Quenya Semantic Categories



1. Physical World

1.11 World

Ambar n. “The World, Earth, (lit.) Habitation”

1.12 Universe

n. “Creation, the (Material) Universe, Cosmos, World; let it be, what is”
ilu n. “everything, all, the whole”
ilúvë n. “the whole, the all, allness”

1.21 Earth, Land

cemen n. “the Earth; earth”
nór n. “land”

1.214 Mud, Mire

maxo n. “mire”
motto n. “fen, marsh”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

ambo n. “hill, rising ground, mount”
ambuna adj. “hilly”
#oroman n. “mountain dweller”
oron (oront-) n. “mountain”
orto n. “mount, mountain, hill”
quín(ë) n. “crest, ridge”
quinna adj. “crested”

1.221 Peak, Summit

ingor n. “summit of a mountain”
orotinga n. “mountain-top”

1.222 Slope, Cliff

penda adj. “sloping down, (steeply) inclined”
penda- v. “to slope, incline”
pendë n. “steep incline, hill side”

1.223 Mound, Pile

coron n. “mound”
hamna n. “pile, (artificial) mound”
luppo n. “clumsy piece or lump”
umbo(n) n. “hill, lump, clump, mass”

1.24 Dale, Valley

imbë² n. “deep valley, wide ravine”
imbilat n. “*deep valley”
nan(do) n. “(wide) valley, vale”
tumba adj. “deep valley”
tumbo (tumbu-) n. “deep vale, valley”

1.241 Ravine, Pass

(a)nacca n. “narrows, defile, pass, cut”
cirya² n. “cleft, pass”
rissë n. “?cleft, ravine”

1.25 Isle, Island

#lónë¹ n. “*isle”
nortil n. “cape (of land)”
tol (toll-) n. “island, (steep) isle”

1.27 Shore, Beach

falassë n. “(wave-beaten) shore, seashore, line of surf”
hresta n. “beach, shore”

1.31 Water

hloa n. “fenland”
nén (nen-) n. “water”
yulunefítë adj. “amphibious, *(lit.) drinking-breathing”

1.32 Sea

airë² n. “sea”
airon n. “ocean”
ëar n. “sea, great sea”
eäron n. “ocean, great sea”
váya n. “ocean, sea”

1.33 Lake, Pond

ailin n. “a large lake”
lón(a) n. “(deep) pool, mere, river-feeding well”
nendë n. “lake”

1.35 Wave, Surge

falasta- v. “to foam, surge”
falma n. “(crested or foaming) wave, breaker”
vaire adj. “?wavy”

1.351 Foam, Froth

wingë n. “foam, spindrift, spray”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

celumë n. “flowing, flood (tide), stream”
-(n)duinë suf. “(large) river”
sír(ë) (síri-) n. “river”

1.37 Spring, Well

celussë n. “freshnet, water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring”
ehtelë n. “spring, issue of water”

1.41 Woods, Forest

ornendur n. “tree-keep, forester, woodsman”
taurë n. “forest, (great) wood”
#taurëa adj. “forested”

1.43 Wood, Timber

lepetta n. “Gondorian hardwood”
tauca adj. “stiff, wooden”
toa n. “wood (as material)”
toina adj. “wood”

1.44 Rock, Stone

ondo n. “stone (as a material), (large mass of) rock”
#sar (sarn-) n. “stone (small)”
sarnië n. “shingle, pebble bank”
#sinca n. and adj. “flint”

1.46 Cave

felco n. “cave, mine, underground dwelling”
felya n. “mine, boring, tunnel, underground dwel[ling]”
hróta n. “dwelling underground, artificial cave or rockhewn hall”
rotto n. “small grot, tunnel”

1.51 Sky, Heavens

fanyarë n. “the skies”
menel n. “the heavens, firmament, sky”

1.52 Sun

Anar n. “Sun”
árë (ári-) n. “sunlight, warmth (especially of the sun); day”
arma n. “ray of sunlight”

1.53 Moon

ceuran n. “new-moon”
Isil [þ] n. “Moon, (lit.) Sheen”
isilmë [þ] n. “moonlight”
Rána n. “Moon, (lit.) Wayward”

1.54 Star

él n. “star”
elen n. “star”
elenya adj. “adjective referring to the stars, *of the stars, stellar”
elvëa adj. “starlike”
meneldil n. “astronomer, (lit.) *lover of the heavens”
nillë¹ [ñ] n. “silver glint; Valinorian imagines [images of real stars]”
tinwë n. “spark, [apparent] star”

1.542 Starlight

silmë n. “starlight”

1.55 Flash, Lightning

alca- v. “to glitter”
íta¹ n. “flash”

1.56 Noise, Thunder

rávë n. “roaring noise”
rávëa adj. “roaring”

1.61 Light

cala n. “light”
cálë n. “light”
fá¹ n. “*ray of light, flame”
linquë² n. “light-substance”

1.62 Darkness

huinë n. “gloom, darkness, deep shadow; night shade”
lúmë² n. “darkness”

1.622 Dark, Murky

lilómëa adj. “very dark, full of darkness”
lumba adj. “gloomy”
lúna adj. “*dark”
morë (mori-) adj. and n. “dark, black; darkness, night”
úcalima adj. “dim, murky”

1.63 Shade, Shadow

hala n. “cast shadow”
#lómëa adj. “shadowed, gloomy”
lumbulë n. “dark shadow, heavy shadow; deep in shadow”

1.71 Air, Ether

vilya n. “air, sky”

1.72 Wind

hwárwa n. “violent wind”
n. “(sound of) wind”
súrë (súri-) n. “wind, breeze”
vailë n. “wind”
vailima adj. “windy”

1.722 Storm

raumo n. “(noise of a) storm”
vangwë n. “storm; blow”

1.723 Breeze

hwesta n. “breeze”

1.73 Cloud, Mirk

fanya n. “(white) cloud, white and shining [thing]”
lumbo n. “cloud; gloom, dark, shade”

1.74 Mist, Fog, Haze

fanwë n. “vapour, steam”
#hísë (hísi-) [þ] n. “mist”
hísië [þ] n. “mist, mistiness”

1.75 Rain (n)

mistë n. “drizzle”
#rossë n. “rain; foam”
#ul- v. “to rain”
ulo n. “rain”

1.76 Snow (n)

hrissë n. “fall of snow”
hristil n. “snow (?peak)”
hrisya- [þ] v. “to snow (impersonal)”
†#hriz- v. “to snow”
lossë¹ n. and adj. “snow, fallen snow; snow-white, snowy”
lossëa adj. “snowy, (snow) white”
#nieninquë n. “snowdrop”
nieninquëa adj. “like a snowdrop”

1.77 Ice, Frost

niquessë n. “frost-patterns; snowflake, ice-flake, (lit.) chill feather”
niquis (niquiss-) n. “ice-flake, snowflake; petal (loose) of a white flower”
nixë n. “frost; ice-flake or snow-flake”

1.772 to Freeze

nicu- v. “to snow, freeze, be cold (of weather), be chill”

1.81 Fire (n)

(apa)ruivë n. “wild fire”
nár n. “fire (as an element)”
ruina adj. “blazing, fiery”
ruinë n. “fire, blaze”

