”
porokelle n. “chicken”

3.52 Cock, Rooster

tokot n. “cock”

3.56 Goose

yanwa n. “goose”

3.57 Duck

n. “duck”

3.61 Dog

fan (fand-) n. “dog”
huan (huand-) n. “dog”
savar n. “wild dog, jackal”
savarna n. “pack (of dogs, wolves)”
suni n. “bitch, *female dog”

3.612 Puppy

saule n. “litter (of pups, cubs, etc.)”

3.62 Cat

meoi n. “cat”
yaule n. “cat”

3.63 Mouse

rausime n. “vermin”

3.64 Bird

aiwe n. “bird”
alqa n. “swan”
ambarin (ambarind-) n. “lark”
ea(r) n. “(young) eagle”
earen (earend-) n. “eyrie, (young) eagle”
n. “owl”
imbilink n. “sparrow”
karneambar n. “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
karon n. “crow”
keket (kekekt-) n. “pheasant”
kilapi n. “robin”
kilapitya- v. “to chirp”
lintuilinda adj. “many swallows of autumn”
máwe (máwi-) n. “gull, seamew”
oive n. “bird”
pimpevinne n. “larch”
sor(ne) (sorn-) n. “eagle”
sornion n. “eyrie”
soron¹ n. “eagle”
tuilindo n. “swallow, (lit.) spring-singer”
wilin n. “bird”
wilindea adj. “as a bird”

3.65 Fish (n)

ingwe (ingwi-) n. “fish”
ingwil(in) (ingwiling-) n. “eel”
kuluin (kuluind-) n. “goldfish”
telpingwe n. “silverfish”
windea adj. “fishlike”

3.71 Wolf

ulku n. “wolf”
ulqi n. “she-wolf”

3.72 Lion

rau (rav-) n. “lion”
ravenne n. “she-lion”

3.73 Bear

#matsile n. “bear”

3.75 Deer

opole n. “fawn, young deer”

3.78 Camel

ulumpe n. “camel”
uluntilla n. “camel’s hair”

3.79 to Hunt

rausima adj. “*hunted”
rauste n. “hunting, preying, the hunt”
raustea adj. “of prey”
rauta- v. “to chase, hunt, pursue; to extirpate, exterminate; to steal”

3.81 Insect

kangale n. “web”
kangaris (kangarist-) n. “spider”
kangawinda n. “cobweb”
lenqelénu n. “(daddy) long-legs”
malo¹ n. “moth”
ulumpingwe n. “caterpillar”
ungwe n. “spider”
wilwarin (wilwarind-) n. “butterfly”
wilwarinda adj. “butterflylike”

3.82 Bee

imbe n. “hive”

3.83 Fly (n)

kampo (*kampu-) n. “flea”

3.84 Worm

lingwe n. “snake, worm”
teste n. “small worm”
wembe n. “worm”
wembil n. “worm”

3.85 Snake

lin² (ling-) n. “snake”
lingwin n. “serpent, dragon”
lóke (lóki-) n. “snake, drake”
oqi n. “snake”

3.86 Swan

siloine (siloini-) n. “swan”

3.99 Animals (other)

hunto n. “elephant”
kuptulo n. “camel”
lapatl n. “leveret”
lapatte (lapatsi-) n. “rabbit”
noldare n. “mole”
nolpa n. “mole”
oryat (oryap-) n. “badger”
qildare n. “bat”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.11 Body

pulko n. “body, trunk, bole of tree”
sarkuva adj. “corporeal, bodily”

4.12 Skin, Hide

randa n. “bark; peel, rind, outer ring, circumference”

4.13 Flesh

hara(nda) n. “flesh-meat”
haranwa adj. “fleshly, carnal”
mimbe n. “flesh”
mindl n. “piece of flesh”
sarko¹ (sarku-) n. “flesh, living flesh, body”
sarqa adj. “fleshy”

4.14 Hair

andesilqe adj. “long-haired, long-tressed”
filma n. “fine hair, line”
silqe n. “tress of hair; glossy hair”
silqeléna adj. “having tresses”
silqelossea adj. “with hair like white flowers”
til (tiln-) n. “(single) hair”

4.142 Beard

fanga n. “beard”
poa n. “beard”
velte n. “beard”

4.143 Hair (other)

aule (auli-) adj. “shaggy”
findl n. “lock of hair, tress”
tilinya adj. “downy, hairy”

4.15 Blood

hari n. “blood”
mear (mearn-) n. “gore, blood”
vísi n. “blood”

4.16 Bone

as (ass-) n. “bone”
assea adj. “bony”
aswa adj. “of bone”
hón(a) n. “bone”

4.17 Horn

taru n. “horn”
tarukka adj. “horned”

4.18 Tail

pimpilin (pimpilind-) n. “hanging tail, tassel”
pint (pimp-) n. “tail”

4.20 Head

kar (kas-) n. “head”
kas (kast-) n. “head, top, summit”

4.204 Face

alma n. “face”
yéma n. “face”

4.207 Jaw

anto (antu-) n. “jaw”
n. “jaw”
maqar n. “jaw”

4.208 Cheek

anta n. “cheek; jaw(s)”

4.209 Chin

venta n. “chin”

4.21 Eye

hen (hend-) n. “eye”
n. “eye, eyeball, pupil”
sehte n. “pupil; bead; †eye”
sinda¹ n. “eye”
tille n. “eyelash”

4.22 Ear

ankar (ankas-) n. “ear (of men)”
qan (qand-) n. “ear”
unk(o) (unq-) n. “ear (of animals); corner, sticking out edge”

4.23 Nose

mem n. “nose, beak”
nen² (neng-) n. “nostril”
penta n. “nose, beak”
súma n. “nostril”
súne n. “(human) nose”

4.24 Mouth

matu n. “the mouth (inside)”
ó(vo) n. “mouth”

4.25 Lip

kilme n. “lip”
n. “the two lips, the (closed) mouth”

4.27 Tooth

karka n. “fang, tooth, tusk”
karkanel n. “fang”
karkara adj. “toothed”
karkasse n. “row of spikes or teeth”
nele (neli-) n. “tooth”
nyat n. “tooth”

4.28 Neck

lango n. “neck, throat”
yatta n. “neck; isthmus”

4.29 Throat

kaikta- v. “to strangle”
kailen n. “throat, gullet”
karko (karku-) n. “alimentary canel”
qerka n. “throat”

4.30 Shoulder

aldamo n. “shoulder(s), back”

4.31 Arm

anda-ráma adj. “long-arm(ed); long-wing(ed)”
lenk (lenq-) n. “limb”
olet (olek-) n. “forearm”
n. “arm”
ranko n. “arm”

4.32 Elbow

óleme n. “elbow”

4.33 Hand

n. “hand”
makte¹ (maksi-) n. “hand”

4.332 Hand (other)

erumaili adj. “one handed”
#maili adj. “handed”
marikta n. “wrist”
mavoite (mavoisi-) adj. “having hands”
paltya n. “flat of hand, palm of hand”

4.34 Finger

anda-lepta adj. “long-fingered”
lepta² n. “finger”
let (lept-) n. “finger”
-tenda suf. “having fingers”
tenna n. “finger”

4.342 Thumb

tyúte (tyúsi-) n. “thumb”

4.35 Leg

attalaite adj. “biped”
attalin n. “biped”
oswe¹ n. “hip”
pelko n. “leg”
piu n. “calf of leg”
tyúka¹ adj. “thick”
tyú(ta) n. “thigh”

4.36 Knee

okka n. “knee”

4.37 Foot

tala¹ n. “foot; bottom, lowest part”
tala(no)ite adj. “footed”
talas (talast-) n. “sole”

4.39 Nail, Claw

nyelet (nyeleks-) n. “nail (of the finger)”

4.392 Wing

#ala² n. “wing”
ehtaráma adj. “having a wing like a sword”
ráma n. “wing; arm”
rámavoite adj. “having wings, winged”
vasse (vassi-) n. “wing”
vassivaswe n. “beating or rushing of wings”
wilda adj. “winged”

4.393 Feather

pekte (peksi-) n. “plume, cox-comb”
pilinqasilla n. “nodding plume”
pilintele n. “plumage”
qasilla n. “tuft, nodding spray, tassel, plume”

4.41 Breast of Woman

ambar² (ambas-) n. “breast, bosom”
ambos (ambost-) n. “breast; shoulder”
titte n. “breast, teat”
tyetse n. “teat”

4.44 Heart

elwen n. “heart”
hon² (hond-) n. “heart”

4.45 Liver

lepsa n. “liver”

4.46 Belly, Stomach

famba n. “belly, fat body”
palla n. “paunch”
piule adj. “greasy, overfat; overfed, spoilt”

4.48 Egg

ohte (oksi-) n. “egg”

4.49 Testicle

milt n. “semen”

4.492 Penis

hapta- v. “to eject, ejaculate”
puntl n. “mem. vir., *penis”
vie n. “teors, *penis”

4.51 to Breathe; Breath

qorin adj. “drowned, choked, speechless”
qoro- v. “to choke, suffocate, (esp.) drown”
qosta- v. “to choke, drown”

4.52 to Gape, Yawn

yáme adj. “yawning”

4.53 to Cough

hototyosse n. “a cough and a sneeze”
hútatyosta n. “whooping cough”

4.54 to Sneeze

hont (honty-) n. “sneeze”
hontosse n. “a loud sneeze”
hotyo- v. “to sneeze”
nupte n. “a sniff”

4.56 to Spit

pist- v. “to spit”
rekka n. “spittle”
rent (renty-) n. “spittle, saliva”
retye- v. “to spit”

4.57 to Vomit

qama- v. “to be ill, vomit”

4.58 to Bite

naka- v. “to bite”

4.59 to Lick

lava- v. “to lick”
salpa- v. “to take a sup of, sample, sip”
sulp- v. “to lick, sup, lick up, sup up; to sip, taste; to drink”

4.61 to Sleep; Sleep

fansa n. “swoon”
fanta- v. “to fall asleep, go dazed, swoon”
fum- v. “to sleep”
fúme n. “sleep”
lor- v. “to slumber”
lorda adj. “slumbrous, drowsy”
murme n. “slumber, sleep”
murmea adj. “slumbrous”
muru- v. “to slumber, sleep”
olorda adj. “dreamy, drowsy; in dreams”

4.62 Dream (n)

fanóre n. “day-dream”
fantl n. “vision, dream, hazy notion, imaginary idea”
fanwe n. “dream”
olóre n. “dream”
olórea adj. “dreamy, dreamlike”

4.63 to Wake

qíva adj. “awake”
qívie n. “awakening”

4.65 to Urinate; Urine

mis (mist-) n. “urine”

4.66 to Void Excrement; Dung, Excrement

hakka n. “the hams, buttocks”
múko n. “dung, stercus [Latin], *manure, muck”
mukta- v. “cacare [Latin], *to empty bowels”

4.67 to have Sexual Intercourse

pukta n. “coitus, *sex”
pukta- v. “to copulate”

4.71 to Beget (of Father)

kiw- v. “*to germinate, impregnate”
puita- v. “to beget”
tulka- v. “to fix, stick in, set up, establish”

4.72 to Bear (of Mother)

nosta n. “birth, birthday”
nosta- v. “to give birth to; to cause”
toqo- v. “to yield, give, bear, bring forth”
#yava-¹ v. “to bear fruit”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

koina adj. “living, alive”
koire n. “life”
koirea adj. “alive, lively”
koiresta- v. “to spend one’s life”
koiva adj. “awake; lively, living”
koivie n. “awakening; liveliness”
laule n. “life, mode of life”
laulesta n. “livelihood”
lausiva adj. “living (of plants)”
lausta-¹ v. “to lead a life, gain a living”
loa n. “life”

4.75 to Die; Dead; Death

n. “last hour, last breath, (act of) death”
il(l)oite adj. “withered, dead”
mána adj. “dead”
#narka² adj. “dead”
qal- v. “to die”
qalin adj. “dead, dying”
qalma adj. “deadly”
qalme n. “death, agony”
qalmea adj. “deathly”
qalna adj. “dead”
qalume¹ n. “death”
qalúmea adj. “deathly”
qele- v. “to perish; to fade”
qeletya- v. “to perish”
qelme n. “ruin, utter end, perdition, end, death”
urdu n. “death”
warda adj. “dead”

4.76 to Kill

faikar n. “destroyer, slayer; bane”
maka- v. “to slay; to die”
makka n. “slaughter”
makta- v. “to slay, slaughter”
maktya- v. “to kill”
nahta- v. “to slay cruelly”

4.77 Corpse, Body

kaivo n. “corpse”
qelekte n. “carcasse”
qelet (qelekt-) n. “corpse”

4.79 Grave, Tomb

kaune n. “grave”

4.81 Strong, Mighty, Powerful

anúva adj. “doughty”
mára¹ adj. “mighty, power[ful], doughty; good, excellent, useful (of things)”
nertu n. “strength”
polda adj. “mighty, powerful”
poldor n. “physical strength; might”
poldórea adj. “muscular, powerful”
tulka adj. “strong”
túre n. “might, strength, power”
túrea adj. “mighty”
turka adj. “strong”
turwa adj. “powerful”
valma adj. “powerful”

4.83 Well; Health

ausi- pref. “well”
vande² adv. “well”

4.84 Sick; Sickness

kaimassea adj. “confined to bed, a-bed, bedridden”
leuke (leuki-) adj. “sick, ill; pallid, wan”
leume n. “sickness”
naika² adj. “stricken ill, sick”
naiko adv. “*sickly”
nang- v. “I have a cold”
nungo n. “cold (in the nose or head)”
qamba adj. “unwell, sick”
qáme n. “sickness, nausea”
qámea adj. “sick”
qolda adj. “ill”
qolima adj. “sickly, ailing”
qolimo n. “invalid”
qolo- v. “to ail”
qolu n. “disease”
qolúva adj. “pestilent, pestilential”
qolúvie n. “pestilence”
sastya adj. “sore, galled”
tyos (tyoss-) n. “cough”
tyosto- v. “to cough”

4.85 to Wound; Wound; Wounded

sist(e) (sisty-) n. “ulcer, sore, boil”
sistina adj. “ulcerated, sore”
welet (welekt-) n. “boil, tumor”

4.89 Poison

feno (fenu-) n. “venom, poison”
henuva adj. “venomous, poisonous”

4.91 Tired, Weary

qinqa adj. “drooping, languid”
qinqele n. “languor”
qinqelea adj. “languorous”
qiqi- v. “to hang, droop”
#rúse (rúsi-) adj. “weary”
tarwa² adj. “tired”

4.93 Bald

falkasse(a) adj. “bald”

4.94 Lame

kauko (kauku-) n. “humpback”
kupta- v. “to hump up, look lumpy”
maita adj. “maimed”

4.99 Naked, Bare

falin adj. “bare, nude, fallow, wild (of land)”
falka¹ adj. “naked, bare”
hulin adj. “naked”
hulqa adj. “naked”
karp- v. “to pluck”
karpale n. “a plucking, tucking, wrenching; deceiving, tricking”

4.999 Body Parts and Functions (other)

lepsile n. “tendril”

5. Food and Drink

5.11 to Eat

kamanta- v. “to make eat, give to eat”
lávear (láveard-) n. “glutton”
malu- v. “to devour”
manta adj. “eaten”
mata- v. “to eat”
matsa adj. “good to eat, nice”
matsima adj. “edible”
#matwa adj. “*eating”
nesta n. “(act of) feeding”
nesta- v. “to feed”
tyúka² n. “cud”
tyuku- v. “to chew”
tyus (tyuks-) n. “cud”
^tyustyuhta- v. “to chew the cud; to reflect, reminisce”
tyustyukta- v. “to chew the cud; to reflect, reminisce”

5.12 Food

koisimatl n. “animal food”
koisimatwa adj. “carnivorous”
matl n. “food”
matso n. “food”
nes² (nest-) n. “food, feed, fodder”

5.13 to Drink

soko- v. “to drink”
sokto- v. “to give to drink, drench”
soq- v. “to drink”

5.14 Hunger (n)

saike (saiki-) n. “hunger”
saikele n. “famine”
saikelea adj. “famished”
saikelta- v. “to starve”
saiqa adj. “hungry”
saita- v. “to be hungry”
saitya- v. “to starve”

5.15 Thirst (n)

loime n. “thirst”

5.151 Thirsty

loimea adj. “thirsty”
loire (loiri-) adj. “thirsty”
loyo- v. “be thirsty (impers.)”

