Early Quenya Semantic Categories



1. Physical World

1.21 Earth, Land

kemen n. “soil, earth”
kemi n. “earth, soil, land”
kereksa adj. “of earthenware”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

aiqa adj. “steep, tall; high, lofty, sublime; chief”
ambapenda adj. “uphill; arduous, difficult, tiresome”
ambo n. “hill”
amun (amund-) n. “hill”
kúme n. “pile, heap; load, burden”

1.33 Lake, Pond

ailin¹ (ailind-) n. “lake, pool”
ailo n. “lake, pool”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

aksa¹ n. “waterfall”
kelu(me) n. “stream; fountain, spring”

1.37 Spring, Well

ehtil n. “spring, fount, source”
ektele n. “fountain”

1.61 Light

alka n. “ray (of light), light of day; shining”
kala¹ n. “light, daytime (sunlight), 12 hours”

1.99 Physical World (other)

karkasse n. “row of spikes or teeth”

2. Mankind

2.35 Father

atar n. “father”
atta¹ n. “father (child’s word)”
attu n. “father”

2.36 Mother

ama n. “mother”
ambi n. “mother”
amis (amist-) n. “mother”
(m)ambe n. “mother”

2.41 Son

ion n. “son”
vondo n. “son”
n. “son”
yondo n. “son, male descendant, (great) grandson”

3. Animals

3.64 Bird

aiwe n. “bird”
ea(r) n. “(young) eagle”
earen (earend-) n. “eyrie, (young) eagle”
karon n. “crow”

3.77 Elephant

hunto n. “elephant”

3.85 Snake

oqi n. “snake”

3.86 Swan

alqa n. “swan”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.16 Bone

as (ass-) n. “bone”

4.19 Back

ehta¹ n. “thorn”
ekke (ekki-) n. “thorn”

4.20 Head

kar (kas-) n. “head”
kas (kast-) n. “head, top, summit”

4.204 Face

anta n. “cheek; jaw(s)”

4.207 Jaw

n. “jaw”
maqar n. “jaw”

4.22 Ear

ankar (ankas-) n. “ear (of men)”
unk(o) (unq-) n. “ear (of animals); corner, sticking out edge”

4.24 Mouth

anto (antu-) n. “jaw”

4.27 Tooth

karka n. “fang, tooth, tusk”

4.63 to Wake

qívie n. “awakening”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

koirea adj. “alive, lively”
koivie n. “awakening; liveliness”

4.84 Sick; Sickness

kaimassea adj. “confined to bed, a-bed, bedridden”

5. Food and Drink

5.26 Pot

kalpa n. “bucket, vessel”

5.71 Fruit

kulmarin (kulmarind-) n. “orange”
kulurin n. “piece of gold; orange”

6. Clothing and Adornment

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.21 Room

kaimasan (kaimasamb-) n. “bed-room, bed-chamber”

7.22 Door, Gate

pondo n. “gate”

7.42 Bed

kaima n. “couch, bed”
kamba n. “bed”

7.45 Lamp

kalma n. “(day)light; candle”
kalumet (kalumett-) n. “lamp”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.31 to Sow; Seed

#ala- v. “?to grow”
ore (ori-) n. “seed, grain”

8.33 Scythe, Sickle

kalka n. “sickle”

8.60 Tree (generic)

alalme (alalmi-) n. “elm (tree)”
alda n. “tree, branch”

8.62 Beech

neldor n. “beech”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

kara- v. “to do, make”
karina adj. “finished”
karma n. “shape, fashion; act, deed”

9.22 to Cut

kiris (kirist-) n. “cleft, crack”

9.67 Iron

anga n. “iron”
angaina adj. “of iron”
ere(n) n. “iron, steel”

9.71 Potter

keresto n. “potter”

9.74 Glass

talqe (talqi-) n. “glass”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.22 to Lift, Raise

qalume² adj. “heaving”

10.48 to Come

#antulu- v. “to return”

10.49 to Depart, Go Away

#ava- v. “to depart”
kiri- v. “to cleave; *to sail”
vana- v. “to pass, depart, vanish, go away”

10.71 Road

aldeon (aldeond-) n. “avenue (of trees)”

10.81 Ship

kirya n. “ship, boat”

11. Possession and Trade

11.21 to Give

an (and-) n. “gift”
anar (anard-) n. “giver”
anta- v. “to give”

11.31 to Seek

saka- v. “to pursue, look for, search”

12. Spatial Relations

12.17 to Remain, be Left Over

#er- v. “to remain”

12.392 Out, Outside

ere-¹ pref. “out”
erúmea adj. “outer, outermost”
erus(ta) adj. and n. “outside”
es- pref. “*out”

12.394 Up, Above, Over

amba adv. “up”
am(u)- pref. “up(wards)”
amu adv. “up(wards)”