1.82 Flame (n)

rúnya n. “red flame”

1.83 Smoke (n)

usquë n. “dusk, dim light”

1.86 to Light, Kindle

#calta- v. “to kindle”
lacalima adj. “not possible to be kindled (made to shine)”
**lacaltaima adj. “not possible to be kindled”
tinta- v. “to kindle, cause to spark”

1.99 Physical World (other)

#caraxë n. “*jagged hedge of spikes”

2. Mankind

2.1 Human Being

Atan n. “Man, (lit.) the Second (People)”
firya adj. “mortal; human”
námo¹ n. “person, somebody (unnamed)”
nassë n. “nature, true-being, *essence; person, individual”
návë n. “being”
quén (quen-) n. “person, individual, man or woman, one, somebody”

2.21 Man

nér (ner-) n. “man, male person”
nercë n. “little man”
nerdo n. “large, strong man”

2.22 Woman

#nillë² (nill-) n. “small [woman]”
nís (niss-) n. “woman”
nisto n. “large woman”

2.24 Female

-ien¹ suf. “feminine ending; feminine patronymic, -daughter”
-issë suf. “ending in feminine names”

2.242 Sex

yermë n. “sexual desire (for marriage and procreation)”

2.25 Boy

yonyo n. “boy, son (diminutive)”

2.26 Girl

nettë n. “(little) girl, daughter, sister (diminutive), pretty little thing”
riel(lë) n. “garlanded maiden, maiden crowned with a festive garland”
vénë n. “virginity; *virgin”
#vénëa n. “*virginal”
wendë n. “maiden, *virgin”
wendelë n. “maidenhood”

2.27 Child

hína (hín-) n. “child”
hindë n. “[unglossed]”
hindo n. “[unglossed]”
onna n. “child”
ontavalië n. “puberty, *(lit.) able to beget”
onya n. “my child”
winima adj. “childish”

2.28 Infant

hinyë n. “baby”
winë n. “baby, little-one, child not yet full grown”
winimo n. “baby, little-one”

2.31 Husband

veru n. “husband”

2.32 Wife

veri n. “wife”

2.321 Bride

indis (indiss-) n. “wife”

2.33 to Wed, Marry

verta- v. “to give in marriage (a) to (b), take as husband or wife (to oneself)”
verya- v. “to marry (of husband and wife), be joined to”

2.34 Wedding, Marriage

veryanwë n. “*wedding”

2.35 Father

atar¹ n. “father”
atto n. “daddy, father (familiar/family)”
atya¹ n. “daddy, (my) father”
#tata n. “*daddy”

2.36 Mother

amil(lë) n. “mother”
amya n. “mummy, (orig.) my mother”
emmë² n. “mummy, mother (familiar/family)”
mamil n. “*mummy”
ontari(l) n. “*mother, (lit.) genetrix”

2.37 Parent(s)

#nostar n. “begetter, parent”

2.41 Son

anon n. “son”
-ion suf. “-son, masculine patronymic”
yondo n. “son, boy”

2.42 Daughter

anel n. “daughter”
-iel suf. “feminine suffix; -daughter”
seldë n. “daughter”
selyë n. “daughter (diminutive)”
yeldë n. “daughter”

2.44 Brother

hanno n. “brother (diminutive)”
háno n. “brother”
#melotorne n. “love-brother”

2.45 Sister

#meleselde [þ] n. “love-sister”
nésa [þ] n. “sister”

2.57 Descendant(s)

ontalë n. “descent”

3. Animals

3.11 Animal

#celva n. “animal, living thing that moves”
#cuima n. “creature, animal”
#cuiva n.
hravan n. “wild beast”
laman (lamn-) n. “animal”
vëo n. “living creature”

3.18 Herdsman

#emer- v. “?to herd (sheep)”
emerwen n. “shepherdess”

3.21 Bull

mundo n. “bull, ox”

3.25 Sheep

máma n. “sheep”

3.41 Horse (generic)

rocco n. “horse”

3.61 Dog

n. “hound (or ?heart)”
roa n. “dog”

3.63 Mouse, Rodent

#lopoldë n. “rabbit”
peccuvo n. “squirrel, (lit.) nut-hider”
rasillo [þ] n. “squirrel”

3.64 Bird

aiwë n. “(small) bird”

3.641 Eagle, Hawk

soron [þ] n. “eagle”

3.642 Crow, Raven

quáco n. “crow”

3.647 Gull, Petrel

maiwë n. “gull”

3.648 Swan

alqua n. “swan”

3.649 Bird (other)

aimenal n. “lark”
#cirincë n. “scarlet-plumed species of bird”
filincë n. “finch”
lirulin n. “lark”
lómelindë n. “nightingale, (lit.) dusk-singer”

3.65 Fish (n)

?fanto n. “whale”
#lingwë (lingwi-) n.

3.71 Wolf

nauro [ñ] n. “werewolf, wolf (not wild wolves)”
nwámë n. “wolvish howling”

3.72 Lion

rá¹ (ráv-) n. “lion”
rauro n. “lion”

3.74 Fox

rusco (ruscu-) n. “fox”
ruscuitë adj. “foxy”

3.79 to Hunt

fara- v. “to hunt”
faralë n. “hunting”

3.81 Insect

n. “small insect”
wilwarin (wilwarind-) n. “butterfly”
wilwarindëa adj. “like a butterfly”

3.811 Spider

ungwë n. “spider’s web”

3.83 Fly (n)

pupso n. “large fly”

3.85 Snake

(h)lócë n. “snake, serpent, reptile, worm”
leuca n. “snake”

3.99 Animals (other)

ecellë n. “urchin, hedgehog”
#nendil n. “beast that lives in the water”
quácë n. “frog”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.11 Body

hroa n. “body, bodily form, flesh; physical matter”
hrón n. “matter, substance, flesh; body”
hrondo n. “(physical) body, corporeal form”
#mirroanwë n. and adj. “incarnate”

4.13 Flesh

hrávë n. “flesh”

4.14 Hair

findë n. “hair (especially of the head), tress or plait of hair”
findelë n. “tress, lock [of hair]”
findessë n. “head of hair, person’s hair as a whole”
findilë n. “head of hair”
finë (fini-) n. “(single) hair, filament”
lócë¹ n. “bight, bend, curl of hair”

4.142 Beard

#fanga n. “beard”

4.143 Hair (other)

finda¹ adj. “having hair, -haired”
loxa adj. “brown of hair”
nolya [ñ] adj. “dark-haired”
vaina adj. “blonde, fair of hair”

4.15 Blood

sercë n. “blood”

4.16 Bone

axo¹ n. “bone”

4.17 Horn (animal)

rassë n. “horn”

4.20 Head

cas (car-) n. “head”

4.204 Face

#canwa² n. “face”
cendelë n. “face”

4.205 Forehead

#estirnë n. “brow”

4.207 Jaw

anca n. “jaws”
anta n. “jaw”

4.21 Eye

alahen adj. “eyeless”
#hen (hend-) n. “eye”

4.212 Sharpeyed

hendumaica adj. “sharp-eye[d]”

4.213 Evileyed

henulca adj. “*evil-eyed”

4.22 Ear

hlas (hlar-) n. “ear”