5.21 to Cook

maksa- v. “to cook”
maksar n. “cook”
maswa adj. “soft, cooked, ripe”

5.22 to Boil (trans.)

welba adj. “boiling, bubbling”
welbe n. “bubble”
wele- v. “to boil, bubble”

5.24 to Bake

mas- v. “to bake, cook”
tori- v. “to bake”
torina adj. “baked, done”

5.25 Oven

torma n. “oven”
urna n. “oven”

5.26 Pot

tambin (tambind-) n. “cauldron”

5.31 Dish

vene n. “small boat, vessel, dish”

5.33 Bowl

salpa n. “bowl”
tolpo n. “bowl”

5.34 Jug, Pitcher

kalpa n. “bucket, vessel”
olpe n. “bottle”
unqilla(r) n. “handle of jar; pothook”

5.35 Cup

ulma n. “flagon”

5.38 Knife

naika¹ n. “dagger”

5.41 a Meal

mat (matt-) n. “meal, meal time”

5.51 Bread

korne n. “loaf”
masta n. “bread”
mastakorne n. “loaf”

5.52 Cake

korma n. “cake, lump”

5.55 Meal, Flour

mulma n. “fine flour”
pole (poli-) n. “oats, grain (unground kernels of oats, wheat, etc.); flour”
polesse n. “porridge”

5.56 to Grind

mard(a)- v. “to grind, pulverize”
mul(u)- v. “to grind”

5.57 Mill

mulmar n. “miller”
mulmin n. “mill”

5.61 Meat

mimbematwa adj. “carnivorous”
tarqin(a) adj. and n. “salted, dried; salt meat”

5.64 Soup, Broth

sulpa n. “soup”

5.65 Vegetables

lausimatl n. “vegetable food”
lausimatwa adj. “vegetarian”
laute (lausi-) n. “living thing, (esp.) vegetable”

5.67 Pea

mildi coll. “pease”

5.69 Cabbage

kalar n. “lettuce”

5.71 Fruit

aipio n. “cherry”
marinne n. “fruit tree”

5.72 Apple

marin n. “(ripe) fruit, apple”
orva n. “apple”

5.77 Nut

kote (kotsi-) n. “nut”
kotsia adj. “nutty”
kotsivoite adj. “nut-bearing, nutty”
kottule n. “hazel”
mavoisi n. “chestnut”

5.79 Oil

ilma¹ n. “oil”
ilqa adj. “oily”
millo n. “oil”
oinalis (oinaliss-) n. “ointment”
oine n. “unguent”

5.80 Berry

melpo n. “gooseberry”
pio n. “plum, berry, cherry”
pi(o)pin n. “haws, fruit of hawthorns”
piukka n. “blackberry”

5.81 Salt

singe (singi-) n. “salt”
singwa adj. “salt”

5.84 Honey

ile n. “honey”
nekte n. “honey”
nektele n. “honeycomb”
nier (nies-) n. “honey bee”
nierwes (nierwest-) n. “hive”

5.86 Milk

ilimba adj. “milky”
ilin (ilim-) n. “milk”

5.88 Cheese

tyur (tyurd-) n. “cheese”

5.89 Butter

lis² (lisi-) n. “butter”
manya¹ n. “butter”
mingwe n. “butter”
qirme n. “cream”
telpe² n. “butter”
úle n. “butter”

5.91 Mead

miruvóre (miruvóri-) n. “nectar, drink of the Valar, sweet drink”

5.92 Wine

io n. “wine”
limpe n. “drink of the fairies, fairy-drink, elfwine”
miru n. “wine”
mirúva adj. “like wine, winy”
ulme n. “a kind of wine”

5.999 Food (Other)

laru n. “fat, grease”
laruke adj. “fat, rich”
larúva adj. “greasy”
lise (lihy-) n. “grease”
lisiva adj. “greasy”
mange¹ (mangi-) n. “grease”
maru n. “pulp”
pihye n. “sap, juice”
píwe n. “fatness, richness, goodness”
pulqe n. “juice”
silk(in)a adj. “rich, fat, glossy”
tyé n. “tea”
vasa n. “juice”

6. Clothing and Adornment

6.11 to Clothe, Dress

vaimata- v. “to robe”
vaina adj. “clad”

6.21 Cloth

lapil n. “swathe, flowing cloth”

6.22 Wool

karpan n. “hank (of wool etc.)”
oa n. “wool”
oalle n. “blanket”
oara adj. “of wool”
toa n. “wool”
ue n. “fleece”

6.25 Silk

samin (samind-) n. “silk”
saminda adj. “silken”

6.28 Fur

fara n. “fur, fell”
vóre (vóri-) n. “fur”
vórina adj. “of fur”
vóriva adj. “like fur”

6.29 Leather

alu n. “dressed leather”

6.31 to Spin

qiri-¹ v. “to stir (make spin)”
werelin (werelind-) n. “whirligig”
werelinda adj. “twirling, pirouetting”

6.32 Spindle

qindl n. “a spindle, top”

6.33 to Weave

#kanga- v. “to weave, spin”
qint (qinty-) n. “loop, stitch for knitting”
qitima adj. “for knitting”
qity- v. “to knit”
winda n. “woof”
wiste n. “weft”

6.34 Loom

tantl n. “shuttle”
windele n. “loom”

6.35 to Sew

neme- v. “to sew”

6.36 Needle

nelma n. “needle”

6.38 Thread

lia n. “twine”
líne n. “thread, cotton”
nemba n. “thread”
tendl n. “string”

6.41 Cloak

karape n. “cloak, outer garment”

6.412 Overcoat

vaile n. “covering”
vaima n. “wrap, robe”

6.43 Coat

vakko n. “jacket, coat”

6.44 Shirt

laupe n. “tunic, shirt”

6.51 Shoe

hyapa n. “shoe”

6.52 Boot

saipo n. “boot”

6.53 Slipper

patinka n. “shoe, slipper”

6.55 Hat, Cap

serin (serind-) n. “wreath, crown”
táta n. “hat”

6.57 Belt, Girdle

qalta adj. “girdled, girt”
qilta n. “belt, girdle”
qilti- v. “to gird, encircle”

6.58 Glove

mantele n. “gauntlet”
mantl n. “glove”

6.63 Pin, Brooch

piek (piekk-) n. “pin”
pieksin n. “brooch”
pirin (pirind-) n. “thin rod, pin”

6.71 Adornment (personal)

qilin adj. “adorned, bright-coloured, embroidered”
qilinoite adj. “broidered”
qiltasse n. “(em)broidery”
qilya- v. “to adorn, embellish, colour”

6.72 Gem, Jewel

lúle n. “blue stone, sapphire”
lúlea adj. “sapphirine”
malikon (malikond-) n. “amber”
malikondea adj. “of amber”
marilla n. “pearl”
mírea adj. “smiling”
miri- v. “to smile”
nindon (nindond-) n. “lapis lazuli”
nyelekka n. “onyx”
sink (sinq-) n. “mineral, gem, metal”
sinqe n. “jewel, gem”
sinqe?? adj. “sparkle as with gems”
sinqevoite adj. “gemmed”

6.75 Necklace

firinga n. “carcanet, necklace”

6.91 Comb

peqe- v. “to comb, card wool, tease”
peqen n. “comb”

6.95 Soap

poime (poimi-) n. “soap”

6.999 Adornment (other)

enyarin n. “device, escutcheon, blazon”
fas (fats-) n. “tassel”
fatsale n. “(tasseled) fringe”
fatsevoite adj. “tasseled”
qinqenna n. “Solomon’s-seal”

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.11 to Live, Dwell

laulema adj. “inhabiting”
laulemo n. “inhabitant”
manda- v. “to dwell, remain”
mara-¹ v. “to dwell, live”
mardo n. “dweller”
wasta- v. “to dwell”

7.12 House

indo n. “house”
indor n. “master of house”
os (ost-) n. “cottage, house”
san² (samb-) n. “hall, dwelling house”

7.122 Home

indoite adj. “indoors, at home, homely, domestic”
indolis n. “domicile”
indositsina adj. “domestic(ated)”
kaime n. “dwelling, home”
mar¹ (mas-) n. “house, home, dwelling (of men); -land, the Earth”
osta n. “homestead”

7.15 Yard, Court

palis(te) n. “sward, green, lawn”

7.16 Cave

kambo n. “cellar, cave, vault”

7.21 Room

kaimasan (kaimasamb-) n. “bed-room, bed-chamber”
sambe (samb-) n. “room, chamber”

7.22 Door, Gate

andon (andond-) n. “door, gate”
lat (latt-) n. “flap, small hinged door, lid”
pondo n. “gate”
posta n. “door”
#tarnon n. “door”

7.25 Window

lattin n. “window”

7.27 Wall

ossa n. “wall and moat”

7.28 Roof

tel (teld-) n. “roof”
telda adj. “having a roof”
telin (telimb-) n. “roof, covering”
telintule (telintuli-) adj. “bearing a roof, roofed”
teltasse n. “awning”
túpele n. “roofing, tiles, roof”
tupin adj. “roofed, having a lid, having hat on”
tupu- v. “to roof, cover, put a lid on, put hat on”

7.29 House (other)

turindo n. “palace”

7.31 Hearth, Fireplace

arin n. “hearth”
arinya adj. “fireside”
purin (purind-) n. “hearth”

7.412 Furniture (other)

ank (anq-) n. “loop, handle, ring”

7.42 Bed

kaima n. “couch, bed”
kamba n. “bed”

7.43 Chair

sonda n. “seat, chair”
sóra¹ n. “seat”
sorin (sorind-) n. “throne”
tult (tulp-) n. “leg of chair, etc.”

7.44 Table

palasar (palasard-) n. “great table”
palukta n. “table”
palume n. “plain”
sarno n. “table”

7.45 Lamp

kalume n. “an (artificial) light”
kalumet (kalumett-) n. “lamp”

7.46 Candle

kalma n. “(day)light; candle”
katinka n. “candle”
neite n. “wax”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.12 Field for Cultivation

arwa n. “field”
milnar(wa) n. “sown field”
pingwa adj. “fat, rich (of soil)”

8.13 Garden, Orchard

laukien (laukiend-) n. “vegetable or kitchen garden”
lotarwa n. “garden”
tarwa¹ n. “garden, enclosure”

8.14 Barn

tumpo n. “shed, barn”

8.15 to Tilt, Cultivate

ríma n. “line of seeds planted, row, series, furrow”

8.22 to Dig, Delve

ilt n. “a dig or stab”
kava- v. “to dig”
sapa- v. “to dig”
satwa adj. “hollow, dug-out, excavated”

8.23 Spade (n)

sampa n. “spade”

8.29 Blade, Share

hyanda¹ n. “blade, share”
valke (valki-) n. “edge, sharp blade”

8.30 Plough

hyar (hyarm-) n. “plough”
hyar- v. “to plough”

8.31 to Sow; Seed

mile (mili-) n. “seed”
milin n. “grain of seed”
ore (ori-) n. “seed, grain”
orivaine n. “pod, seed pod, pea; peapod (a boat)”
orya- v. “to sow”
polu n. “kernel”
rista- v. “to plant”
ristale n. “sowing time”
ristar n. “sower”

8.32 to Mow, Reap

hyanda- v. “to mow, cleave”
silki- v. “to mow, scythe, mow down”
silkima adj. “ready for cutting”

8.33 Scythe, Sickle

kalka n. “sickle”
salka n. “scythe”

8.41 Crop, Harvest

silkesse n. “harvest”
yausta n. “crop”
yáva n. “fruits, produce”
yávan n. “harvest, autumn”

8.46 Oats

polenta n. “oatmeal”
polina adj. “oaten”

8.51 Grass

liske n. “sedge, reeds”
salke (salki-) n. “grass”
salqe n. “grass, long mowing grass”

8.52 Hay

nesse n. “(green) fodder, herb, grass”

8.54 Root

móle n. “root”
tarka n. “root”
tarkele n. “great system of roots”

8.55 Branch

olwe(n) n. “branch, wand, stick”
rista n. “shoot (sowing), plant, seedling”
sirpe n. “stem, stalk, slender tube, etc.”
telko n. “stem”
tetse n. “bud”
tuista n. “spray, twig, sprout, shoot”

8.56 Leaf

lasse n. “leaf; petal”
lassea adj. “with leaves, leafy”
pat (papt-) n. “small leaf”

8.57 Flower

kamillo n. “large poppy”
kamilot n. “red clover”
kankale-malina n. “daffodil, *(lit.) yellow laughter”
lindelokte n. “labernum, (lit.) singing cluster”
lokte (loksi-) n. “blossom, (flower) cluster, bunch”
losse n. “rose; (white) flower”
lóte n. “flower, bloom, blossom”
lótea adj. “full of blossom”
lotella n. “floret”
lóteqilna adj. “broidered with flowers”
lotóre n. “blooming, flowering, best time, flower”
meril n. “flowers”
qille¹ (qilli-) n. “blue-bell”
qillinin (qillinind-) n. “blue-bell”
tetl n. “small flower”
tettele n. “burgeoning, efflorescence”

8.571 Lily

ailinon n. “water lily”
narwe¹ n. “(sweet) lily”
nénu n. “yellow water lily”
nénuvar n. “pool of lilies”
qiqilla n. “Lily of the Valley”

8.58 Rose

kampilosse n. “wild-rose”
kampin n. “hips, (wild-rose) berries”

8.59 Violet

helin n. “pansy, violet”
helinille n. “violet”
helinillea adj. “*violet”
helinwa adj. “of pansies; (of colour) a blue-violet”

8.60 Tree (generic)

fine n. “larch”
lailekse n. “willow”
lintasarindea adj. “having many willows”
lintyulussea adj. “having many poplars”
maisilanda n. “sycamore”
maite² n. “maple”
mapalin n. “plane, sycamore”
orne n. “tree”
palapapte n. “*sycamore”
paltyalda n. “palm tree”
polonde n. “alder”
silqeléni n. “silver birch, (lit.) long tresses”
silwin (silwind-) n. “birch”
siqilesse n. “weeping willow; lamentation”
tamuril n. “yew”
tapatenda mavoisi n. “Spanish [chestnut]”
tarasse n. “hawthorn”
taule¹ n. “great tree”
tyulusse n. “poplar”
ulwe n. “alder tree”
ulwea adj. “alder-grown”
ulwenoite adj. “alderlike”
ulwe nornelassea n. “oakleaved alder”
ulwesse n. “alder-thicket”

8.61 Oak

nor (norn-) n. “oak”
norne n. “oak (tree), oak in general”
nornea adj. “of oak”
nornelassea adj. “having oak-leaves”
orome n. “oak”

8.62 Beech

líneneldora adj. “having many beeches”
neldor n. “beech”
neldorin n. “beech-tree”
neldorion n. “beech wood”

8.64 Pine

aikor n. “pine-tree”
aiqaire n. “fir, pine (tree)”
hóre (hóri-) n. “pine, stone pine”
horinel n. “pine-needle”
súke n. “resinous tree, pine or fir”