12.397 Beyond

enta pron. “that there (emphatic)”

12.398 To, Towards

an(a) prep. “to(wards); until”
ana- pref. “?towards”

12.399 From, Away

au prep. “away from”

12.44 Far (adj)

en pron. and adv. “that by you; thereupon”

12.57 Long

ande(a) (andi-) adj. “long (of space)”

12.81 Round (adj)

korima adj. “round”

12.82 Circle

korin n. “circular enclosure, great circular hedge”

12.85 Hole

apsa n. “hole, opening”

12.99 Spatial Relations (other)

kúne n. “crescent, bow, arch”

13. Quantity and Number

13.22 Empty

-vilte (-vilti-) suf. “-less”

13.25 Fraction, Division

kesto fraction. “one tenth”
kestya adj. “one tenth”

13.31 Numerals

ende num. card. “six”
enetya num. ord. “sixth”
enqe num. card. “six”
kanta num. card. “four”
kanya num. ord. “fourth”
satta adj. “both”
satto adj. “both; the two”

13.33 Alone, Only

er¹ adj. and adv. “one, only, alone, a single”
er² adv. and conj. “only, but, still”
eresse (eressi-) adv. “alone, by oneself, singly, only; once”
eressea adj. “lonely”
erya adj. “only, single”

14. Time

14.35 Again

#an- pref. “re-”
at- pref. “bi-, twi-”
ento adv. “next”

14.37 After

pote (potsi-) adv. “after, behind (of place)”

14.41 Day

aure (auri-) n. “sunlight, sunshine, gold light, warmth”

14.43 Dawn

amunte n. “sun-rise, (lit.) lifting”
oronte n. “sun-rise”

14.44 Morning

kále n. “morning”

14.64 Tuesday

aldea adj. “tree-shadowed”

14.71 Month

#-nto suf. “fraction suffix”

14.75 Spring

koire n. “life”

15. Sense Perception

15.51 to See

kili- v. “to see, heed”
sehta- v. “to see”

15.56 to Shine, Glisten

kala- v. “to shine”
kalta- v. “to kindle, set light to”

15.57 Bright

kal(l)u- v. “to illuminate, to light up”

15.66 Red

karne (karni-) adj. “red”
kulmarinda adj. “orange-coloured”
kuluina adj. “golden”
kulurinda adj. “orange-coloured”
kuluvoite (kuluvoisi-) adj. “golden”

16. Emotion

16.31 Pain, Suffering

angayasse n. “misery”

16.47 Fame, Glory

alkar¹ n. “glory”
alkara adj. “brilliant, bright, shining”

16.99 Emotion (other)

faika² adj. “bad, worthless, useless”

17. Mind and Thought

18. Language and Music

18.14 Various Cries

ala¹ interj. “behold, look”
áye interj. “hail”
ea interj. “a cry of pain or woe”

18.24 Language

Eldarin adj. “Elfin”

18.28 Name

en(we) (emb-) n. “name”

19. Social Relations

19.11 Country ('European')

túrin n. “king(dom)”

19.14 Region, Territory

arda n. “place, spot”

19.35 Prince

turwen n. “princess”

19.62 Strife, Quarrel

kosta- v. “to debate, dispute”

20. Warfare and Hunting

20.26 Spear

ehtar (ehtard-) n. “swordsman, warrior; sword”
ektar¹ (ektard-) n. “swordsman”
elk n. “spear”
eska n. “spear, spike”

20.27 Sword

ehta² n. “sword-point”
ekte (eksi-) n. “sword”

20.33 Helmet

kalla n. “helmet”
kasien (kasiend-) n. “helmet”

21. Law and Judgment

22. Religion and Beliefs

22.12 God

Enu n. “God Almighty, Almighty Creator”

22.19 Holy, Sacred

aina adj. “holy, revered, worshipful”
aira adj. “holy, worshipful”

22.33 Angel

Aini n. “(pagan) goddess”
Ainu n. “a (pagan) God”

22.42 Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery

kuru n. “magic, wizardry”

22.44 Elf, Nymph, Fairy

Elda n. “Elf; beach-fay”
Eldalie n. “People of the Elves, Elf-folk”

23. Grammar

23.3 Preposition

ar² (as-) n. “to, against, next, on (wall)”
are¹ adv. “beside, along”
har(e) prep. “near”
na prep. “for”

23.4 Pronoun

hea pron. “it (emphatic); 3rd sg. neut. pronoun”
hie pron. “she (emphatic); 3rd sg. fem. pronoun”
húyo pron. “he (emphatic); 3rd sg. masc. pronoun”
melmo pron. “we (emphatic); 1st pl. exclusive pronoun”
qelmo pron. “we (emphatic); 1st pl. inclusive pronoun”

23.8 Conjunction

ar(a) conj. “but; and”