4.24 Mouth

anto n. “mouth”
carpa n. “(entire) mouth; phonetic system”
náva² [ñ] n. “mouth”
ópa n. “mouth (opening of which the lips are the edges)”
songa n. “mouth (interior cavity behind the teeth containing the tongue)”

4.25 Lip

n. “lip, (closed) mouth”
#pempë n. “lip”

4.26 Tongue

lamba n. “physical tongue”

4.27 Tooth

carca n. “fang; [sharp] rock”

4.28 Neck

acas n. “neck (vertebrae), rock ridge”
lango n. “neck, (physical) passage”

4.33 Hand

camba n. “(cupped) hand, hollow of the hand”
#cambë n. “hand”
n. “hand”
quár(ë) n. “fist, (tightly closed) hand”

4.332 Hand (other)

ataformaitë adj. “ambidextrous”
atamaitë adj. “two-handed”
málimë (málimi-) n. “wrist, (lit.) hand-link”
maxë n. “handiness”
morimaitë adj. “black-handed”
nonda n. “hand especially in (?clutching)”
palta n. “flat of the hand”

4.34 Finger

amaltil n. “*mother finger”
antil n. “*middle finger”
cantil n. “fourth finger”
enestil n. “*middle finger”
lepecan(t) n. “fourth finger”
lependë n. “middle finger”
lepenel n. “middle finger”
lepente n. “fourth finger”
leper n. “finger”
lepetas (lepetass-) n. “index finger”
lepincë (lepinci-) n. “little finger”
lepsë n. “finger”
lepta adj. and n. “fingered; thumb”
leuta n. “finger”
nícë n. “little finger”
nihtil n. “little [finger]”
tassa n. “index finger”
tastil n. “*index finger”

4.342 Thumb

atartil n. “thumb [nursery rhymes]”
nápo n. “thumb, (lit.) picker”
tollë² n. “thumb”
tolpë n. “thumb”
toltil n. “thumb”

4.35 Leg

#attalya n. and adj. “biped, *(lit.) two-footed”
ciuca n. “*thigh”
telco (*telcu-) n. “leg; stem (of a tengwa symbol)”

4.37 Foot

tál (tal-) n. “foot”

4.38 Toe

pirë n. “toe”
taltil (taltill-) n. “toe”
taltol n. “big toe”
tolbo n. “big toe; stump, stub; thumb”

4.39 Nail, Claw

nappa n. “claw, talon”

4.392 Wing

ráma n. “wing”

4.393 Feather

quessë n. “feather”

4.41 Breast of Woman

súma n. “hollow cavity, bosom”

4.44 Heart

hón (hom-) n. “heart (physical organ)”
#honda adj. “hearted”
sincahonda adj. “flint-hearted”

4.47 Womb

#carva n. “*womb”
#colba n. “*womb”
#móna n. “*womb”

4.51 to Breathe; Breath

foa n. “breath, puff of breath”
*nef- v. “to breathe (air)”
#nefítë adj. “air-breathing”
súlë [þ] n. “spirit, emission of power (of will or desire); breath”

4.52 to Gape, Yawn

#háca- v. “to yawn”
hácala adj. “yawning”

4.59 to Lick

laptë n. “gluttonous eating”
lav- v. “to lick”

4.62 Dream (n)

indemma n. “mind-picture (of apparition in dream)”
lórë n. “dream”
óla- v. “to dream”
olor n. “dream, vision”
olosta adj. “dreamy”

4.63 to Wake

cuivië¹ n. “awakening”

4.71 to Beget (of Father)

nosta- v. “to beget, be begotten”
onta- v. “to beget”

4.72 to Bear (of Mother)

#nóna adj. “born”

4.73 Pregnant

colbamarië n. “gestation, *(lit.) womb-residence”
colbanavië n. “gestation, *(lit.) womb-being”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

ceula adj. “?alive (of vegetable)”
coirëa adj. “living”
#coita- v. “*to live, be alive, have life”
coivië n. “life”
cuita- v. “to live”
vehtë n. “life; habitat, haunt”
vehtequentalë n. “biography”

4.75 to Die; Dead; Death

fir- v. “to die, fade, expire, breathe forth”
#fírië n. “death”
fírima adj. “mortal, (lit.) *able to die”
qual- v. “to die”
#quelië n. “*fading”
?urtu n. “death”

4.76 to Kill

nahta-¹ v. “to slay; to hurt, injure, wound”
nahtana adj. “*slain”
nanca adj. “*slain”
#nehtar n. “slayer”

4.77 Corpse, Body

loico n. “corpse, dead body”

4.79 Grave, Tomb

#noirë n. “tomb”

4.81 Strong, Mighty, Powerful

#antorya- v. “to strengthen [of sound]”
antoryamë n. “strengthening”
astalda adj. “strong, *valiant”
melehta adj. “mighty”
melehtë n. “might, power (inherent)”
taura adj. “(very) mighty, masterful; vast, of unmeasured might or size”
#turca adj. “strong, powerful (in body)”
#túrë n. “*might, mastery”
turya- v. “*to strengthen”
turyandë n. “fortification, strengthening”

4.82 Weak, Infirm

limpa adj. “frail, slender and drooping”
úmaitë adj. “clumsy(-handed), unskilled”

4.83 Well; Health

málë n. “good health”

4.84 Sick; Sickness

#engwa adj. “sickly”
nimpa adj. “drooping, ailing”

4.85 to Wound; Wound; Wounded

nahte n. “wounding, wound”

4.86 to Cure, Heal

#envinyata- v. “to renew, heal”
hasa- [þ] v. “to treat (medically), (help to) cure; to treat kindly, make easy”

4.87 Physician

asar(o) [þ] n. “doctor, leech”
asarta [þ] n. “leech, doctor”

4.88 Medicine, Drug

asëa [þ] n. “healing herb, athelas”
asëa aranion [þ] n. “kingsfoil, asëa of the Kings”
hröangolmë n. “lore of the body and arts of healing”

4.89 Poison

hloima n. “poison, poisonous substance”
hloirë n. “venom, poison, poisonousness”
hloirëa adj. “venomous”
hloita- v. “to poison, envenom, fill with poison”

4.96 Dumb

úpa adj. “dumb”
úpahtëa adj. “speechless”

4.97 Blind

lacenítë adj. “unseeing, blind”
lomba adj. “blind”

4.99 Naked, Bare

parca adj. “naked (of persons)”
parnë adj. “bare, bald, naked”

5. Food and Drink

5.11 to Eat

mammata- v. “to gobble up; to go on eating, gorge oneself”
mastima adj. “edible”
mat- v. “to eat”
mátima adj. “edible”
#-matya suf. “eating”

5.12 Food

matta n. “food”

5.13 to Drink

yul- v. “to drink”
yulda¹ n. “drink, draught, thing drunk; cup”
yulda² adj. “drunk”
yúlima adj. “drinkable”
yulmë n. “drinking, carousal”
yuluitë (yuluiti-) adj. “drinking (as a habit), *aquatic”

5.14 Hunger (n)

maita adj. “hungry”

5.151 Thirsty

soica adj. “thirsty”

5.17 to Mix, Blend

#ostimë n. “blend”