8.67 Vine

etl n. “ivy”
liantasse n. “vine”
liante n. “tendril, vine”

8.99 Vegetation (other)

ekkia adj. “thorny”
ektar² n. “hawthorn, thorn”
eldasilqe n. “maidenhair fern, (lit.) elf tress”
fen (feng-) n. “reed”
filqe n. “fern”
fuiyáru n. “deadly nightshade”
fumella n. “(red) poppy, (lit.) flower of sleep”
helilokte n. “wisteria, (lit.) purple cluster”
kolosta n. “cucumber”
nehta n. “hawthorn”
orikon n. “heather”
#oron¹ (orond-) n. “bush”
piosenna n. “holly”
pi(pi)nektar n. “whitethorn, hawthorn”
telumbe n. “mushroom, (lit.) fairy-canopy”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

n. “deed, act, fact”
kara- v. “to do, make”
karma n. “shape, fashion; act, deed”
karo n. “deed, act, action”

9.112 Doer, Agent

#-(a)r suf. “masculine/agental suffix”
#-mo suf. “agental suffix”
#-ndo suf. “masculine suffix”

9.14 to Bend

kauta- v. “to bend”

9.16 to Bind

hepe- v. “to bind”
lia- v. “to entwine”
lim- v. “to bind”
serta- v. “to tie”

9.17 Bond (n)

hetl n. “bond”

9.18 Chain (n)

limil n. “chain”

9.19 Rope, Cord

hempa n. “cord”
límen n. “thong, band”
serma n. “string, cord”

9.21 to Hit, Strike, Beat

hyalta- v. “to strike, make ring”
lampa- v. “to beat, hit”
otto- v. “to knock”
panta-² v. “to beat”
pete- v. “to knock, strike”
pilt (pilty-) n. “blow, cuff, box on ear”
pilty- v. “to strike (esp. with flat hand)”
tanga- v. “to beat”
taran (taramb-) n. “bang, buffet”

9.22 to Cut

#feng- v. “to cut”
fenqa adj. “keen, cutting”
kiri- v. “to cleave; *to sail”
vilki- v. “to cut”

9.24 Shears, Scissors

oalúme n. “shearing time”

9.25 Ax

pelekko (pelekku-) n. “axe”
taila n. “(axe) blade”

9.26 to Break

laira- v. “to wear out, break up”
ranka adj. “broken”
rusta adj. “broken”

9.27 to Split

kiris (kirist-) n. “cleft, crack”
kisin adj. “cleft”
rúvina adj. “burst”
sahta-² v. “to split”

9.28 to Tear

sanka¹ n. “rend, jab”
ulqu- v. “*to rend”

9.29 to Flay, Skin

par- v. “to peel”
rara- v. “to scrape, peel, strip”
rasta n. “file, scraper”
ripta- v. “to cut in strips, tear up; to stripe, mark in parallel lines; to flay, flog”

9.31 to Rub

#wara- v. “to rub”

9.32 to Stretch

lenu- v. “to stretch”
rakta-¹ v. “to stretch out, reach”
tapa- v. “to taper, stretch out (intr.), extend thin”
tapatenda adj. “taper fingered, light fingered, long fingered”

9.33 to Draw, Pull

hyehta- v. “to jerk”
hyekka n. “jerk”
kilt n. “tuck”
#kilti- v. “to jerk, tuck”
luk- v. “to pull”
riqi- v. “to wrench, twist”

9.34 to Strew, Spread Out

rína adj. “scattered, sown”
rísima adj. “scattered, ubiquitous, universal”
rísimande adv. “passim”

9.342 to Press

mal- v. “to crush, squeeze”
mald- v. “to pound, crush”
sanga-¹ v. “to pack tight, compress, press; to gather”
tyak- v. “to stick”

9.35 to Pour

ulto- v. “to pour (tr.)”
ulu- v. “to pour, gush (intr.)”

9.36 to Wash

allu- v. “to wash”
allume n. “washing”
faskalan n. “bath”
lusta n. “warm bath”
lusta- v. “to bathe in warm water”
lutto- v. “to swill, wash”
poita- v. “to cleanse”
poitya- v. “to make clean, tidy, straighten”
saune n. “bath, small pool”
sausa n. “bath water, hot water”
sovalle n. “washing, bathing”
sovo- v. “to wash”

9.413 Horn

likin (likinn-) n. “horn, curled horn”
likinda- v. “to blow a trumpet”
likinda n. “trumpet”
likinne n. “blowing of horns”
tumbe n. “trumpet, (large) horn”

9.422 Tool

enya n. “device, method, trick; machine, engine”
yaima n. “implement”

9.44 to Build

taqa- v. “to build, fashion, construct, make”
tump-¹ v. “to build; to beat”

9.45 to Hew

pelekta- v. “hew”
tyakta- v. “hew”

9.46 to Bore

ter- v. “*to pierce”
terendl n. “lathe”

9.47 Auger

teret (terekt-) n. “augur, borer, gimlet”

9.48 Saw (n)

karkasarma adj. “large saw”
sara- v. “to saw”
sarma n. “saw”

9.49 Hammer (n)

artan (artam-) n. “hammer”
petl n. “hammer”
tonga n. “great hammer”

9.50 Nail, Peg

tanka² n. “fastening, rivet”
tas (taks-) n. “nail”
tasarin n. “willow”

9.51 Beam

orqin(di) n. “ogress”
súle n. “column, pillar”
taule² n. “pillar”
tulwe n. “tall thin pillar, standard, pole; banner”
vandl n. “staff”
vanga¹ n. “staff”

9.52 Board

palta n. “shelf”
panta² n. “board”
sarat (sarakt-) n. “plank”
saratwa n. “made of planks”

9.54 Brick

soraksa n. “shingle”
telar n. “brick, tile”

9.60 Smith

talka¹ n. “smith”
tongar n. “smith”

9.61 to Forge

tamilla n. “forge”
tamin n. “forge”

9.62 Anvil

onin n. “anvil”

9.64 Gold

kulu n. “gold”
kuluina adj. “golden”
kululta adj. “of gold”
kulurin n. “piece of gold; orange”
kulusta n. “gold coin”
kuluva adj. “of gold”
kuluvoite (kuluvoisi-) adj. “golden”
laure (lauri-) n. “(mystic name of) gold”
laurea adj. “golden”
laurina adj. “golden”

9.65 Silver

ilsa n. “(the mystic name of) silver”
telepta adj. “of silver”
telpe¹ (telpi-) n. “silver; money”
telpea adj. “silvern”
telpina adj. “of silver”

9.66 Copper, Bronze

kalas (kalass-) n. “brass”
kalassina adj. “brazen”
tambe (tambi-) n. “copper, bronze”
tambina adj. “of copper”

9.67 Iron

aksina adj. “steel”
anga n. “iron”
angaina adj. “of iron”
ere(n) n. “iron, steel”
malo² n. “rust”
sinqina adj. “metallic”
tong??a adj. “of iron”
tongo n. “iron”
tongwa adj. “like iron”
yakse¹ n. “steel”
yaksina adj. “of steel”
yeraina adj. “of iron”
yere(n) n. “pig iron”
yerenwa adj. “like iron”

9.68 Lead

kanu n. “lead”
kanuina adj. “of lead”
kanuva adj. “leaden”
núle n. “lead”

9.69 Tin, Tin-Plate

latúken n. “tin”
latukenda adj. “of tin”

9.71 Potter

kere n. “earthenware; earthen jar”
kereksa adj. “of earthenware”
keres (kerest-) n. “earthenware”
keresto n. “potter”

9.74 Glass

lipil n. “a tiny (fay-)glass”
sintl n. “crystal”
talku- v. “to glaze”
talqe (talqi-) n. “glass”
talqea adj. “glassy”
talqina adj. “made of glass”
vírin n. “glass substance [used to make the Moon]”

9.76 Basket

kolka n. “box”
poko n. “bag”

9.81 to Carve

nyasa- v. “to scratch”

9.83 Statue

ondole n. “stone monument; stone-cairn”

9.87 Painting, Picture

#halme n. “drawing”

9.90 Thing

nat (natt-) n. “thing”
natto (nattu-) n. “thing, affair”

9.91 Be

e-² v. “to be”
ná- v. “to be, exist”
ó- v. “to be”
sóma n. “state, condition”

9.92 Become

nó- v. “to be born, become”

9.93 Need, Necessity

iqis (iqist-) n. “requirement”

9.95 Can, May

-alka suf. “able to”
-ima suf. “-able, possible”
lata- v. “to be able to (used of opportunity, permission)”
mala-² v. “to be able to (used of capacity, ability)”
mále n. “ability”
málea adj. “able”
turu-¹ v. “can, to be able”

9.97 Difficult

auqa adj. “awkward, clumsy (of things), difficult”

9.98 to Try

tyasa- v. “to test, try, pick, choose”
tyasta- v. “to put to the test”

9.993 to Happen

enget n. “a hap”
mart- v. “to happen (impers.)”
marta- v. “to chance”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.11 to Move

hatse n. “headlong movement”
lev- v. “to move (intr.)”
túma adj. “moving”

10.12 to Turn

kere- v. “to turn”

10.13 to Turn Around

peltas (peltaks-) n. “pivot”
pipiri- v. “to twirl, twizzle”
piri- v. “to spin, turn”
piruke n. “swirl, twisting, pirouetting”
pirúk(end)ea adj. “pirouetting, whirling lightly”
rinqa adj. “round, circular; revolving returning, recurrent”

10.14 to Wind, Wrap

lapa- v. “to wrap, swathe, wind”
lingwilla n. “coil, spire”
makse n. “net”
maksella n. “mesh”
makseta- v. “to enmesh”
vaita- v. “to wrap”

10.15 to Roll

konta- v. “to roll up, roll, pack”
tolu- v. “to roll up, furl”
velu- v. “to unfurl”

10.21 to Rise

oro- v. “to rise”
orosta¹ n. “ascension”
róna- v. “to arise, rise, ascend”
rosta- v. “*to rise”

10.22 to Lift, Raise

amu- v. “to raise”
orto- v. “to raise”

10.23 to Fall

iltanka adj. “unsteady”
lant- v. “to fall, drop”
lanta n. and adj. “fall, falling; fallen, falling”
lantanwa adj. “[unglossed]”
númeta- v. “to get low (of the Sun), go down in the west”
suq- v. “to fall, fail, go down, die down”
talta adj. “shaky, wobbling, tottering; sloping, slanting”

10.24 to Drop

lipte- v. “to drip”
litl n. “tiny drop”

10.25 to Throw

hata- v. “to hurl, fling”

10.26 to Shake

pal- v. “to shake”
palme n. “a shaking”
pampile n. “trembling”
pampil(e)a adj. “tremulous”
pampinë n. “tremor, earthquake”
pampine n. “tremor, earthquake”
papa- v. “to tremble”
qap- v. “to throb, flutter”
qapta-² v. “to flap”
qasa- v. “to shake, flap, nod, rustle (intr.)”

10.31 to Boil (intrans.)

pumpo n. “bubble; bladder; blister”
pumpole n. “bubble; merboy”
pus (pust-) n. “boil”

10.32 to Flow

keleta n. “trickle”
kelta- v. “to draw water”
kelu- v. “to flow”
linya- v. “to run or flow smoothly”
lúto n. “flood”
lutu- v. “to flow, float, sail”
siri- v. “flow”
sírima adj. “liquid, flowing”
siripta n. “slender stem”
sóla n. “tide”

10.33 to Sink

núta- v. “to stoop, sink”
sunqa adj. “going-down, descending; abysmal, deep, profound”
sunqe n. “going-down, descent, down-fall; abyss, depth”
sunqelaina adj. “falling, fading, setting”
sunqele n. “sinking, falling, setting of heavenly bodies”
sunqelea adj. “westering, setting”
tum- v. “to dive”

10.36 to Sail

salta- v. “to sail”
velunte n. “sail”

10.37 to Fly

itis (itiss-) n. “a fly bite”
itse n. “small fly”
wili- v. “to sail, fly, float”

10.38 to Blow

pus- v. “to puff, snort”
puse n. “puff”
pusilla n. “puff, whiff, breeze”
pusta- v. “to blow”
pusulpe n. “gas-bag, balloon”
pusulta- v. “to puff out with one’s breath”
sur- v. “to blow”

10.43 to Jump, Leap

halta- v. “to leap”
hampa- v. “to hop”
kap- v. “to jump, leap”
kapalima adj. “bounding, leaping”
kapanda n. “jump”
kapta-² v. “to leap”
tanta-¹ v. “to bounce, bound, rebound”
tantila- v. “to hop”
tantya- v. “to set bouncing”

10.432 Leaping

haloite adj. “leaping”
tanta(ra) adj. “bouncing, resilient”

10.44 to Dance

lilt- v. “to dance”
lilt n. “dance”
liltie n. “dancing, dance”
tanta-² v. “to dance (tr.), dandle, wave”
tantare n. “dance”

10.45 to Walk

pata- v. “to rap, tap (of feet)”
ramba- v. “to walk”

10.46 to Run

lopeta- v. “to amble, lop”
lopo- v. “to gallop, run (of animals)”
loqo- v. “to run (of human beings)”
nornoro- v. “to run on, run smoothly and hum”
norolinde adj. “tripping lightly”
nyoro- v. “to run”
pelte- v. “to run”
yuro n. “a run, race”
yuru- v. “to run”

10.47 to Go

ere-² v. “to go”
inta- v. “to go (indefinite), fare, proceed”
tie- v. “to go”

10.48 to Come

#antulu- v. “to return”
lehe-¹ v. “to come, be sent, approach”

10.49 to Depart, Go Away

#ava- v. “to depart”
avande interj. “get hence!”
avanwa adj. “going, passing, nearly gone”
hista- v. “to fade”
minda- v. “to diminish, fade, lessen, vanish”
minga adj. “waning”
vana- v. “to pass, depart, vanish, go away”
vanwa adj. “gone, on the road, past, over, lost”

10.53 to Pursue

rawa- v. “to run, chase”

10.54 to Overtake

lak (laq-) n. “snare”
laqa- v. “to catch, seize, snare”

10.57 to Enter

elte- v. “to thrust in”
mitta- v. “to enter”
pen prep. “through”
perma n. “passage; pass, aperture”

10.61 to Bear, Carry

tala- v. “to carry, bring; to weigh (intr.)”
yulu- v. “to carry”

10.62 to Bring

tulalka adj. “able to bring”
túlima adj. “(worth bringing) bringable, able to be brought”
tulinya adj. “(bringable) worth bringing”
tulu- v. “to bring, carry, fetch; to move (intr.), come; to produce, bear fruit”
tulya- v. “to send, bring”

10.63 to Send

esta- v. “to send”

10.65 to Drive

#ele- v. “to drive; to come”

10.66 to Ride

lehesta n. “ride, riding, raid”
lehta- v. “to ride, move (tr.)”

10.67 to Push, Shove

elta n. “a thrust”
ilt- v. “to thrust home, come in”

10.71 Road

aldeon (aldeond-) n. “avenue (of trees)”
vasta n. “road”

10.72 Path

raume n. “running, course”
tie n. “line, direction, route, road, path”
#van (vand-) n. “way, path”

10.73 Street

malle n. “street, road”

10.74 Bridge

penda¹ n. “bridge”
ranta n. “arch, bridge”
sarapenda n. “wood-bridge”
yanta¹ adj. “large”

10.75 Cart, Wagon, Carriage

norolle n. “cart”

10.76 Wheel

qirin n. “wheel”

10.78 Yoke

yalta n. “yoke”
yarta n. “yoke”

10.81 Ship

kirya n. “ship, boat”
kiryassea adj. “what is on board ship”
veakirya n. “sea-ship”

10.82 Sailor

vaine (vaino-) n. “sheath, pod”
veniel n. “mariner”
yarendila adj. “like a sailor”
yarendilyon n. “sailor”

10.83 Boat

lunte (lunti-) n. “ship, boat”

10.87 Mast

tyulma n. “mast”

10.88 Sail (n)

tala² n. “sail”

10.90 Port, Harbor

kópa n. “harbour, haven, bay”

10.99 Motion (other)

palava- v. “to stray, wander”
paláva adj. “wandering”
palwa- v. “to make wander”

11. Possession and Trade

11.12 to Own, Possess

makte² (maksi-) n. “hold, grip, power, possession”
milk(i)- v. “to possess, have, keep”
#yaim- v. “to possess”

11.13 to Take

lep- v. “to take”

11.14 to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of

#aqa- v. “to seize”
mapa- v. “to seize, take; to ravish, seize and carry off forcibly”

11.15 to Hold

kulp- v. “to contain”
yava-² v. “to hold”

11.16 to Get, Obtain

nete- [ñ] v. “to get”
tuvu- v. “to receive, accept, take, require, cost”

11.21 to Give

an (and-) n. “gift”
anar (anard-) n. “giver”
anta- v. “to give”

11.23 to Restore

loista- v. “to refresh”

11.24 to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe

alantya adj. “*shielded, protected”
alatya- v. “to shield, ward off, protect”
moina adj. “safe, secure”
qára n. “watch, ward”
tarqa- v. “to dry, preserve; to pickle”

11.28 to Harm, Injure, Damage

hyan- v. “to injure”
hyanda² n. “harm, damage”
mala-¹ v. “to hurt, pain”

11.29 to Spoil

avalta- v. “to strip, despoil, denude”
hessa adj. “dead, withered”
hesta- v. “to wither”
minu- v. “to make less, decrease, spoil, alter for worse”
narqa adj. “faded, shrivelled”
narqa- v. “to wither”
narqele n. “fading, withering”
qeleksie n. “rot, corruption”
qeleksima adj. “corrupt, rotten”
tyurda adj. “curdled”
tyuru- v. “to ‘turn’ milk, curdle (blood etc.)”

11.31 to Seek

saka- v. “to pursue, look for, search”
satl n. “search, enquiry”
tuktalla n. “*search”
tuku- v. “to go in search of, look for, fetch”

11.34 to Release

erefainu n. “release”
fainu- v. “to release”
lapta- v. “?to relax, loosen”
#úsiéra adj. “*escaped”
usu- v. “to escape, get out”
uswe n. “escape, issue, outlet”

11.41 Property

aute¹ n. “goods, property, wealth, money”

11.42 Wealth, Riches

ausie n. “wealth”
milkin n. “wealth”

11.43 Money

telpilin n. “silver piece”

11.46 Treasure

foa n. “hoard, treasure”

11.51 Rich

aute² (ausi-) adj. “rich”
avarna adj. “very rich”
malke (malki-) adj. “rich”

11.52 Poor

mange² n. “lack, want, shortage”
oika adj. “poor”
oise n. “poverty”
oiswa adj. “poor”

11.53 Beggar

iq- v. “to beg, ‘pray’”

11.56 to Steal

naqa- v. “to steal”
pili- v. “to steal”

11.57 Thief

naqar n. “thief”
pilu n. “thief, robber”

11.58 to Rob; Robber

pilwe n. “robbery, theft”

11.64 Debt

paitya- v. “to repay, requite”

11.69 Tax (n)

toko- v. “to feel with the hand, handle; to appraise, tax, assess, assay; to try, test, essay, endeavour”

11.72 Cost, Expense

vil(de) n. “matter, business, affair, thing”
#vildi- v. “to matter; to be of significance, worth, moment”
vildima adj. “essential, imperative”

11.82 to Sell

qampa n. “peddlar-goods”
qampa- v. “to hawk goods”
qampale n. “chaffering”
vakse n. “sale”

11.83 to Trade

qapa- v. “to chaffer, bargain, swap, barter”
qapta n. “deal, bargain”
qapta-¹ v. “to exchange”
qaptale n. “exchange”
vaktele n. “trade”
vanko n. “wares”
#vat (vakt-) n. “wares”

11.84 Merchant, Tradesman

qampo n. “pedlar, huckster”
vaktelear n. “merchant”

11.88 Dear, Expensive

valda n. and adj. “worth; worthy, dear”
valdea adj. “of moment, important”

12. Spatial Relations

12.11 Place

arda n. “place, spot”
larma n. “area, space, room”
larmavoite adj. “roomy, spacious”
#panyara adj. “?setting”

12.12 to Put, Place, Set, Lay

panya- v. “to plan, arrange, intend, mean”
sorto- v. “to set, settle”

12.13 to Sit

haka- v. “to squat”
kasóro- v. “to make sit, set”
soro- v. “to sit”
sorta- v. “to sit down”

12.14 to Lie, Recline

kaima- v. “to lie quiet”
kaita- v. “to place, lie down”
kaitoile n. “rest”
kama- v. “to lie down; (c. loc.) to endure, suffer”
kamu- v. “to lay down, bend down, reduce”
kaya- v. “to lie”
láta- v. “to spread, extend, lie (of country)”
#núsimar adj. “*inclined”
tilt- v. “to make slope, incline (tr.), decline, shake at foundations, make totter”

12.15 to Stand

hyá- v. “to stand”
nohto- v. “to stick out”
tyulta- v. “to rear up, stick up”

12.16 to Stay, Wait, Remain

har- v. “to remain”
masta- v. “to tarry, linger”
sal- v. “?to remain or remove”

12.17 to Remain, be Left Over

#er- v. “to remain”

12.19 Quiet (adj)

calainëa adj. “serene”
qie adj. “calm at sea”
qilda adj. “quiet, hushed, still”
qilde n. “quiet, rest, hush”
qildi- v. “to rest, stay quiet, be quiet”
qisi- v. “to whisper”
rua adj. “steady, still, tranquil”
rue n. “rest, stillness, remaining, steadfastness”
vassale n. “rustling”

12.21 to Gather, Collect

arm- v. “to gather, collect”
hosta- v. “*to gather”
hostalka adj. “able to gather”
kilk- v. “to gather, reap”
#kum- v. “to pile up”
lese- v. “to come together, gather (intr.)”
lesta- v. “to collect (tr.)”
rakta-² v. “to pile, hoard, amass, collect”

12.22 to Join, Unite

lekte- v. “to join together, dovetail, fit in, splice”
leqet (leqett-) n. “joint”
oksa n. “joint”
pak- v. “to apply, attach”
qitin adj. “knitted, joined tight”
taka- v. “to fix, fasten”
yanta² adj. “joined”

12.221 Together

le² prep. “with (accompaniment)”
ma- pref. “together, in one”
so- pref. “grouped, together”
va- pref. “together”

12.222 And

ar(a) conj. “but; and”
ya(n) conj. “and”

12.223 Also

yando adv. “also”

12.23 to Separate

koluke n. “strainer”
silt- v. “to sift, sort out, winnow”
silta n. “sieve”
siltina adj. “winnowed”

12.232 to Divide

tirt (tirty-) n. “part, portion, share, section”
tirtina adj. “divided, shared, distributed”
tirty- v. “to partion, divide, part, distribute”

12.24 to Open

apta- v. “to open”
apte (*apti-) adj. “open”
panta¹ adj. “open, wide, spreading”
panta-¹ v. “to open, unfold, spread”
pantie n. “unfolding, opening, revealing”
patsima adj. “wide open”

12.26 to Cover

talda adj. “covered”
#tildi- v. “to cover”
tump-² v. “to cover”
túpo n. “roof, cover, lid”

12.27 to Hide, Conceal

lom- v. “to hide, lurk”
moru- v. “to hide, conceal, lurk”

12.272 Hidden, Concealed

foina adj. “hidden, secret”
furin adj. “hidden, concealed”

12.31 High

aiqale n. “a steep, steepness”
aiqie n. “highness, height”
alva adj. “?lofty”
anwa adj. “high up, place high”
ordie n. “height, loftiness”
orwa adj. “lofty”
tá¹ adj. and adv. “high; high above, high up”
tahóra adj. “lofty”
tára adj. “lofty, high, tall”
tárie n. “height”

12.32 Low

hunda adj. “low, lowly”

12.33 Top

ána n. “crown of head, top”
ormin n. “top”

12.34 Bottom

sulmin n. “base of a pillar, base of column”
talpa n. “support, prop, base, basis, pediment (column)”
tauma n. “basis, foundation, ground floor”
tulpo n. “buttress, prop”

12.35 End

lappa n. “loose-end, end of rope, hem of robe”
talma² n. “end”

12.352 Point

ehta¹ n. “thorn”
ekke (ekki-) n. “thorn”
#irt- v. “to peck, prick”
irt (irty-) n. “peck, pinprick”
kent n. “a sharp point”
kolme n. “point, tip”
kolmekta adj. “pointed”
kolosilde n. “long thin point”
mente n. “peak, tip”
piekta- v. “to prick, pin-prick”
tilde n. “point, tip, peak”
tinda n. “spike”
tinde (tindi-) adj. “spiked, pointed, barbed”

12.353 Edge

kante n. “edge”
kíla n. “edge, rim”

12.37 Middle

meqa adj. “middle”

12.38 Center

mekilwa adj. “central”
mekta adj. “centre”
mekte n. “heart; center”
metl (mekil-) n. “centre”
tóle¹ n. “centre”
tólea adj. “central, middle”

12.391 In, Inside

hir (hird-) n. “inwards, interior, inside, heart”
imi adv. “in, inside”
int adv. “inwards”
ir (ird-) n. “interior, centre, inwards, inner parts”
mitta¹ prep. and adv. “in, into, inwards”

12.392 Out, Outside

ere-¹ pref. “out”
eru¹ adv. “outward”
erúmea adj. “outer, outermost”
erus(ta) adj. and n. “outside”
es- pref. “*out”
est adj. “outwards”

12.393 Across, Athwart

arta prep. “across, athwart”
lahta- v. “‽”
o prep. “over, across, along”
tara- v. “to cross, go athwart, cross rivers”
tarna n. “passage, ford, crossing”

12.394 Up, Above, Over

amba adv. “up”
ambapenda adj. “uphill; arduous, difficult, tiresome”
am(u)- pref. “up(wards)”
amu adv. “up(wards)”
amunta adj. “up, risen (of the sun)”
ankasse adj. “(lit.) up-headed, high-headed”
ankassea adj. “lofty, tall”
kasse prep. “above”
or prep. “on; above, upon”
orta prep. “above”
(or)tande adv. “above (of motion upwards)”
ta² prep. “on, above; by, beside; than”

12.395 Down, Below, Beneath

hamba adj. “on the ground”
hambanoite adj. “on the ground”
hant adv. “down, to the ground”
nu prep. “under”
nún adv. “beneath”
tilta adj. “slanting”
tiltin adj. “slanting”
ú prep. “beneath”
úva adj. “the under”

12.3955 In Front

la prep. “before; than”
nóva adj. “ahead, foremost, leading”

12.396 Behind, At the Rear

pimpina adj. “trailing”
pipte- v. “fall (of folds or clusters), hang, trail”
ponte (ponti-) n. “back, rear”
pote (potsi-) adv. “after, behind (of place)”
potsina adj. “rearward, back, rear, hinder; next, following; second”

12.397 Beyond

ala³ prep. “beyond, after; before”

12.398 To, Towards

an(a) prep. “to(wards); until”
-r² suf. “*allative”
tande adv. “thither”

12.399 From, Away

au prep. “away from”
kallo adv. and prep. “off, from off, from on top of, from on”
-llo suf. “from, out of; ablative suffix”
ô prep. “from”
va prep. “from; with”
vá¹ adv. and adj. “gone forth, away”
vande¹ adv. “away, hence, forth”

12.41 Right (vs. Left)

manya² adj. “good (not evil)”
póya adj. “[unglossed]”

12.42 Left (vs. Right)

malenka adj. “left handed”

12.43 Near (adj)

ar² (as-) n. “to, against, next, on (wall)”
are¹ adv. “beside, along”
har(e) prep. “near”
hyá adv. “here by us”
hya¹ pron. “this by us”
hya² prep. “by”
ma¹ prep. “*by”
tange¹ adv. “close to, by”
tange² (tangi-) adj. “close, near”

12.45 East

Ambalar n. “the East”
oronto n. “East, rising (of the sun)”

12.46 West

núme n. “west”
númea adj. “in the west, western”
numenda adj. “western”

12.47 North

póme n. “north”
pómea adj. “northern”
pómear n. “northern man, norseman”

12.51 Form, Shape (n)

táqa n. “form, shape”
terenwa adj. “shapely, well tuned”
venie n. “shape, cut”
venta- v. “to cut, shape”

12.53 to Grow

#ala- v. “?to grow”
lokta- v. “to sprout, bud, put forth leaves or flowers”
lóto- v. “to bloom”
lotōrea adj. “flourishing”
olto- v. “to increase, multiply”
piute- v. “to flourish, batten, grow fat”
pulu- v. “to swell (intr.)”
tuita- v. “to bud, burgeon, grow”
velitya- v. “to magnify”
yanta- v. “to add to, enlarge, increase, augment”

12.54 to Measure

talma¹ n. “weight, measure”
talme n. “weight (abst.)”

12.55 Big, Large, Great

úmea adj. “large”
velike (veliki-) adj. “great, large”
velikse adv. “greatly”

12.56 Small, Little

inya adj. “tiny”
mie² n. “bit, small piece”
mike adv. “little, a (little) bit; diminutive”
min¹ (mind-) n. “bit, piece”
minwa adj. “small”
mitta² n. “piece, bit (of indeterminate size)”
mitya adj. “little (in quantity)”
n. “speck, spot, dot, mote”
pin n. “little thing, mite”
pínea adj. “small”
pinilya adj. “small”
-pin(ke) suf. “diminutive”
titta adj. “tiny”

12.57 Long

ande(a) (andi-) adj. “long (of space)”
-léni suf. “long”
limbelu adv. “*long”
sóra² adj. “long, trailing”

12.58 Tall

aiqa adj. “steep, tall; high, lofty, sublime; chief”
oronta adj. “steep”
tyulin adj. “tall”

12.61 Wide, Broad

aika adj. “broad, vast”
halda adj. “wide, broad”
landa adj. “wide, broad”

12.62 Narrow

fingwa adj. “narrow”
kolwa adj. “narrow, thin”
lenuva adj. “tight, narrow”
lenwa adj. “long and thin, straight, narrow”

12.63 Thick (in Dimension)

fambo n. “fat man”
fauka adj. “fat, large”

12.64 Thick (in Density)

pyúva adj. “fat”
sangwa adj. “tight, thick, dense, tough, hard”
tiuka adj. “dense, solid”
tiure (tiuri-) adj. “compact”
tunga adj. “thick, dense”
tyúre (tyúri-) adj. “stout, dense, compact”

12.65 Thin (in Dimension)

minya¹ adj. “fine, slender”
pinqe (pinqi-) adj. “slender, thin”
pinqisil(da) (pinqisild-) adj. “(slender and) tapering”
sild(r)a adj. “slender”

12.66 Thin (in Density)

filume adj. “gossamer”
filwa adj. “fine, thin”

12.67 Deep

tumna adj. “deep, profound, dark or hidden”

12.71 Flat

enqe² (enqi-) n. “plane, level”
palo (palu-) n. “plane surface, plain, the flat”
paluva adj. “even, flat, level”

12.72 Hollow, Concave

ronta adj. “hollow”
róta n. “tube, hollow cylinder”
rotse n. “pipe, tube”

12.73 Straight

tea¹ adj. “straight”
tína adj. “straight”

12.74 Crooked

kauka adj. “crooked, bent, bowed, humped”
pereqa adj. “crooked”

12.75 Hook, Crook

lempe² n. “crook, hook”
lepta¹ adj. “hooked (as a tendril)”
unqu-¹ v. “to hook into, catch (fish), catch in, etc.”