5.33 Bowl

nanwa² n. “a (large) bowl”

5.35 Cup

cilinyul n. “drinking-vessel (made of glass)”
yulma n. “cup, drinking vessel, drinking implement, goblet”

5.51 Bread

coimas (*coimass-) n. “life-bread, lembas”
lerembas n. “bread taken on leaving home (for a long journey)”
#massa n. “bread”
massánië n. “the Lady, breadgiver”
masta n. “cake, loaf; bread”

5.55 Meal, Flour

mulë n. “meal”
polë (poli-) n. “meal, grist”

5.614 Fat, Grease

lúvo adj. “greasy, fat”

5.65 Vegetables

quëa n. “vegetable”

5.71 Fruit

yávë n. “fruit”

5.77 Nut

#pecco n. “nut”

5.79 Oil

?elp- v. “to anoint”

5.84 Honey

lís (liss-) n. “honey”
#melu n. “honey”
melumatya adj. “honey-eating”
nehtë² n. “honey”

5.91 Mead

miruvórë n. “mead, nectar, special wine or cordial, drink of the Elves, (lit.) precious juice”

6. Clothing and Adornment

6.12 Clothes, Clothing

#larma n. “raiment”

6.13 Tailor, Seamstress

serindë [þ] n. “broideress, needlewoman, *seamstress”

6.26 Lace

raiwë n. “lace”

6.33 to Weave

were- v. “to weave”

6.35 to Sew

#ser- [þ] v. “*to sew”

6.38 Thread

ipsin n. “fine thread”
#lanya n. “thread, warp, ‽twine”

6.41 Cloak

collo n. “cloak”

6.55 Hat, Cap

ría n. “garland, wreath”
rië¹ n. “garland”
ríma n. “fillet, snood, *hairnet”
rína adj. “garlanded, crowned”

6.57 Belt, Girdle

#lesta n. “*girdle, belt”

6.63 Pin, Brooch

tancal(a) n. “brooch, clasp”

6.71 Adornment (personal)

carrëa n. “tressure”
netil n. “trinket, (?small thing) of personal adornment”
netya- v. “to trim, adorn”

6.72 Gem, Jewel

mírë n. and adj. “jewel, gem, precious thing, treasure; precious”
mírëa adj. “jewelled”

6.73 Finger Ring

#corma n. “ring”
#millë n. “?ring”

6.96 Mirror

angal n. “mirror”
cilintilla n. “looking-glass”

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.11 to Live, Dwell

mar- v. “to abide, be settled or fixed”

7.12 House

coa n. “house; outhouse, shed, hut, booth; building used for a dwelling or other purposes; †body”
mar(da) (mard-) n. “house, dwelling, residence, mansion, a thing or place dwelt in, home”
martan (martam-) n. “dwelling-house”

7.122 Home

már (mar-) n. “home, dwelling, habitation”
mélamar n. “(emotional) home”

7.21 Room

solma² n. “hall”

7.22 Door, Gate

ando n. “gate, (great) door; †entrances, approaches”
fendë n. “door”

7.26 Floor

talan (talam-) n. “flat space, platform”
talma² n. “flat space, platform”

7.27 Wall

ramba n. “wall”

7.28 Roof

rondo¹ n. “vaulted or arched roof, vaulted hall”
telluma n. “dome, cupola, vault”
telumë n. “roof, canopy; heaven, sky”

7.31 Hearth, Fireplace

ruimen n. “fireplace, hearth”

7.412 Furniture (other)

rantala [þ] n. “ladder”
tolma n. “protuberance contrived to serve a purpose, knob, short rounded handle”
tyellë n. “grade, order, step (in a stairway or ladder)”

7.43 Chair

hanwa n. “seat”
mahalma n. “throne”
tarhanwa n. “throne, (lit.) high seat”

7.45 Lamp

calar n. “lamp”
calma n. “lamp, (device for shining) light”
calmatan n. “lampwright”

7.46 Candle

líco (lícu-) n. “wax”
lícuma n. “taper, candle”
loicolícuma n. “corpse-candle”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.12 Field for Cultivation

resta n. “sown field, tilled ground, acre; *fair”

8.29 Blade, Share

maica² n. “blade of a cutting tool or weapon (especially sword-blade)”

8.31 to Sow; Seed

ala-¹ v. “to plant, grow”
erdë n. “singularity”

8.33 Scythe, Sickle

circa n. “sickle”

8.41 Crop, Harvest

yávië n. “autumn, harvest [time or act]”

8.51 Grass

súriquessë n. “species of grass, (lit.) wind feather”

8.53 Plant, Herb

laima n. “plant”
laiquë n. “herb”
#olva n. “growing things with roots in the earth, *plant”

8.55 Branch

olba n. “branch”

8.56 Leaf

lassë n. “leaf”
lillassëa adj. “having many leaves”
olass(i)ë n. “foliage, collection of leaves”

8.565 Thorn

necel n. “thorn”

8.57 Flower

alba n. “flower”
alma n. “flower”
lilótëa adj. “having many flowers”
lótë n. “flower, single blossom”
lotsë n. “small (single) flower”

8.571 Bloom

alalbë n. “inflorescence”
alalmë n. “inflorescence”
lós [þ] n. “inflorescense, mass of flowers”
lossë² n. “inflorescence (of white flowers)”
olos¹ (olós-) [þ] n. “inflorescense, mass of flowers (on one plant)”
olótë n. “bloom, the flowers collectively of a single plant”

8.572 to Sprout, Bud, Blossom

losta- v. “to bloom”

8.575 Lily

indil n. “lily, other large single flower”
linquë¹ n. “(leaf of a) hyacinth”

8.599 Flower (other)

lávar n. “(golden) blossom”
pirindë n. “flower that opened and shut quickly with any change of light”

8.60 Tree (generic)

alda n. “tree”
aldarembina adj. “tree-meshed”
aldinga n. “tree-top”
ornë n. “(tall) tree”
táva n. “great tree”

8.61 Oak

nordo n. “oak”
norno n. “oak”

8.63 Birch

hwindë n. “birch”

8.635 Elm

alalvëa adj. “having many elms”
alvë n. “elm”

8.64 Pine

sánë (sáni-) [þ] n. “pine”

8.655 Tree (other)

culumalda n. “laburnum, *(lit.) orange-tree”
farnë (farni-) n. “ash, rowan”
lairelossë n. “summer-snow-white, species of tree in Númenor”
laurinquë n. “yellow-flowered tree”
malinornë n. “mallorn, (lit.) golden/yellow tree”
mallorn n. “Mallorn”
nessamelda n. “species of tree in Númenor, (lit.) beloved of Nessa”
oiolairë n. “ever-summer (a species of tree)”
ornemalin n. “bearing yellow flowers”
taniquelassë n. “*high-white-leaf”
tasar(ë) (tasari-) [þ] n. “willow”
vardarianna n. “fragrant evergreen tree”

8.68 Tobacco

alanessë n. “nicotiana, pipeweed”

8.99 Vegetation (other)

cëa n. “*hedge”
pilinehtar n. “an unidentified plant, (lit.) ?arrow thorns”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

car- v. “to do, make”
cárima adj. “feasible, possible (to do), able to be done”
carina adj. “done”
#-carya suf. “doing”
finya- v. “to do/make a thing (with fine work)”
lacárima adj. “not feasible, impossible”
lacarina adj. “undone”

9.112 Doer, Agent

-ldë² suf. “feminine agent”
-llë¹ suf. “feminine agent”
-mo suf. “agental suffix”
-ndë suf. “feminine agent”
-ndo suf. “masculine agent”
#-r(o) suf. “agental suffix”

9.114 Action

ahtar- v. “to do back, react; to requite, avenge”
caraitë (caraiti-) adj. “active, busy”
caraitië n. “activity, business”
carda n. “deed”
#carë n. “action, doing, making”
lacaraitë adj. “impossible”
lacarë n. “not-doing, inaction”
vecca adj. “active”

9.12 Work, Labor

mólë n. “*labour, work”

9.13 to Work, Toil

moia- v. “to labour, be afflicted”

9.14 to Bend

cúna adj. “bent, curved”
cúna- v. “to bend”
locin adj. “bent”
luhta- v. “to bow”
lúva n. “bow (in forming tengwar), bight, bend, curve”
numba adj. “bent, humped”

9.17 Bond (n)

naxa¹ n. “bond, fetter”

9.19 Rope, Cord

hísilanya [þ] n. “mist thread, grey elvish rope”

9.22 to Cut

#aucir- v. “to cut off (and get rid of or lose a portion)”
#cir- v. “to cut”
#hócir- v. “to cut off (so as to have or use a required portion)”
rista n. “*cut”

9.23 Knife (tool)

#cirma n. “knife”
cirmacin (cirmacim-) n. “knife-edge”

9.26 to Break

rac- v. “to break”
rácina adj. “broken”
#ruxa- v. “to crumble”

9.31 to Rub

psar- v. “to rub”

9.32 to Stretch

#tailë n. “lengthening”
#taima n. “extension”
taina¹ adj. “stretched, elongated”

9.34 to Strew, Spread Out

winta- v. “to scatter, blow about”

9.35 to Pour

púlima adj. “pourable, liquid”

9.41 Craft, Trade

arimaitë adj. “skillful”
curu n. “skill”
curwë n. “skill of the hand, technical skill and invention”
maitë (maiti-) adj. “handy, skillful; having a hand, handed; shapely”
taman n. “thing made by handicraft”

9.412 Art

carmë n. “art; making, production; structure”
mairë n. “work of high and beautiful art, the process of producing a work”
maita- v. “to make with art, design, compose”
maitalë n. “the act of doing [artistic] work”
maitar n. “artist; poet”

9.413 Horn, Trumpet

róma n. “horn”
romba n. “horn, trumpet”

9.42 Artisan, Craftsman

ahto n. “wright, maker”

9.422 Tool

carma² n. “tool, implement, means, weapon”
curo (curu-) n. “skillful (?device)”
tamma n. “tool”

9.423 to Use

mahta- v. “to handle, wield, use, make use of; to manage, deal with, treat, control”

9.43 Carpenter

tautamo n. “carpenter (carver)”

9.44 to Build

carasta- v. “to build”
cat- v. “to shape, fashion”
tamna adj. and n. “artificial; artifact”

9.45 to Hew

mac- v. “to hew with a sword”
#nac- v. “to hew, cut”

9.51 Beam

rondo² n. “staff (of hardwood)”
#talca n. “post, mark”
tarma n. “pillar”

9.60 Smith

sintamo n. “smith”
tamo n. “smith, builder”

9.635 Metal

tinco n. “metal”

9.64 Gold

laurë n. “gold (light or colour)”
laurëa adj. “golden (of hue)”
laurië n. and adv. “goldenness; like gold”
malta n. “gold (metal), gold as material”

9.65 Silver

telepta adj. “silver”
telpë (telep-) n. “silver”
telperin adj. “like silver (in hue or worth)”
tyelpë (tyelep-) n. “silver”

9.66 Copper, Bronze

calarus (calarust-) n. “polished copper”
lairus (lairust-) n. “verdigris”
urus (urust-) n. “copper”

9.67 Iron

anga n. “iron”

9.74 Glass

calca n. “glass”
cilin n. “glass”
naltalma [ñ] n. “heliograph”
silima n. “crystal substance devised by Fëanor”
silma n. and adj. “crystal (white)”

9.82 Sculptor

ondomaitar n. “sculptor in stone”
ontamo n. “mason (sculptor)”

9.87 Painting, Picture

emma n. “*picture”
quantemma n. “facsimile, (lit.) *full-picture”

9.90 Thing

engwë n. “thing”
erma n. “(physical) matter”
nat n. “thing”

9.91 Be

ëa- v. “to be, exist”
ëala n. “being, spirit (not incarnate)”
ná- v. “to be”

9.92 Become

ol- v. “to become”

9.93 Need, Necessity

#sangië n. “necessity”
turindura adj. “done necessarily”

9.95 Can, May

ec- v. “to have a chance of; may, can”
-ima suf. “-able, possibility”
-itë (-iti-) suf. “adjectival ending; capable of doing, generally (and naturally) doing”
pol- v. “can, to be able to”

9.96 Easy

ancárima adj. “easy, (lit.) very doable”
as(a)- [þ] pref. “easily”
asalastë [þ] adj. “easily heard”
asanótë [þ] adj. “*easily counted”
ascénima [þ] adj. “visible, easily seen”
hrai(a)² adj. “easy”

9.97 Difficult

empollië adv. “*harder”
hrai- pref. “hard, *difficult”
hrai(a)¹ adj. “awkward, difficult, stiff”
hraicénima adj. “scarcely visible, hard to see”
hrainote adj. “*hard to count”
hranga adj. “awkward, difficult, stiff, hard”
úcárima adj. “hard to do, difficult”
urda adj. “hard, difficult, arduous”
ur(u)- pref. “hard, difficult”
urucárima adj. “hard to make / do”
urucarin adj. “made with difficulty”

9.98 to Try

nev- v. “to try”
#ric-¹ v. “to try, put forth effort, strive, endeavour”

9.992 Way, Manner

lé¹ n. “way, method, manner”
lenga- v. “to behave”
lengë n. “gesture, characteristic look, gesture or trait”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.12 to Turn

quer- v. “to turn”
#querna adj. “*turned”

10.13 to Turn Around

nanquer- v. “*to turn back”
nuquerna adj. “reversed, inverted, (lit.) *under-turned”
#queren (querend-) n. “pivot, revolving center”
#ric-² v. “to twist”

10.14 to Wind, Wrap

raima n. “net”
raina¹ adj. “netted, enlaced, caught in a net”
raita-¹ v. “to make network or lace; to catch in a net”
remba- v. “to net, entrap”
rembë n. “mesh, net (for catching), hunter’s or fisher’s net”
rembina adj. “entangled, meshed, netted, woven”

10.21 to Rise

#ormo n. “riser”
orta-² v. “to rise”
orya-¹ v. “to rise”
oryandë n. “arising”
retto n. “*climber”

10.22 to Lift, Raise

#amorta- v. “to heave”
orta-¹ v. “to raise, cause to rise, lift (up)”
orya-² v. “*to raise”