12.76 Angle, Corner

nelqa adj. “cornered”
nelt n. “corner (from outside)”
winka n. “corner, nook”

12.77 Cross (n)

tarwe n. “cross, crucifix”
tarwesta- v. “to crucify”

12.78 Square (n)

neldenelqa n. “square, quadrilateral”

12.81 Round (adj)

kómea adj. “globe-shaped, round”
korima adj. “round”
#rinki adj. “orbed”
toloise adj. “rounded, cylindrical”
werin(a) adj. “round”

12.82 Circle

korin n. “circular enclosure, great circular hedge”
pele- v. “to surround, fence in, pen in”
pirimbe n. “ring, circle”
pirindea adj. “cylindrical”
pirinumbe n. “cylinder (hollow)”
rinko n. “disc, orb, circle”

12.83 Sphere

kóma n. “a ball”
kut (kupt-) n. “lump, ball”
tolupe (tolupi-) n. “roll, ball of wool”

12.84 Line

nyas (nyast-) n. “scratch, score, line, mark”
rimpe (rimpi-) n. “stripe, strip”
rimp(in)a adj. “striped”

12.85 Hole

apsa n. “hole, opening”
nolmo n. “pit”
sapsa n. “pit, grave”
sat (sapt-) n. “hole”
tunda n. “hole”

12.91 Equal, Alike

aryúlima adj. “equal, equivalent”
avíka adj. “very much alike”
iminqa adj. “exactly alike, identical”
inqa adj. “same”
inqavíka adj. “exactly alike, identical”
inqile n. “sameness”
sovea adj. “alike”

12.92 Like, Similar

avealta- v. “to resemble closely”
inye- v. “to imitate, make like”
senda adj. “like, something like, similar”
sesta- v. “to liken, compare, make like, model on, assimilate, imitate”
sestaine n. “assimilation, imitation, etc.”
seste n. “similarity”
sestima adj. “comparable”
soveasse n. “resemblance; likelihood”
vea¹ adj. “similar, like”
veasta n. “resemblance, comparison”
víkana- v. “to compare”
-víke suf. “as”
víke adj. “like”
víkele n. “resemblance, comparison”

12.93 to Change

varta n. “change”

12.94 Sign (n)

tet (tekt-) n. “spot, mark”

12.99 Spatial Relations (other)

kinka- v. “to hang (intr.)”
kinkata- v. “to hang (tr.)”
rimni adv. “around, all around”

13. Quantity and Number

13.11 Amount, Quantity

qotta n. “sum, number, account, total”

13.12 Number

limbe n. “a number”
tanta n. “number”
#tasinwa adj. “numbered”
-wen suf. “*number suffix”

13.13 Whole

kaina² adj. “whole”
kaino n. “whole”

13.14 All, Every

máka adj. “each, every”
oma n. “everywhere”
omarimni adv. “everywhere about”
ompa adj. “each; all, every”
ompinasta n. “everyone”
on(t) (om-) n. “everything”

13.15 Much, Many

lia(r) adj. “many”
limba adj. “many”
li(n)- pref. “many”
mai¹ adv. “too much”
olli adj. “many”
olt adj. “much”
olya adv. “much”

13.16 More

olda¹ adj. “more”
oldo(s) adv. “more”

13.17 Few, Little

manka adj. “few”

13.19 Crowd, Multitude

horma n. “horde, host”
ille (illi-) n. “throng, crowd”
illia adj. “in multitudes”
sanga n. “throng, tight mass, crowd”

13.192 Other Collective Words

anqin n. “bunch”
imbile n. “swarm, flock”
kart n. “bunch, tuft”
lerendi n. “brotherhood, association, college”
lesta n. “gathering, assembly”
lielesta n. “folk moot”
limna n. “sheaf”
nostale n. “species, kind; nature”
panna n. “arrangement, grouping; book”
soleste n. “collection”

13.21 Full

kunta adj. “full”
qanta adj. “full, whole, all”
qanta- v. “to fill, complete”

13.22 Empty

fáse n. “gulf, gap”
munta n. “nothing”

13.24 Half

lempe³ fraction. “one half”
lempea² adj. “half”
lenya adj. “half”

13.25 Fraction, Division

enqellume adv. “*six times”
enqesto fraction. “one sixth”
enqest(y)a adj. “one sixth”
huesto fraction. “one ninth”
huest(y)a adj. “one ninth”
kantasto fraction. “quarter, one fourth”
kantast(y)a adj. “quarter, one fourth”
kesto fraction. “one tenth”
kestya adj. “one tenth”
leminto fraction. “one fifth”
lemintya adj. “one fifth”
maisinto fraction. “one thousandth”
mindórinto fraction. “one millionth”
minqesto fraction. “one eleventh”
minqest(y)a fraction. “one eleventh”
nelkesto fraction. “one thirteenth”
nelkestya adj. “one thirteenth”
otsonto fraction. “one seventh”
otsontya adj. “one seventh”
*-sto suf. “fraction suffix”
toltosto fraction. “one eighth”
toltost(y)a adj. “one eighth”
tuksanto fraction. “one hundredth”
tuksantya adj. “one hundredth”
yukainento fraction. “one twentieth”

13.32 One

ellume adv. “*one time”
eru² adv. “once”
erya adj. “only, single”
min² num. card. “one (in a series); the first”
mir num. card. “one”

13.33 Alone, Only

er¹ adj. and adv. “one, only, alone, a single”
er² adv. and conj. “only, but, still”
erda adj. “solitary, deserted”
eresse (eressi-) adv. “alone, by oneself, singly, only; once”
eressea adj. “lonely”

13.34 First

kastea adj. “of the head; head-, capital, chief”
minya² num. ord. “first”
minyallume adv. “firstly”

13.35 Last

oilima adj. “last”
oilimaite adj. “final, ultimate, last”
telúmea adj. “final, conclusive, end; last; extreme”
telusta adj. “outer, extreme, ultimate”

13.36 Two

aqi adj. “a brace, a couple of, both”
etya adj. “other (of two)”
etyo n. “other (of two)”
satta adj. “both”
satto adj. “both; the two”
yunga n. “twin”

13.37 Second (ordinal)

potsinallume adv. “a second time”

13.38 Double, Twice

at- pref. “bi-, twi-”
attala- v. “?double”
ui adj. “both”
adv. “twice”
yullume adv. “twice, *two times”

13.41 Three

nelde num. card. “three; four”
ole¹ num. card. “three”

13.42 Third (ordinal)

nelya num. ord. “third”

13.43 a Third (fraction)

neldesto fraction. “one third”
neldest(y)a adj. “one third”

13.44 Occurring Three Times

nel adv. “thrice”
nellume adv. “*three times”

13.54 Cardinal Number

atwen num. card. “twenty”
ende num. card. “six”
enekkainen num. card. “sixty”
en(ek)kea num. card. “sixteen”
enqe num. card. “six”
enqendóra num. card. “*six million”
enqendóre num. card. “*sextillion”
hualqe num. card. “eighteen”
hue num. card. “nine”
huekainen num. card. “ninety”
húkea num. card. “nineteen”
húme num. card. “thousand; †great number”
kai num. card. “ten; (lit.) all fingers”
kainen num. card. “ten”
kan adv. “four times”
kankea num. card. “fourteen”
kanta num. card. “four”
kan(ta)kainen num. card. “fourty”
kantallume adv. “*four times”
kantóra num. card. “*four million”
kantóre num. card. “quadrillion”
kea adj. “ten”
keallume adv. “*ten times”
kea tuksa num. card. “one hundred ten”
kekainen num. card. “hundred (when not multiplied)”
lemillume adv. “*five times”
lemin num. card. “five; (lit.) half the fingers”
lemindea adj. “quintuple”
lemindóra num. card. “*five million”
lemindóre num. card. “*quintillion”
leminkainen num. card. “fifty; twenty three”
lempe¹ num. card. “ten”
lempesea adj. “tenfold”
lenkea num. card. “fifteen”
maite¹ (maisi-) num. card. “thousand”
mindóra num. card. “million”
mindóre num. card. “million”
minqe num. card. “eleven”
minqekainen num. card. “one hundred ten”
minqelume adv. “*eleven times”
minya yukainen num. card. “twenty one”
-(n)dóra suf. “million”
-(n)dóre suf. “-illion, *large number suffix”
nel(de)kainen num. card. “thirty”
nelde tuksa num. card. “three hundred”
neldóra num. card. “three million”
neldóre num. card. “trillion”
nelkea num. card. “thirteen”
nelke(a)llume adv. “*thirteen times”
okkea num. card. “seventeen”
olme(t) num. card. “nine”
olwen n. “thirty six”
otso num. card. “seven”
otsokainen num. card. “seventy”
otsollume adv. “*seven times”
otsondóra num. card. “*seven million”
otsondóre num. card. “*septillion”
otwen n. “84”
sóra³ n. “million; (vaguely) a very great number”
tolkea num. card. “eighteen”
tolto num. card. “eight”
tol(to)kainen num. card. “eighty”
tuksa num. card. “gross, 144; hundred”
tuksa kainen num. card. “thousand”
tuksallume adv. “*hundred times”
tuksa pínea n. “hundred”
uiven num. card. “twenty”
umna num. card. “eight”
yukainellume adv. “*twenty times”
yukainen num. card. “twenty”
yukainen tuksa num. card. “one hundred twenty”
yundóra num. card. “two million”
yundóre num. card. “billion”
yunqe num. card. “twelve”
yúyo num. card. “two”
yúyo húmi num. card. “two thousand”
yúyo tuksa num. card. “two hundred”
yúyo yukainen num. card. “twenty two”

13.55 Ordinal Number

enekkaiya num. ord. “sixteenth”
enetya num. ord. “sixth”
hualtya num. ord. “eighteenth”
hukaiya num. ord. “nineteenth”
humetya num. ord. “*thousandth”
húya num. ord. “ninth”
kaiya num. ord. “tenth”
kankaiya num. ord. “fourteenth”
kanya num. ord. “fourth”
keanya num. ord. “tenth”
leminkaiya num. ord. “fifteenth”
leminya num. ord. “fifth”
maisintya adj. “one thousandth”
maisinya num. ord. “thousandth”
mindórintya adj. “one millionth”
mindorinya num. ord. “millionth”
minqenya num. ord. “eleventh”
minya yukainen(ya) num. ord. “twenty first”
nelkaiya num. ord. “thirteenth”
okkaiya num. ord. “seventeenth”
otya num. ord. “seventh”
tolkaiya num. ord. “eighteenth”
tolya num. ord. “eighth”
tuksainenya num. ord. “thousandth”
tuksanya num. ord. “hundredth”
yukainentya adj. “one twentieth”
yukainenya num. ord. “twentieth”
yunqenya num. ord. “twelfth”
yunqetto fraction. “one twelfth”

13.99 Quantity and Number (other)

lempea¹ adj. “decimal”
-llume suf. “-times”

14. Time

14.11 Time (period)

lukta n. “period”
lúme (lúmi-) n. “time”
lúmia adj. “pertaining to time, temporal”
lúta- v. “to have time pass”

14.12 Age

vorne n. “an aeon”

14.13 New

loite (loisi-) adj. “fresh”

14.14 Young

kana adj. “young”
laisi n. “youth, vigor, new life”

14.15 Old

aire² adj. “old”
haura adj. “old, aged, ancient”
sarko² n. “elder [tree]”

14.17 Late (adv)

telwa adj. “last, late”

14.18 Now

enqin adv. “*now”
adv. “*now”
tyá adv. “now”

14.19 Soon, Immediately

rato v. “soon”

14.21 Fast, Swift, Quick

(a)rauka adj. “swift, rushing”
halis (haliss-) n. “rush”
hatsea adj. “rushing, rapid”
rauko adj. “ravening, rushing”

14.22 Slow (adj)

lenka adj. “slow, dull, stiff; left hand”

14.23 to Hurry, Hasten

hur- v. “to speed”
orosta² n. “impetus, speed, haste, rash courage”
#vasa- v. “to rush (of both noise and speed, tr.)”
vasta- v. “to rush (of both noise and speed, intr.)”

14.25 to Begin; Beginning

astuvu- v. “to begin”
avesta¹ n. “opening, beginning, overture”

14.252 to Last

kóle n. “passivity, endurance, patience; a passive individual”
kólema n. “patience, endurance; hardship”
kólemaina adj. “patient”
kólemaine n. “patience”
kóleta- v. “to endure, last”
kóleva adj. “passive”
pere- v. “to go through, pass, pierce; to endure, undergo, experience; to penetrate, get to understand; to last”
peren (perend-) adj. “enduring, patient, lasting”
perendie n. “patience; endurance; an agelong period”
perenwa adj. “continual, enduring, unceasing”
perpere- v. “to endure to end, suffer great anguish”
perqa adj. “wrong”
rúya adj. “unmoved, steadfast”
vorima adj. “everlasting”
vorinqile n. “monotony”
vorokantele n. “harping, vain or monotonous repetition”

14.26 End (n, temporal)

telu n. “end (fate), close”
telúme n. “finish, conclusion, (the great) end”

14.27 to Finish

ilkarna adj. “unfinished”
karina adj. “finished”
tal- n. “to end”
telu- v. “to finish, end, close, complete; to cover, roof”

14.28 to Cease

luksima adj. “fleeting, fading, temporary”

14.29 Ready (adj)

manwa adj. “ready”
manwa- v. “to prepare”
mar- v. “to get ripe, come to ripeness, get ready, grow up, get mellow”
marin(a) adj. “ripe, mature”

14.302 Eternal

voruva adj. “age long”

14.31 Always

vor(o) adv. “ever, always”

14.35 Again

#an- pref. “re-”
ento adv. “next”

14.36 Before (temporal)

enken adv. “then”
entan adv. “then”
ie adv. “ago, †long ago”
ielúme adv. “long ago”
luin adv. “ago”
luina adj. “ago”
nóvo adv. “*before”
penwa adj. “over, passed, past”
tyen adv. “then”
yú- pref. “ago”
yúye adv. “long ago”

14.37 After

prep. “after (of place), behind; after (only of time); than”
no¹ adv. “then, next (of time); upon”
potsi adv. “afterwards”

14.41 Day

lá² n. “day”
n. “24 hours, day”
sana n. “day (24 hours)”

14.412 Daily

kalenda adj. “of the day, opposite to night; daily”

14.42 Night

lóme (lómi-) n. “dusk, gloom, darkness; shadow, cloud”
mórilanta n. “nightfall”
morinda adj. “of the night, nightly”
móriva adj. “nocturnal”
morqilea adj. “of the hue of night”

14.43 Dawn

amunte n. “sun-rise, (lit.) lifting”
kandóra n. “bright dawn, red sky in morning”
óre n. “dawn, Sunrise, East”
órea adj. “of the dawn, Eastern”
oronte n. “sun-rise”

14.44 Morning

kále n. “morning”

14.462 Dusk

maske n. “dusk”
sunqelaine n. “sunset”

14.47 Today

et(t)amíne n. “today”
íne adv. “to-day”
tamíne n. “today”

14.48 Tomorrow

ekkala n. “tomorrow morning”
enwa adj. “tomorrow”
ettui n. “tomorrow night”
nond(in)a adj. “tomorrow”
nounonda n. “day after tomorrow”
nuo n. “tomorrow”
núora adj. “tomorrow’s, to be; future”

14.49 Yesterday

die n. “yesterday”
dienda n. “day before yesterday, (lit.) yesterday’s yesterday”
diéra adj. “yesterday’s; (mostly in sense) bygone, over, passed”
yenda adj. “yesterday’s”
yendiéra n. “day before yesterday, (lit.) yesterday’s yesterday”
yenye(n) n. “yesterday”

14.61 Week

otsola n. “week”

14.71 Month

lunde n. “(lunar) month; (lit.) period”

14.72 Names of the Months

Amillion n. “February”
Avestalis (Avestaliss-) n. “January”
Sovalwaris (Solvalwarist-) n. “February”

14.73 Year

latta n. “year”
lúmen n. “year, period”
rin¹ (rind-) n. “year, circle”

14.74 Winter

hesin n. “winter”
yelin n. “winter”

14.75 Spring

tuile n. “spring, (lit.) a budding; buds, new shoots, fresh green”
tuilenda adj. “spring-like; fresh, sprouting, green”
Tuilére n. “Spring”
welwe n. “spring”

14.76 Summer

aurinde n. “summer, pleasant warmth”
austa n. “(high) summer”
austalende n. “mid-summer’s day”
avesta² n. “summer”
saiwali n. “summer”

14.77 Autumn

lasselanta n. “the Fall, Autumn”
lintuilindórea adj. “of autumn; when many swallows congregate and sing at dawn”
Narqelion (Narqeliond-) n. “Autumn”
paptaqelasta n. “fall, *leaf dying”

14.99 Time (other)

kainendan n. “fortnight”
kalende n. “festival, a special day”
rinkalenda n. “anniversary”

15. Sense Perception

15.11 to Sense, Perceive; Sense

laika¹ adj. “keen, sharp”
senge adj. “keen of sight, observant, sagacious”
tengwele n. “sense”
tentima adj. “sensitive”
tunta- v. “to see, notice, perceive”
tunto n. “notice, regard, perception; quickness of perception, wit”

15.21 to Smell (subj)

fausta- v. “to get smell of”
nuvu- v. “to smell, sniff at”

15.23 Smell (n, subj)

nuste n. “sense of smell”

15.24 Smell (n, obj)

fausta n. “*smell”
faustima adj. “*odorous, able to be smelled”
fustúma adj. “*able to be smelled”
nus (nust-) n. “smell”

15.25 Fragrant, Good Smelling

nar (nard-) n. “an odour, fragrance”
narda- v. “to smell sweetly”
nardile n. “fragrance”
nardilea adj. “perfumed”
narwa adj. “fragrant”

15.26 Stinking, Bad Smelling

olwea adj. “stinking”
yolme n. “stench, stink”
yolo- v. “to stink”

15.31 to Taste (subj)

sult (sulp-) n. “sip, taste”
tyastava- v. “to taste (at)”

15.32 to Taste (obj)

tyava- v. “to taste; (impersonal) to taste of, reminds one of”

15.33 Taste (n, subj)

tyavasta n. “sense of taste”

15.34 Taste (n, obj)

tyausta n. “savour, flavour”

15.35 Sweet

líse adj. “sweet”
lísele n. “sweetness”
suksa adj. “sweet”
sutya- v. “to sweeten, soothe”
sutya adj. “sweet”
wóre (wóri-) adj. “sweet (to taste only)”

15.37 Bitter

narte (narti-) adj. “bitter”
píqa adj. “bitter”
píqele n. “bitterness”

15.38 Sour, Acidic

naksa adj. “sour”

15.41 to Hear

#ten- v. “to hear”
tunq- v. “to hear”
tunqa adj. “able to hear”
tunqele n. “hearing”
unqu-² v. “to hear”

15.43 Hearing (n)

unqie n. “hearing”

15.44 Sound (n)

hyal- v. “to ring, resound”
hyalme n. “loud ringing noise”
hyasse n. “rushing ?hence (?noise)”
hyasta- v. “to rush, rustle”
salamba adj. “twanging, throbbing, resounding, echoing”
salambe n. “twanging echo”

15.51 to See

kili- v. “to see, heed”
sehta- v. “to see”
véla v. “to see”

15.52 to Look

ala¹ interj. “behold, look”
ene interj. “look (at what you have)!”
tiri- v. “to watch; to keep, guard, preserve; to look at, gaze at, observe”
tirinwa adj. “vigilant”
tiris (tiriss-) n. “watch, vigil, ward”
yéta- v. “to look at”

15.53 Sight (subj)

lasta n. “sight”
lastalaike adj. “sharpsighted”
sie n. “sight, sense of sight, eyesight; pupil of eye”
tirne n. “steadfast regard, stare”

15.54 Sight (obj), Look (obj), Appearance

ilke n. “appearance”
yesta n. “glance, gaze”

15.55 to Show

apanta- v. “to open, reveal, show, display”
apantie n. “display”

15.56 to Shine, Glisten

alkana- v. “to blaze”
alkanta- v. “to make shine”
kala- v. “to shine”
ninqa- v. “to shine white”
silda adj. “gleaming”
sile n. “glint (of white)”
sili- v. “to gleam, glint”
silína adj. “shimmering”
sint (sinty-) n. “a gleam, spark, glister, drop of dew, etc.”
sintilis (sintiliss-) n. “sparkling as of crystal”
sinty- v. “to sparkle”
tilu- v. “to shine (blue)”
tilwe n. “glimmer”
tilwin n. “shining light, bright light”
tilwínea adj. “shining”
tini- v. “to gleam, shine as a star”

15.562 Blinking

#pik- v. “to blink”
silte- v. “to filter (of light), flicker”
tintele n. “sparkling, twinkling (as of frosty stars)”
tintya- v. “to sparkle, etc.”
wimpele n. “a twinkling”
wintele n. “*twinkling”
winwinoite adj. “glittering”

15.57 Bright

alkara adj. “brilliant, bright, shining”
kalasse n. “brilliance, clarity”
kalke (kalki-) adj. “brilliant”
kanwa¹ adj. “lurid”
selka adj. “bright”

15.61 Color

helinqila adj. “mauve”
qile n. “hue, colour”
-qil(e)a suf. “-hued”
qilea adj. “coloured, -hued”
-qilna suf. “-pied”

15.64 White

iska adj. “pale white”
iskane n. “pallor”
laiwa adj. “pale”
#lossa adj. “white”
ninqe (ninqi-) adj. “white”
ninqeru n. “male personified form of white”
#níva adj. “pale”

15.65 Black

morna adj. “black”

15.66 Red

kanwa² adj. “dark red”
karmalin(da) n. “russet, orange-red”
karne (karni-) adj. “red”
karneambara adj. “*red-breasted”
kulmarin (kulmarind-) n. “orange”
kulmarinda adj. “orange-coloured”
kulurinda adj. “orange-coloured”
mirukarne (mirukarni-) adj. “wine-red”
saqila adj. “fire-red, scarlet”
senna adj. “red, brown, red-brown”
varne² adj. “[unglossed]”
wal(i)na adj. “brown”

15.67 Blue

hyúne adj. “deep blue”
lúne (lúni-) adj. “blue, deep blue”
lúnelinqe adj. “flowing; *blue-water”
nin (nind-) n. “blue (colour), blueness, blue green”
ninwa adj. “blue”

15.68 Green

laiqa adj. “green”
laiqasse n. “greenness”
sine n. and adj. “pale (bluish) green”

15.69 Yellow

malina adj. “yellow”
malwa adj. “pale, yellowish”

15.71 to Touch

kitya- v. “to tickle”
kityale n. “tickling”
kityalea adj. “ticklish, susceptible, sensitive”
tenya- v. “to feel, touch”

15.72 to Feel of

tatya- v. “to feel for (like tentacles etc.)”
tentl n. “a feeler”

15.73 Touch (n)

tende (tendi-) n. “sense of touch, sense, sensation, feeling”
tókele n. “handling”

15.74 Hard

omba adj. “hard (*as stone)”
rungwa adj. “stiff, solid”

15.75 Soft

(a)malda adj. “tender, soft, kind, gentle”
hohye n. “fluff”
lint (linty-) n. “fluff, down, soft stuff”
malaqa adj. “soft, yielding, tender (of meat, substances, etc.)”
malasta adj. “tender”
moika adj. “soft, gentle”

15.76 Rough

ráqa adj. “rough”

15.77 Smooth

lalta- v. “to smooth out; stroke”
latsina adj. “level, smooth”
latwa adj. “smooth, glossy”
lea adj. “smooth, slippery”
oiwa adj. “glossy”
oiwie n. “gloss, glossiness”
saina adj. “smooth”
silwa adj. “glossy”

15.78 Sharp

ken- v. “to prick”
kenyeva adj. “sharp (of points)”
koli- v. “to prick”
kolimen n. “prick”
tereva adj. “sharp, piercing, shrill; acute (pain)”
valkea adj. “cutting, sharp”

15.79 Dull, Blunt

il(l)aika adj. “blunt”

15.81 Heavy, Weighty

kumba adj. “burdened, laden”
kúme n. “pile, heap; load, burden”
lunga(na)- v. “to sag, bend (down), hang heavy, lean”
lungo adj. “heavy”
pulwa adj. “fat, bulky”
talakúme n. “huge burden, pile”
talan (taland-) n. “burden”
talanda adj. “burdened, weighed down, sad”
talante n. “scales”
talka² adj. “heavy”
talta- v. “to lade, burden, load charge; to enjoin; to oppress, weigh down”

15.82 Light, Nimble

maqa adj. “handy, skilled (with hands)”
maqale n. “legerdemain, sleight”
maqalea adj. “handy, skilled (with hands)”
tektamaqa n. “having a good ‘hand’”
teren adj. “lissom, lithe”

15.83 Wet, Damp

liqin(a) adj. “wet”
mark n. “ripe juice, sap, ooze, moisture”
marqa adj. “oozy, juicy, moist”
nenda adj. “wet”
nos n. “wetness, damp”
noswa adj. “damp (of weather)”
notso n. “damp”
sihta adj. “moist, wet”
úqa adj. “wet”

15.84 Dry, Arid

arqa adj. “arid, parched, dry”
loima adj. “parched, dry”
sisin adj. “parched, scorched”

15.85 Hot, Warm

aurin adj. “warm”
lauke (lauki-) n. “vegetable, plant (species)”
lúsina adj. “warm, glowing (of things); affectionate, hearty (of people)”
mure (mury-) n. “heat, close weather”
murya adj. “close, muggy”
sahta-¹ v. “it is hot”
saiwa adj. “hot”
saiwa- v. “?to be hot”
tiqi- v. “to melt, thaw”
tiqile n. “melting, thawing, thaw”
tiqilindea adj. “thawing, slushy”
torqa adj. “blazing hot”
torqele n. “tropic heat”
torwa adj. “baked, dark brown”
úrin adj. “(blazing) hot”
waliemba adj. “tropical”

15.86 Cold, Frigid

helka adj. “ice-cold”
ringa adj. “cold, damp, chilly”
yel (yeld-) n. “cold, the cold”
yelwa adj. “cold”

15.87 Pure, Clean

alluva adj. “clean”
nikte- v. “to whiten, cleanse”
poika adj. “clean, tidy”
sauna adj. “clean”
soile n. “cleansing”
soina adj. “clean”
sovallu- v. “to cleanse, purify”
sovalna- v. “to cleanse, purify”
sovalwa adj. “cleansing”

15.88 Dirty, Soiled

muqa adj. “filthy”
mut (mukt-) n. “dirt, filth”

16. Emotion

16.11 Soul, Spirit

máne n. “spirit of the air”
manimo n. “holy soul”
olme² (olmi-) n. “emanation; apparition, spirit”
vilisse n. “spirit”

16.12 Feeling, Emotion

tendile n. “feeling, sentiment”
tendilea adj. “feeling; sentimental”

16.14 Care (n)

linda¹ adj. “gentle, kind; soft”
linta- v. “to soothe”

16.15 Wonder, Astonishment

elmenda n. “wonder, wonderment”

16.17 Fortune (Good or Bad)

ambar¹ (ambart-) n. “fate, lot”
ambarta adj. “fated”
engetor n. “fate, hap, luck”
lanq- v. “to get by lot or luck, find”
lanqa n. “piece of fortune, lot, luck, happen, hap”
mart n. “a piece of luck”
marto n. “fortune, fate, lot, luck”

16.18 Good Fortune

#val (vald-) n. “good fortune, blessedness, happiness”
valto n. “the luck of the Valar”

16.24 Happy; Happiness

valin (valim-) adj. “happy”

16.25 to Laugh, Smile

kaka- v. “to laugh”
kankale n. “laughter”
katl n. “chuckle”
mire n. “smile”
#mírien n. “mirth”
mirilla n. “faint smile”
mirmile n. “ripple of laughter”
mirt (mirty-) n. “grin”
mirtya- v. “to grin”

16.26 to Play

toli n. “doll, puppet”
tolipin (tolipind-) n. “mannikin”
tolipinke n. “little doll”
tyalie n. “play, game”
tyalien (tyaliend-) n. “sport, play; jest, mockery”
tyalu- v. “to play”

16.27 to Love; Love

mel- v. “to love”
meles(se) (meless-) n. “love”

16.28 Dear

melin (melind-) adj. “dear, beloved”
melitsa adj. “beloved, favourite”
melitse n. “darling, sweetheart”
santa adj. “dear, beloved”

16.29 to Kiss

miq- v. “to kiss”
miqe n. “kiss”
miqele n. “kissing”
miqilitse n. “little or tender kiss”

16.31 Pain, Suffering

angaisin(i)e n. “torment”
angaitya- v. “to torment”
angayasse n. “misery”
itisin adj. “itching”
itisya- v. “to itch, irritate”
kuo n. “a pain”
maldor n. “agony”
malka adj. “giving pain, hurtful”
malkane n. “torture”
naike¹ (naiki-) n. “pain”
naikele n. “anguish”
naikelea adj. “agonizing”
naiqa adj. “painful”
naira adj. “dire, grievous”
naista- v. “to oppress, cause great grief to”
narwe² n. “pain”
ongo- v. “it pains me (imp.)”
ongwe n. “pain”
valkane¹ n. “torture”

16.32 Grief, Sorrow

angayanda adj. “miserable”
naya- v. “it grieves (impers.)”
nyéna- v. “to lament”
nyenyele n. “lament, lamentation, weeping”
nyére n. “grief”
otoke n. “wailing, beating of breasts”
piqis(se) n. “grief”

16.33 Anxiety

nur (nurr-) n. “growl, complaint”
qárele n. “watchfulness, anxiety”

16.34 to Regret, Repent

oista- v. “to bereave”
oito- v. “to lack”

16.37 to Cry, Weep

maule n. “crying, weeping”
mauya- v. “to cry”
nyenye n. “weeping”
#qaina adj. “wailing”
siqi- v. “to sigh”
siqile n. “sighing, lament”

16.38 Tear (n)

nie n. “tear”
nienaite adj. “tearful”

16.41 Hate (n)

hari- v. “to hate”
mok- v. “to hate”
nasa- v. “to mislike, taste nasty (impers.); to dislike”
náse n. “loathing”
násea adj. “loathsome”
sanka² n. “hate, fierce hatred”
sanke adj. “hateful”
tempe n. “hate”
teve- v. “to hate, dislike”
tévie n. “hatred, dislike”
tevin adj. “hated”

16.42 Anger

narka¹ adj. “snappy, ill-tempered”

16.43 Rage, Fury

kalimbarie adj. “barbarity”
kalimbo n. “a savage, uncivilized man, barbarian; monster, giant, troll, goblin”
ravin adj. “fierce, savage (of beasts)”

16.44 Envy, Jealousy

navillo v. “whisper, hint, suspicion, rumour, malicious comment, innuendo”