10.225 to Hang, Dangle

*linga- v. “*to hang, dangle”

10.23 to Fall

atalantë n. “collapse, downfall”
atalantëa adj. “ruinous, downfallen”
lanta n. and adj. “fall; falling”
lanta- v. “to fall”
#lantë n. “fall”
núta- v. “to lower”
nútaite (nútaiti-) adj. “?lowering (naturally), degrading”
nútima adj. “*lowerable”
núya- v. “to descend”
talta adj. “tottering, unsteady”
talta- v. “to slip, slide down, fall”

10.24 to Drop

10.26 to Shake

raf- v. “to wave, brandish”

10.32 to Flow

celima adj. “fluent”
celundë n. “welling forth”
luimë n. “flood, floodwater, flooded land; flood tide, high tide”
luita- v. “to flood, inundate, drench”
nanwë n. “ebb, lowtide”
oloirë n. “great flood”
oloiya- v. “to inundate, flood”
sirëa adj. “flowing, liquid”
sirya- v. “to flow”

10.33 to Sink

undulav- v. “to drown, swallow, submerge, (lit.) lick down”

10.37 to Fly

wilwa adj. “fluttering to and fro”

10.38 to Blow

hlapu- v. “to blow, fly or stream in the wind”
surya- [þ] v. “to blow (intr.)”
sussë n. “puff (of air)”
susta- [þ] v. “*to blow”
súta- [þ] v. “to blow (tr.)”
váva- v. “*to blow”
váya- v. “to blow”

10.44 to Dance

pirucendëa adj. “on the point of her toes”
ruxoälë n. “Great Bear-dance”

10.45 to Walk

pata- v. “to walk”
#telconta- v. “to stride, *(lit.) to leg it”

10.46 to Run

nor-¹ v. “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
norië n. “race, running”
nórima adj. “strong/swift at running, swiftly running a course”
normë n. “race, running”
noroitë (noroiti-) adj. “(capable of) running”
norolinda adj. “*tripping lightly”

10.47 to Go

lelya-¹ v. “to go, proceed (in any direction), travel”
lenda n. “journey”
lenda- v. “to go free”
lomentie n. “?journey away”
men- v. “to go, proceed, move (generally); to come, arrive”
mentië n. “passage, journey, direction of travel”
tinga- v. “to go (for a long while)”

10.48 to Come

#entul- v. “to come again, *return”
entulessë n. “return”
hótul- v. “to come away”
#lenna- v. “to come”
nanwen- v. “to return, go/come back”
ral- v. “*to return”
tul- v. “to come”
tutulla- v. “to keep on coming (and going)”

10.49 to Depart, Go Away

auta-¹ v. “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
etsurya- [þ] v. “to go out”
heca v. “be gone!, stand aside!”
lenwë n. “leaving, departure”
lenweta- v. “to go away, migrate, leave one’s abode”
vanwa adj. “gone, lost, departed, vanished, past, over, no longer to be had, passed away, dead”
vanya- v. “to pass”
var adv. “*from, away to”

10.50 to Fade

fifíru- v. “to slowly fade away”
píca- v. “to lessen, dwindle, wane”
#quel- v. “to fade”

10.54 to Overtake

#rem- v. “to snare”
remma n. “snare”

10.55 to Reach, Arrive

anya- v. “to reach, go to, arrive at”
ten- v. “to arrive, come to”
tenya- v. “to arrive, end (not at speaker’s[?] place)”
tulusta n. “advent, arrival”

10.56 to Approach

úva- v. “to impend, be imminent, draw near”

10.57 to Enter

mitta- v. “to insert”
#mittar(e) n. “*entering”
ter prep. “through”

10.61 to Bear, Carry

#col- v. “to bear, carry, wear”
#colindo n. “bearer”
colla adj. and n. “borne, worn; vestment, cloak”
coloitë (coloiti-) adj. “capable of bearing, tolerant (of), enduring”
coloitië n. “endurance, staunchness, fortitude”

10.62 to Bring

tulya- v. “*to lead”
tulyandë n. “fetching”

10.63 to Send

#lelta- v. “to send, (lit.) *cause to go”
#menta n. “sending, message”
menta-¹ v. “to send, cause to go (in a desired direction)”
menta-² v. “have as object, (in)tend, proceed, make for, go towards”
tulta- v. “to send (from point of view of receiver)”
tultaima adj. “*fetchable, summonable”

10.64 to Lead

mittanya- v. “*to lead (into)”

10.645 to Wander, Stray

ranya n. “erratic wandering”

10.66 to Ride

norta- v. “to make run (specially used of riding horses or other animals), ride”
roquen n. “knight, horseman, rider”

10.67 to Push, Shove

nir- v. “to press, thrust, force (in a given direction)”
nírë n. “force”
nírítë adj. “forceful, exerting great thrust or pressure, driving”
rúma- v. “to shift, move, heave (of large and heavy things)”

10.72 Path

men n. “way”
ratta n. “track”
tië n. “path, road, way, line”

10.74 Bridge

yanta n. “bridge”

10.75 Cart, Wagon, Carriage

lunca n. “heavy transport wain”
ondolunca n. “stonewain”
raxa n. “wain, *wagon”

10.76 Wheel

querma n. “spinning wheel, turn-table”

10.81 Ship

cirya¹ n. “(sharp-prowed) ship; swift gliding”
ciryatan n. “shipbuilder, shipwright”

10.82 Sailor

ciryamo n. “mariner”
ciryando n. “sailor”
ciryaquen n. “shipman, sailor”
eärendur n. “(professional) mariner, (lit.) *servant of the sea”

10.83 Boat

luntë n. “boat”

10.87 Mast

tyulma n. “mast”

10.90 Port, Harbor

londë n. “(land-locked) haven”
#londië n. “harbourage”

11. Possession and Trade

11.11 to Have

#harya- v. “to have”
mai-² v. “to have, possess”
#sam- v. “to have”

11.12 to Own, Possess

auvië n. “possession (abstract), *the act of possessing”
oa- v. “to possess, own, keep”

11.13 to Take

nehta- v. “to deprive”

11.16 to Get, Obtain

#cam- v. “to receive”
#cav- v. “to receive”

11.17 to Keep, Retain

hampa adj. “restrained, delayed, kept”

11.21 to Give

anna n. “gift, (orig.) thing handed, brought or sent to a person”
anta- v. “to give, present; †to add to”

11.23 to Restore

ceulë n. “*renewal”
ceura adj. “renewed”
ceuta- v. “to renew, refresh”

11.24 to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe

cauma n. “protection, shelter, shield”

11.25 to Save, Rescue

etelehta- v. “*to deliver”
eterúna- v. “*to deliver”
#rehta- v. “to rescue, save”
rehtië n. “rescue, saving”
runando n. “*redeemer”

11.27 to Destroy

#nancar- v. “to undo”
#nwar- [ñ] v. “to fret, wear away”

11.28 to Harm, Injure, Damage

alahasta adj. “unmarred”
χarina adj. “marred”
#hasta- v. “to mar”
hastaina adj. “marred”
sahta adj. “marred”
úχarin adj. “unmarred”
úvana adj. “marred”

11.29 to Spoil

rúcina adj. “confused, shattered, disordered, ruined”

11.31 to Seek

ces- [þ] v. “to search, examine (in order to find something)”
cesta-¹ v. “to seek, search for”
*sur- v. “*to seek”
*surië n. “*(an act of) seeking”

11.32 to Find

ecces- [þ] v. “to find out, bring out by examining or eyeing[?]”
hir- v. “to find”
#tuv- v. “to find, discover”
túvima adj. “discoverable”

11.34 to Release

lerya- v. “to release, set free, let go”
rúna- v. “to free”
sen- v. “to let loose, free, let go”

11.41 Property

aura n. “possession, thing owned”
satya adj. “private, separate, not common, excluded”
véra adj. “personal, private, own”

11.46 Treasure

harma n. “treasure”
maina n. “thing of excellence, treasure”

11.47 Bank

haura² n. “hoard, store”

11.48 Heir

atamir n. “heirloom”
#hildë n. “heir, follower”

11.52 Poor

penna adj. and n. “lacking; vowel”
penya adj. “lacking, inadequate”
#racina adj. “stripped, deprived”

11.57 Thief

arpo n. “seizer, thief”

11.64 Debt

#lucassë n. “*debt, trespass”
#lucië n. “*debt, trespass”
#lucindo n. “*debtor, one who trespasses”
#luhta n. “*debt, trespass”
#rocindë n. “*debtor, one who trespasses”
#rohta n. “*debt, trespass”

11.66 Account, Reckoning

#onot- v. “*to count up, reckon”
#onótië n. “*reckoning”
onótimo n. “*reckoner”

11.88 Dear, Expensive

mírima adj. “very valuable, very precious, very lovely”
mirwa adj. “precious, valuable”

12. Spatial Relations

12.11 Place

#nómë n. “place”

12.12 to Put, Place, Set, Lay

caita-² v. “*to lay (transitive)”
#pan- v. “*to arrange, set in order”

12.13 to Sit

har- v. “to sit, stay”

12.14 to Lie, Recline

caita-¹ v. “to lie (down)”

12.15 to Stand

#ras- v. “to stick out”
#tar-² v. “to stand”
tolyo n. “sticker-up”

12.18 to Leave, Relinquish

hehta- v. “to put aside, leave out, exclude, abandon, forsake”
hequa prep. and adv. “leaving aside, not counting, excluding, except”

12.21 to Gather, Collect

comya- v. “to collect”
conta- v. “[unglossed]”
hosta- v. “to gather (hastily together), collect, assemble, pile up”
ócom- v. “to gather, assemble”

12.22 to Join, Unite

#limë (limi-) n. “link”
#sampanë n. “combination”
yanwë n. “joining”

12.221 Together

#as prep. “with”
lé² prep. “with”
o- pref. “together”
#ó prep. “with”
uo adv. “together”
#yo- pref. “together (used in words describing the union of three or more things)”
yó(m) prep. “[together] with”

12.222 And

ar conj. “and”
-ye suf. “and (pairs)”
yo conj. “both ... and”

12.223 Also

epetai conj. “consequently, thereupon, thence, whereupon, (lit.) following which (fact)”
etta conj. “*therefore, (lit.) out of that”
potai conj. “*therefore, (lit.) before which”
sië adv. “thus”
sin¹ adv. “*thus”

12.23 to Separate

sat- v. “to set aside, appropriate to a special purpose or owner”

12.232 to Divide

estat- v. “to distribute in even portions”

12.24 to Open

láta adj. “open (not closed)”
látie n. “openness”
latya n. “opening”
latya- v. “to open anything (so as to allow entry)”

12.25 to Shut, Close

avalatya- v. “to close, shut”
holla adj. “?shut”
holya- v. “to shut, close”
pahta¹ adj. “closed, shut, private”
sac- [þ] v. “to close”

12.26 to Cover

tup- v. “to cover”
#untup- v. “to cover (over or up), (lit.) to cover down”

12.27 to Hide, Conceal

#cuv- v. “to conceal”
fanta- v. “to veil, cloak, mantle”
fanwa n. “veil, screen”
#nurta- v. “*to hide”
vasar [þ] n. “veil”
vasarya- [þ] v. “to veil”

12.272 Hidden, Concealed

cúvima adj. “concealable”
#cuvo n. “hider”
cuvoitë (cuvoiti-) adj. “hiding, secretive; treacherous”
henfanwa n. “eye-screen, veil upon eyes”
nurtalë n. “hiding”
úfantima adj. “not concealable”
úfanwëa adj. “not veiled, unveiled”

12.31 High

oromar (oromard-) n. “lofty hall, high-mansion, high (lofty) dwelling”
orwa adj. “high, lofty”
tar-¹ affix. “high”
tára¹ adj. “lofty, tall, high”
#tárië n. “height”

12.33 Top

cas(ta) adv. “to(wards) the top, upwards”
inga n. “top, highest point”

12.34 Bottom

sundo [þ] n. “base, root, root-word”
tal(da) adv. “to the bottom”

12.35 End

telma n. “conclusion, anything used to finish off a work or affair”

12.352 Point

cendë n. “point”
ortil n. “up-point”
tildë n. “a fine sharp point”
tillë n. “tip, point; [within compounds] finger, toe”

12.353 Edge

címa n. “edge of a cutting weapon/tool”
cimba n. “edge, brink”
lanca n. “sharp edge (not of tools), sudden end”
lane (lani-) n. “hem”
pelma n. “border, fringe, edge, limiting device”

12.37 Middle

#endëa adj. “middle”
entya adj. “central, middle”
holmo adv. “sincerely, heartily; (lit.) from the middle”

12.371 Between

enel prep. “in the middle, between”
imbë¹ prep. and adv. “between, among”
imíca prep. “among”
mitta prep. and adv. “between”

12.38 Center

enda n. “heart; center”
endë n. “centre, middle”

12.391 In, Inside

mi prep. “in”
mina prep. and adv. “into, in”

12.392 Out, Outside

#ava¹ adv. and adj. “*outer”
et prep. “out (of)”
#et(e)- pref. “*out”

12.393 Across, Athwart

lahta- v. “to cross, pass over, go over; to surpass, excel”
langa n. “thing that crosses, ferry, ford, crossway, bridge, cross-bar”
lanna adv. “athwart”

12.394 Up, Above, Over

#am- pref. “up”
amba¹ adv. “up(wards)”
or prep. “above”
oro- pref. “up, aloft”
to prep. “on, above”

12.395 Down, Below, Beneath

prep. “beneath, not touching, under”
nu prep. “under, beneath”
núla² prep. “under [beyond]”
undu prep. and adv. “down, under”

12.3955 In Front

póna adv. “forward”

12.396 Behind, At the Rear

#ca(ta) prep. “behind, at back of place”
nanda¹ adj. “?back”

12.397 Beyond

ambela adv. “further still beyond, far away beyond”
han prep. “beyond”
lá² prep. “beyond, over, across, athwart”
olla prep. “over [beyond]”
palla prep. and adv. “far beyond”
pella prep. and adv. “beyond (boundary or limit)”

12.398 To, Towards

an(a) prep. “to, towards, to a point near, alongside”
#†-r² suf. “motion to or towards a point”
sir(a) adv. “hither”
tanna² adv. “thither”
tar(a) adv. “thither”