16.45 Shame (n)

naitya- v. “to damage, hurt; to put to shame, abuse”
nanqete n. “speaking down the nose”
nark n. “spiteful remark, snap of a dog”
pea n. “scorn”
retima adj. “despicable, contemptible”

16.46 Honor (n)

aista n. “honour, reverence”
karda- v. “to admire, have affection or respect for”

16.47 Fame, Glory

alkar¹ n. “glory”

16.48 Proud

turqima adj. “haughty”

16.51 to Dare

nolo- v. “to dare”

16.52 Brave, Courageous

nereaine n. “stoutness of heart”
nolme n. “audacity”
nolmenoite adj. “audacious”
noloite adj. “daring”
nolwa adj. “bold, brave”
vika adj. “valiant”

16.53 Fear, Fright

kapta-¹ v. “to startle”
oswe² n. “terror, horror; (evil) phantom, ghost”
varka n. “fear, dread”
#varka- v. “to bode (impersonal); to dread, fear”
varkima adj. “dreadful”
varqa adj. “in fear, afraid”

16.55 Timid, Cowardly

kaure n. “timidity, fear”
kaurea adj. “timid”
nyenya adj. “querulous, tearful, plaintive”

16.61 to Will, Wish

irya n. “wish”
naike² adv. “would [that]”

16.62 to Desire

maivoita- v. “to long exceedingly after”

16.622 Desire

maivoine n. “great longing”
voine n. “desire, wish”

16.65 Faithful

rú² n. “steadfastness, faith, trustiness”
tulunka adj. “steady, firm”
voronda adj. “faithful”

16.66 True

kaina¹ adj. “done, actual, real”
interj. “so, yes (it is)”
nea adv. “it is, yes”

16.67 Lie, Falsehood

furu n. “lie”

16.71 Good

ais (aist-) n. “good name”
mal adv. “better, best”
malda¹ adj. “better, best”
mande adv. “well”

16.72 Bad

faika² adj. “bad, worthless, useless”
fel adv. “worse, worst”
felda adj. “worse, worst”
naswa adj. “nasty”
qarda adj. “bad”
qarka adj. “perverse, naughty”

16.73 Right (adj)

mane (mani-) adj. “good (moral)”

16.74 Wrong (adj)

ulka adj. “evil; bad, wicked, wrong”
vilkin adj. “bitter, evil”

16.75 Sin, Impiety

kurdu n. “sin, wickedness, evil”
ulkarma adj. “misdeed”

16.76 Fault, Guilt

káma n. “guilt, responsibility”

16.79 Praise (n)

kawa- v. “to bow, make obeisance”
olta-¹ v. “to magnify, extol, praise”

16.81 Beautiful

kalwa adj. “fair, beautiful”
mailina adj. “beautiful”
melwa adj. “lovely, fair”
tekse n. “attraction”
telya adj. “attractive; importune”
telyanta- v. “to allure”
telyantalya adj. “alluring”
telyantasse n. “allurement”
teta- v. “to attract (physical and figurative)”
vane (vani-) adj. “fair, lovely”
vanéni n. “beauty”
vanesse n. “beauty”
vanest(e)a adj. “beautious”
vanima adj. “proper, right, as it should be, fair”
vanta adj. “?beautiful”

16.99 Emotion (other)

atempa n. “(strong) dislike”
maika adj. “cruel”
paimene n. “vindictiveness, vengefulness, cruelty”
ulird(e)a adj. “pitiless, cruel, (lit.) without bowels”
valka¹ adj. “cruel, bitter”

17. Mind and Thought

17.11 Mind

â n. “mind, inner thought”
áma n. “mind, heart, thought”

17.13 to Think, Reflect

akta n. “notion”
enye- v. “to think out, plan, devise”

17.151 Guess, Suppose

ki particle. “may; particle of uncertainty”
mai² adv. “if; do?”
nai particle. “remoter possibility, might”
nauta- v. “to guess”

17.17 to Know

ista- v. “to know”
tenge- v. “to know, understand, grasp, think”

17.171 Knowledge, Science

isse n. “knowledge, lore”
nóleme n. “deep lore, wisdom”

17.172 Omniscient

omanaste n. “omnipresence”
omo- pref. “omni-”
omohére n. and adj. “omnipotence; almighty”
omotengwe n. “omniscience”

17.18 to Seem

ilk- v. “to seem”
vealta- v. “to resemble”

17.19 Idea, Notion

ent n. “notion, plan, idea”
fint n. “a trick, notion”
tengwe n. “knowledge, understanding; idea, notion, thought”
tengwet(ta) n. “idea, notion”

17.20 Imagination

naus (naust-) n. “suspicion”

17.21 Wise

finie n. “cunning”
finwa adj. “acute, sagacious”
isqa adj. “wise”
isqale n. “cleverness”
isqalea adj. “clever”
istaléra adj. “*knowledgeable, wise”
karpalima adj. “tricky, clever, willy”
náve n. “shrewdness, sagacity, perspicacity”
saile n. “[unglossed]”
tengenwa adj. “wise, knowing, understanding; sensible”
tunke (tunki-) adj. “bright, witty, smart”

17.22 Stupid, Foolish

auk n. “fool, clumsy fellow”
laminya adj. “animal-like, beastly, stupid”

17.31 to Remember

minti n. “memory, remembrance, mindfulness”
minty- v. “to remind; (impers.) it reminds me = I remember”
mintya adj. “reminding, ‘memoryful’”

17.32 to Forget

fanórea adj. “absent-minded”
fanóriva adj. “absent-minded”

17.33 Meaning

panin adj. “definite, planned, concerted, deliberate, prepense, meant”

17.34 Clear, Plain (to the Mind)

liqilta adj. “pellucid”
liqis (liqist-) n. “clarity, transparence, limpidity”
liqistea adj. “transparent”
nauma n. “hint, clue”

17.35 Obscure

morwa adj. “unclear, secret”
valkane² adj. “vague”

17.36 Secret

fóle n. “stealth, a secret, secrecy”
fólima adj. “secretive”
lomba adj. “secret”
pilukka adj. “secret, stealthy”

17.37 Sure, Certain

tanka¹ adj. “firm, fixed, fast; steady, (stead)fast”
tanko adv. “firmly”

17.39 to Solve

qoto- v. “to count up, reckon; to account, call up; to think, consider”
sinte (sinti-) n. “esteem; estimate, computation”
tasta- v. “to reckon”

17.41 Purpose, Intention

mekte- v. “to aim at”
met (mekt-) n. “mark, aim, object”

17.42 Cause, Reason

ka- pref. “cause”
kasta n. “cause, motive, ultimate reason”
qelume n. “source, origin”
qeluva adj. “original”

18. Language and Music

18.11 Voice (n)

óma n. “voice”

18.12 to Sing

#linda² adj. “singing”
lindea adj. “singing, *musical”
#lindo n. “singer”
lindórea adj. “singing at dawn (esp. of birds)”
liri- v. “to sing”
lirilla n. “lay, song”
nala- v. “to sing or ring”

18.13 to Shout, Cry Out

holle n. “shout”
holto- v. “to call out”
húta- v. “to whoop”
ohta- v. “to shout”
rama- v. “to shout, sound loud, bray, blare”
rambe¹ n. “shout, blare”
yama- v. “to shout, call”
yáma n. “shout; call; name”
yambo n. “cheer, shout of triumph”

18.14 Various Cries

ai interj. “o!, ha!”
alayambo interj. “hurrah!”
áye interj. “hail”
ea interj. “a cry of pain or woe”
histe- v. “to hiss”
hyukso n. “hiccup”
iki interj. “look! (what I have)”
karka- v. “to snarl”
kekteket (kektekett-) n. “clucking”
mesta n. “bye”
nurru n. “growl”
núru- v. “to growl (of dogs), grumble, carp”
nyé n. “bleat, cry of goat or sheep”
qaqa- v. “to quack, squawk, cackle”
qiri-² v. “to murmur”
qirqirinda adj. “murmering”
qirqirinde n. “murmering”
qisqiri- v. “to rustle, murmur”
ulmula adj. “mumbling”

18.21 to Speak, Talk

holále n. “babble, chatter, conversation”
lala- v. “to chatter, babble”
lalar (lalard-) n. “babble”
nyata- v. “to talk idly”
nyatl n. “idle talk, gossip”
paiyan n. “oration”
qet- v. “to speak, talk”
qetl n. “speech, talk”
qets(im)a adj. “having speech, able to talk, good at expression, glib”
adv. “*now”

18.22 to Say

nyara- v. “to relate, tell”
qentea adj. “verbal”

18.23 to be Silent

tá² interj. “hush, be silent”

18.24 Language

-issa suf. “language”
lambe n. “tongue”
-qet(se) suf. “language”
-rin suf. “*language”

18.25 Dialect

eldaqet n. “language of the Eldar”
eldaqetse adj. “in the language of the Eldar”
Eldarissa n. “Language of the Eldar”
eldarisse adj. “in the language of the Eldar”
Noldorissa n. “Language of the Noldoli”

18.26 Word

qent n. “word”
qentele n. “sentence; wording, expression, phrase”
qetta n. “word”

18.28 Name

en(we) (emb-) n. “name”

18.31 to Question, Inquire

ma² adv. “*interrogative particle”
man pron. “who”

18.33 to Admit, Confess

túvima adj. “acceptable”

18.35 to Ask, Request

iqista n. “a request; if you please, please”
iqisya- v. “to ask for, request”

18.42 to Call, Name

en- v. “to be called”
enna adj. “by name, named, called”

18.51 to Write

sar- v. “to write”
teke- v. “to mark; to write on, write”
tekta- n. “to write”

18.53 Letter of the Alphabet

teket (tekett-) n. “letter”

18.55 Tablet

tulma n. “bier, tray”

18.56 Paper

hyalin n. “paper”

18.57 Pen

nekka n. “pen”
tenka n. “pen”

18.58 Ink

móro n. “ink”
saramór n. “*writing-ink”

18.61 Book

parma n. “skin, bark; parchment; book, writings”
tekka n. “book”
tekte (teksi-) n. “book”

18.62 Page

patl n. “leaf (esp. of book)”

18.65 Literature

tektele n. “art of writing, script; writings, documents, papers, scriptures”

18.66 Author, Writer

tektar n. “writer”

18.67 Poet

lirit(ta) n. “poem, lay, written poem”

18.68 Tale, Story

eldanyanda n. “*fairy tale”
nyanda n. “nursery story or rhyme”
nyar (nyard-) n. “tale, saying”
nyara n. “tale”
nyarie n. “fable, story, legend”
qentima n. “*tale”

18.69 Music

kantele n. “harping; repetition”
lin¹ (lind-) n. “melody, air, tune, musical voice”
lindele n. “music, song”
lindelea adj. “melodious”
lindelin n. “melody, tune”
qingi- v. “to twang, thrum (of strings, harps, etc.)”
salme n. “harp-playing, music of lyres”
salumbe n. “harping, music”
simpetar n. “piper”
simpise n. “piping, whistling”
sipi- v. “to pipe”
timpinen (timpinend-) n. “fluter”

18.70 Instrument

kalon (kalong-) n. “(large) bell”
kalongalan(d) n. “ringing or jangling of (large) bells”
kalonya- v. “to ring, peal”
kantala- v. “?to harp”
kantl n. “(large) harp”
kilin n. “bell”
kilinke v. “small bell”
kilinkele n. “jingling of (small) bells”
kilintya- v. “to ring, tinkle”
lapumba n. “drum”
linga- v. “to hum like the string of a harp”
nalie n. “playing of tunes, ringing of bells”
polisimpe n. “shepherd’s pipe, Pan-pipes”
qintl n. “lyre”
salaqíne n. “violin, (lit.) thrumsqueak-er”
salma n. “lyre, small harp”
salqin n. “viola”
simp(in)a n. “pipe, flute, flageolot”
tombo n. “gong”
tompa n. “small drum”
tontilla n. “cymbal”
tontl n. “cymbal, tambourine”

19. Social Relations

19.13 Country (vs. Town)

arean (areand-) n. “wilderness, deserted place”
pelle n. “town”
rimu n. “outskirts”

19.14 Region, Territory

lar n. “region, place”

19.15 Town, City

irin n. “town”
ostar n. “township”
tirios (tiriost-) n. “town or city with walls and towers, burg”
-uran(do) suf. “town”

19.16 Village

hos(t) (host-) n. “dwelling, hamlet”
masto n. “village”
rú¹ n. “dwelling, village, hamlet”
ruella n. “village”
wasto n. “village”

19.17 Boundary

peler n. “fence”
pelin adj. “fenced in, pent”
pelma n. “pen”
rimbe n. “edge, lip, brim”
rípe n. “line, margin, bank of stream, edging of grass, border”
tanda¹ n. “hedge, fence, enclosure; border, rim”
tar n. “hedge, fence”
taste n. “fringe”
teluste (telusti-) n. “extremity”

19.21 People, Populace

laulemuine n. “people of the neighborhood, population”
lie n. “people, folk”
liende n. “the folk, people”

19.22 a People, Nation

hos(se) (host-) n. “folk, people, tribe”
nóre (nóri-) n. “(native) land, nation, family, country”

19.23 Tribe, Clan, Family

ettele n. “family, kindred (in the wide sense)”
hostar¹ n. “tribe”
nosse n. “folk, kin, people”
renda adj. “related, of the same kin or clan”
rendi n. “*kinship, kin, kindred, clan”
resta n. “support; kinship, kin, kindred, clan”
soresta n. “family”
sura n. “a clan”
vihta n. “*folk”

19.31 to Rule, Govern

heru- v. “to rule”
maksilistea adj. “powerful, having possession of or authority over”
maksima adj. “powerful, having possession of or authority over”
malkasta n. “lordship, province”
turinya- v. “to rule over, reign over”
vard- v. “to rule, govern”
warda- v. “to rule”

19.32 King

tur (tûr-) n. “king”
túranu n. “king”
túrin n. “king(dom)”
turinwa adj. “kingly, royal”
vardar n. “king”

19.33 Queen

tári n. “queen, mistress, lady”
túrani n. “queen”
turinqi n. “queen”
turinqia adj. “royal, Queenly”
turqin (turqim-) n. “queen”
varni n. “queen”

19.35 Prince

turillo n. “prince”
turwen n. “princess”
vardo n. “prince”

19.352 Other Titles of Nobility

hére n. “lordship”
heritse n. “lord (vocative)”
heru n. “lord”

19.36 Noble, Nobleman

malkuvoite adj. “lordly, noble”
turinda adj. “royal, of the ruling dynasty; in power”

19.41 Master

maksilis (maksilist-) n. “lordship”
malko (malku-) n. “lord, sir”

19.412 Lady

heri n. “lady”
heruni n. “lady”

19.42 Slave

norka n. “slave, thrall, servant”

19.43 Servant

vartyane n. “service”
virt (virty-) n. “servant, slave”
virti- v. “to serve”

19.44 Free (adj)

anarie n. “liberality”
faika¹ adj. “free”
faino n. “freeman”
faire (fairi-) adj. “free”
fairie n. “freedom”
faldi adj. “free, open, wide”

19.45 to Order, Command

peanta- v. “to give into one’s hands, give instructions to, enjoin”

19.46 to Obey

kim- v. “to heed”

19.54 Neighbor

rim- v. “to border on, lie at edge, neighbour”
rímenoite adj. “neighboring, bordering”

19.55 Stranger

nyan(do) n. “another, other (of many)”
nyanya adj. “another, other (of many)”
vára adj. “other”
varimo n. “foreigner”
varitsi n. “foreigner (fem.)”
varivoite adj. “foreign”
varne¹ n. “strangeness, estrangement”
varya adj. “different”
varyani n. “foreigner (fem.)”
varyanu n. “foreigner”

19.58 to Help, Aid

penanwa adj. “present, standing by, supporting, backing”
penasta n. “being near at hand, support, backing”
resta- n. “to aid, come to aid of, rescue, save”
sulta- v. “to support”
tiusima adj. “comforting, consoling, easing”
tiuta- v. “to strengthen; to corroborate, confirm; to comfort, console”
tiutale n. “strengthening, reinforcement; confirmation; comfort, consolation, easement”
tulpie n. “supporting, toleration”
tulpu- v. “to uphold, support; to aid; to endure, tolerate; to bear (with); to prop”

19.61 Custom, Usage

sito (situ-) n. “custom, habit”
sitsina adj. “habitual, customary, accustomed, usual, ordinary, common”
sitta- v. “I am used to, I do habitually”
situ- v. “to be accustomed [to]”

19.62 Strife, Quarrel

kos (kost-) n. “quarrel, dispute, the matter disputed, legal action”
kosima adj. “debatable”
kosta- v. “to debate, dispute”
nara n. “strife”
nara- v. “to snap, quarrel”

20. Warfare and Hunting

20.13 War

kor (kos-) n. “war”
ohta n. “war”
ohta·karo n. “warlike deed, hostile unfriendly act(ion)”

20.14 Peace

kalaine n. “serenity, serene”
kalain(e)a adj. “serene”
ruin n. “peace”

20.15 Army

hosse¹ n. “army, band, troop”

20.17 Soldier

ehtar (ehtard-) n. “swordsman, warrior; sword”
ektar¹ (ektard-) n. “swordsman”
kondor n. “warrior”
kondorie n. “martial ardour”
kosar (kosard-) n. “soldier”
mahtar n. “soldier”
mordo n. “warrior, hero”
ohtar (ohtard-) n. “warrior”

20.222 Battle-Ax

tuakka n. “battle axe”

20.23 Sling

toloime n. “sling”

20.24 Bow

kúne n. “crescent, bow, arch”
qinga n. “bow”

20.25 Arrow

pilin (pilind-) n. “feather; arrow”
pilna n. “arrow”
qasil n. “arrow, arrow-feather”
vainole n. “quiver”

20.26 Spear

elk n. “spear”
eska n. “spear, spike”

20.27 Sword

ehta² n. “sword-point”
eksiqilta n. “swordbelt”
ekte (eksi-) n. “sword”
falqan n. “large sword”
^macilquilta n. “swordbelt”
makil n. “sword, broadsword”
makillar (makillard-) n. “swordsman”

20.32 Corslet, Breastplate

ambasse n. “breast-plate, hauberk, byrne, cuirass”

20.33 Helmet

kalla n. “helmet”
kasien (kasiend-) n. “helmet”
kasientule adj. “with helm on”
kasqar(in) adj. “with helm on”
tolma n. “helm”

20.34 Shield

alkar² n. “shield”
tolmen n. “boss (of shield), isolated round hill”

20.35 Fortress

malkor n. “castle”

20.36 Tower

hosta¹ n. “walled tower”
mindon n. “turret, tower”
tirin (tirind-) n. “tall tower, turret, minaret”
tirion (tiriond-) n. “(great or mighty) tower; city on a hill”

20.41 Victory

apaika adj. “conquering”
apaire n. “victory, conquest, reduction”
apaitya- v. “to conquer”
vaqa- v. “vanquish”
vaqasta n. “a victory”
vaqi(e) n. “victory”

20.48 Spoils, Booty

rambe² n. “prey, booty”
rauna n. “prey, booty”

21. Law and Judgment

21.162 to Decide

pano n. “series, course, plan, arrangement”

21.36 Innocent

naustavilte v. “free from suspicion, *innocent”

21.37 Penalty, Punishment

paime n. “vengeance taken, punishment, penalty, infliction”
paimesta n. “chastisement”
paimeta- v. “to exact or inflict a penalty, punish”

21.39 Jail, Prison

21.44 Rape, Violation

amapta- v. “to ravish, seize and carry off forcibly”
mapta n. “ravishment, seizure, (usually =) rape”
maptalesse n. “rapine”

21.45 Theft

maptale n. “seizure; robbery by violence; rape, ravishment, forcible seizure and carrying off”
maptale-lehesta n. “(robbing) raid”
nak (naq-) n. “anything stolen, a theft, a trick”

22. Religion and Beliefs

22.12 God

Aini n. “(pagan) goddess”
Ainu n. “a (pagan) God”
Enu n. “God Almighty, Almighty Creator”
Vala n. “God”
Valis n. “female god”
Valon n. “male god”

22.13 Temple

alkar(in) n. “temple, shrine”
korda n. “temple”

22.16 to Worship

aistale n. “worship”
aistalea adj. “worshipful”

22.182 Parson, Minister, Clergyman etc.

evandl n. “Christian missionary”

22.183 Monk

aimo n. “saint (m.)”
anusta n. “monastery”
anustar n. “monk”

22.184 Nun

aire¹ n. “saint (f.)”
qindelis n. “nun”
qindesta n. “convent”
qindestin n. “nun”

22.19 Holy, Sacred

aina adj. “holy, revered, worshipful”
aira adj. “holy, worshipful”
vanya adj. “good (not evil), holy”

22.22 to Preach

velupantie n. “revelation”

22.23 to Bless

lis¹ (list-) n. “grace, blessing”
listea adj. “full of grace, blessed”
listevoite adj. “full of grace, blessed”
listya- v. “to bless”
salistina adj. “blessed”
salistya- v. “to bless”

22.31 Heaven

iluin(do) (iluind-) n. “dwelling beyond the stars for the blessed”
ilumar n. “dwelling beyond the stars for the blessed”
valmandui n. “heaven and hell”

22.32 Hell

mandu n. “hell; abyss”

22.33 Angel

kalmar (kalmarn-) n. “child of light”

22.35 Demon, Evil Spirit

(a)rauke n. “demon, fiend”

22.37 Idol

kordon n. “idol”

22.42 Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery

felu n. “bad magic”
kuru n. “magic, wizardry”
luhtu n. “magic, spell”
sairina adj. “magic”
sairu adj. “magical”

22.43 Witch, Sorceress

felusi n. “witch”
kuruni n. “witch”

22.431 Sorcerer, Wizard

kuruvar (kuruvard-) n. “wizard”

22.44 Elf, Nymph, Fairy

Elda n. “Elf; beach-fay”
Eldalie n. “People of the Elves, Elf-folk”
Eldarin adj. “Elfin”
falmarin n. “sea-fay (male), spirit of the sea foam”
inwilitse n. “little fairy”
nandin n. “dryad”
nauka n. “dwarf”
nermi n. “field spirit, fay of the meads”
noldova adj. “belonging to gnomes”
noldovike adj. “like a gnome, after the gnomes’ way”
oar (oarn-) n. “child of the sea, merchild”
oaris (oarits-) n. “mermaid, merchild”
oarwen n. “mermaid, merchild”
#oroman n. “wood-spirit”
ówen n. “merchild, mermaid”
Qen (Qend-) n. “Elf”
Qenya n. “Elvish”
Qenyarin n. “*Elvish”
tavar (tavarn-) n. “dale-sprite, fay of the woods; forest”
telella adj. “elfin”
telerea adj. “elfin”
teleste (telesti-) n. “(f.) little elf”
telesto (telestu-) n. “(m.) little elf”
wingil (wingild-) n. “(sea) nymph; *(lit.) foam-maiden”

22.441 Goblin, Monster

fandelu n. “monster”
fandelúva adj. “monstrous”
fandelúvie n. “monstrosity, immoderation, violence, barbarity, grossness”
fandor (fandos-) n. “monster”
fent n. “serpent, dragon”
fenume n. “dragon”
foalóke n. “*dragon (who guards treasure)”
kondasse n. “dragon’s lair”
kondo n. “dragon”
nauva n. “giant”
Noldorinwa adj. “Goblin; Gnomish”
ork n. “ogre, monster, demon, giant”
ulban (ulband-) n. “monster, giant”
ulbanima adj. “monstrous”
úvanimo n. “monster”

22.45 Ghost, Specter, Phantom

#qímar n. “phantom”

22.47 Omen

fando n. “portent, omen”

22.99 Religion and Belief (other)

aimaksin (aimaksi-) n. “martyr (f.)”
aimaktu n. “martyr (m.)”
(ana)tarwesta n. “crucifix(ion)”
evandilyon n. “gospel”

23. Grammar

23.1 Article

i article. “the”
-ma suf. “a; some, certain”
-(u)ma suf. “a; some, certain”
-we suf. “a, an”

23.2 Negation

al- pref. “form of the negative particle”
il- pref. “un-; negative prefix”
múna prep. “?without”
ú- pref. “un-”
ul- pref. “negative prefix; mis-”
umu- v. “to be not, do not”
úya- v. “is not”
-vilte (-vilti-) suf. “-less”

23.3 Preposition

enqe¹ prep. “without”
me² prep. “?with, in(to), on”
na prep. “for”
se prep. “as, like, in manner of”
ter prep. “through”
ve prep. “as, like”

23.4 Pronoun

a pron. “it”
atta² pron. “they (emphatic); 3rd sg. neut. pronoun”
en pron. and adv. “that by you; thereupon”
ena pron. “that by you”
enke pron. “that by you (emphatic)”
enqi pron. “this (emphatic)”
enta pron. “that there (emphatic)”
ha pron. “it; 3rd sg. neut. pronoun”
ha- pref. “*its; 3rd sg. neut. possessive”
(h)áva adj. “*its; 3rd sg. neut. possessive emphatic”
hea pron. “it (emphatic); 3rd sg. neut. pronoun”
hi pron. “she; 3rd sg. fem. pronoun”
hie pron. “she (emphatic); 3rd sg. fem. pronoun”
(h)íva adj. “*her; 3rd sg. fem. possessive emphatic”
hu pron. “he; 3rd sg. masc. pronoun”
(h)úva adj. “*his; 3rd sg. masc. possessive emphatic”
húyo pron. “he (emphatic); 3rd sg. masc. pronoun”
hwa- pref. “his; 3rd sg. masc. possessive”
hya-¹ pref. “*her; 3rd sg. fem. possessive”
ike (iki-) adj. “this”
iksa adj. “reflexive 3rd sg. adj.”
ikso pron. “reflexive 3rd sg.”
ilka adj. “reflexive 3rd sg. pl. adj.”
ilko pron. “reflexive 3rd sg. pl.”
ke¹ pron. “you; 2nd sg. pronoun”
kéto pron. “you (emphatic); 2nd sg. pronoun”
ketya adj. “*your; 2nd sg. possessive emphatic”
ku pron. “dual 1(b)”
le¹ pron. “you (plural)”
lea- pref. “*your; 2nd pl. possessive”
lelko pron. “you (emphatic); 2nd pl. pronoun”
lelya adj. “*our; 2nd pl. possessive emphatic”
lu pron. “dual 2”
me¹ pron. “we; 1st pl. exclusive pronoun”
mea- pref. “*our; 1st pl. exclusive possessive”
melmo pron. “we (emphatic); 1st pl. exclusive pronoun”
menya adj. “*our; 1st pl. exclusive possessive emphatic”
mu pron. “dual 1(a)”
ni¹ pron. “I; 1st sg. pronoun”
nímo pron. “I (emphatic); 1st sg. pronoun”
ninya¹ adj. “*my; 1st sg. possessive emphatic”
nya- pref. “*my; 1st sg. possessive”
qe¹ pron. “we (inclusive)”
qe² pron. “any”
qea- pref. “*our; 1st pl. inclusive possessive”
qelmo pron. “we (emphatic); 1st pl. inclusive pronoun”
qenya adj. “*our; 1st pl. exclusive possessive emphatic”
qi adj. “this”
qinda adj. “this”
qinqe n. “this”
sa pron. “that (there)”
sanda adj. “that”
santo pron. “that”
si¹ pron. “they; 3rd pl. fem. pronoun”
sia- pref. “*their; 3rd pl. fem. possessive”
síse pron. “they (emphatic); 3rd sg. fem. pronoun”
síva adj. “*their; 3rd pl. fem. possessive emphatic”
ta- pref. “*their; 3rd pl. neut. possessive”
ta¹ pron. “they; 3rd pl. neut. pronoun”
táma adj. “this”
tanya adj. “that”
táva adj. “*their; 3rd pl. neut. possessive emphatic”
tu¹ pron. “they; 3rd pl. masc. pronoun”
tu² pron. “he”
tua- pref. “*their; 3rd pl. masc. possessive”
túto pron. “they (emphatic); 3rd sg. masc. pronoun”
túva adj. “*their; 3rd pl. masc. possessive emphatic”
tya- pref. “*your; 2nd sg. possessive”
tye¹ pron. “that by you”
tye² pron. “you”
tyenda adj. “that (of yours)”
tyent(y)e n. “that (of yours)”
ya pron. “relative pronoun”

23.5 Noun Inflection

-i suf. “plural suffix”
-ie suf. “abstract noun”
-ika suf. “partitive”
-inen suf. “of, out of; partitive suffix”
-l¹ suf. “dative suffix”
#-le suf. “abstract noun”
-li suf. “many, multiplicative suffix”
#-lis n. “noun suffix”
#-me suf. “abstract noun”
-n¹ suf. “genitive suffix”
-ndon suf. “-ly, -ily; manner suffix”
-nta suf. “to, at, towards; allative suffix”
-o suf. “genitive ending”
-r¹ suf. “plural suffix”
#-re suf. “noun suffix”
-sse¹ suf. “at, in, by; inessive suffix”
#-sse² suf. “abstract noun”
-t suf. “dual”
-va suf. “adjectival”

23.6 Verb Inflection

-ko suf. “reflexive suffix”
-kto suf. “reflexive”
-l² suf. “plural [verb]”
-n² (-nd-) suf. “active participle”
-r³ suf. “impersonal [verb]”
-sta suf. “verbal noun, infinitive, gerund”

23.7 Comparative, Intensive

aka adv. “very, intensive”
aka- pref. “intensive”
aki adj. “extreme, vehement, excessive”
akka adv. “too”
are² adv. “very, intensive”
ari- pref. “intensive”
-íne(a) suf. “diminutive”
-itse (-itsi) suf. “diminutive”
-lda suf. “augmentative”
#-lla suf. “diminutive”
maira adj. “excessive, strong”
mike- pref. “diminutive”
olde adv. “very, much, intensive”
oli- pref. “intensive”
sa- pref. “intensive”
-tsa suf. “diminutive”
-tya¹ suf. “comparative”
-úme suf. “augmentative”
-(w)inte suf. “diminutive”
-(y)ando adj. “augmentative”

23.8 Conjunction

ne conj. “that”
san¹ conj. and adv. “then, at that time”
var conj. “or”
váro adv. “*rather”
varúse adv. “*in other manner [than]”
yan conj. “when”

23.9 Affix

#-a suf. “adjectival suffix”
ana- pref. “?towards”
e-¹ pref. “that by you”
-ilqa suf. “-ly or -like”
#-ina suf. “adjectival suffix”
#-ine suf. “noun suffix”
-inya¹ suf. “worthy to be -”
#-ite suf. “adjective ending”
-lukse suf. “-times”
-mas suf. “-ton, -by”
#-noina suf. “adjective suffix”
#-noite suf. “adjective suffix”
#-nto suf. “fraction suffix”
#-ra suf. “adjectival suffix”
#-se suf. “adjective suffix”
-tule (tuli-) suf. “bearing, etc.”
-tya² suf. “causative”
-u suf. “adverb suffix”
#-voite (-voisi-) suf. “adjective suffix”
#-ya suf. “adjective suffix”