12.399 From, Away

au- pref. “away (from)”
au¹ adv. “away, off, not here (of position)”
hó- pref. “away, from, from among”
-llo suf. “(movement) from, ablative suffix”
prep. “(away) from; by agent [of]”
o prep. “from”
oa adv. “away (of movement)”
oar adv. “away from”
silo adv. “hence”
talo adv. “thence”
va prep. “(away) from”

12.41 Right (vs. Left)

forma n. “right-hand”
#formaitë adj. “righthanded, dexterous”

12.42 Left (vs. Right)

hyarma n. “left hand”

12.43 Near (adj)

am(be)na adv. “nearer to”
ar- pref. “by-, beside, near”
ar(a) prep. and adv. “beside, next [to]; out”
adv. “here”
sinomë adv. “here, (lit.) in this place”
sís adv. “here”

12.44 Far (adj)

haila adj. “far beyond”
palan adj. and adv. “far, wide, afar, distant”
palantír n. “far-gazer, far-seer, (lit.) that which looks far away”
tanomë adv. “there, (lit.) in the place (referred to)”
tassë adv. “there”

12.45 East

(h)róna adj. “eastern, east”
orróna adj. “eastern”
ro- pref. “uprising, sunrise, east”
rómen n. “east, uprising, sunrise”

12.46 West

andú- pref. “going down, setting (of sun), west”
andúna adj. “western”
nú- pref. “going down, setting (of sun), west”
númen n. “west, direction or region of the sunset, occident, (lit.) going down”
núna adj. “western”

12.47 North

formen n. “north”
forna adj. “northern”

12.48 South

hyar- pref. “left-hand, south”
hyarmen n. “south, (lit.) left-hand direction”
hyarna¹ adj. “southern”

12.51 Form, Shape (n)

canta- v. “to shape”
canta² n. “shape, framework”

12.53 to Grow

lauya- v. “to flourish (green), grow”
olmië n. “growth”

12.54 to Measure

lár n. “league; †stop, pause”
ranga n. “yard, full pace”

12.55 Big, Large, Great

haura¹ adj. “huge”
hoa adj. “big, large”
molda adj. “big, large”
polda adj. “big”
túra adj. “big, great”
velca adj. “large, great, big”

12.56 Small, Little

cinta adj. “small”
níca adj. “little, small”
nípa adj. “small (usually with connotation of weakness)”
#nitya adj. “little”
pia adj. “little”
picina adj. “little”

12.565 Bit, Small Thing

#únehta n. “*atom”

12.57 Long

anda adj. “long, far”
andavë adv. “long, at great length”

12.58 Tall

halla adj. “tall”

12.59 Short

nauca adj. “stunted, shortened, dwarf(ed)”
senna [þ] adj. “short”

12.61 Wide, Broad

naira¹ [ñ] adj. “vast, wide, empty”
palda adj. “wide, broad”
yána adj. “wide, vast, huge”
yonda² adj. “wide, roomy, extensive”

12.62 Narrow

náha adj. “narrow”

12.63 Thick (in Dimension)

?leluya adj. “thick (of a single thing)”

12.64 Thick (in Density)

hyarna² adj. “compact”
nelya- v. “to thicken, congeal”

12.65 Thin (in Dimension)

#fimbë (fimbi-) adj. “slender”

12.66 Thin (in Density)

finda² adj. “fine and delicately made”

12.67 Deep

orda n. “profound”
tumbalë n. “depth, deep valley”

12.72 Hollow, Concave

#náva¹ adj. “hollow”
unquë n. “a hollow”

12.74 Crooked

raica adj. “crooked”

12.75 Hook, Crook

ampa n. “hook”

12.76 Angle, Corner

nehtë¹ n. “spearhead, gore, wedge, narrow prominitory; angle”
nexa adj. “sharp, angular”

12.81 Round (adj)

pel- v. “to go round, encircle”

12.84 Line

téma n. “series”

12.85 Hole

samna n. “delved hole, pit”

12.91 Equal, Alike

im- pref. “same”
imma pron. “same, self-same, same thing”
imya adj. “same, identical, self-same”
ovéa adj. “(con)similar, alike”

12.92 Like, Similar

sillë adv. “like this”
véla adj. “*alike, having a likeness or similarity”
yosanwë n. “(pl.) congruence”

12.925 Different, Other

exa adj. “other”
exe n. “the other”
hya² pron. “other thing”
hyana adj. “other”
hye pron. “other person, him (the other)”

12.93 to Change

#ahya- v. “to change”
virya- v. “to change, alternate”
vista- v. “to change (transitive)”
*vistë n. “change”
walwistë n. “change of mind”
wirnë n. “change”

12.94 Sign (n)

tanna¹ n. “sign, token”

13. Quantity and Number

13.11 Amount, Quantity

nonwë n. “calculation, sum”
not- v. “to count”
#nótië n. “*counting”
únotë(a) adj. “not counted, uncounted”
únótima adj. “numberless, innumerable, countless, difficult/impossible to count”
urnótima adj. “*difficult to count”

13.12 Number

lanotoitë (lanotoiti-) adj. “innumerable”
#notessë n. “numeral”
nótima adj. “countable, limited in number (weight and measure); (colloquial) moderate in amount, some, few, several”

13.13 Whole

aqua adv. “fully, completely, altogether, wholly”

13.14 All, Every

#il- pref. “every, *all”
illi n. “all”
ilquen n. “everybody”
ilya adj. “every, each, all (of a particular group of things)”

13.15 Much, Many

#li(n)- pref. “many”
-úmë suf. “[large], of quantity”

13.16 More

amba² adj. and n. “more”
ambë adv. “more”
arta¹ adv. “etcetera”
enta adj. “another, one more”
entë¹ adv. “moreover, further(more), what is more”
net(ë) n. “one more beyond (the middle)”

13.165 to Add, Increase

napan- v. “to add”

13.17 Few, Little

pitya adj. “petty, little”

13.18 Enough

úmëa adj. “abundant, swarming, teeming”

13.19 Crowd, Multitude

hyanda n. “pressed mass, crowd”
liyúmë n. “host”
rimbë n. “host, great number”
sanga [þ] n. “throng, press, pressure”
úma- v. “to teem”

13.192 Other Collective Words

heren n. “order”
maqua n. “hand-full, group of five (similar) things; hand (colloquial); closing or closed [hand] (facing down) for taking”
massë² n. “handful, portion, share, capacity”
(o)combë n. “gathering, assembly, assemblage, collection”
olië n. “company, people together”
ombari n. “company, dwellers together”
-sta¹ suf. “land, *part”
umba n. “swarm”
úmë n. “great collection or crowd of things of the same sort, throng”

13.21 Full

ataquanta- v. “*to refill, fill a second time, double fill”
enquanta- v. “to refill”
-inqua suf. “-ful, complete”
penquanta adj. “full to the brim, with mouth full”
quanta adj. “full, filled”
quanta- v. “to fill”
quat- v. “to fill”

13.22 Empty

undumë n. “abyss”

13.24 Half

#per- pref. “half”
peresta fraction. “one half”
#Perian (Periand-) n. “Halfling”

13.25 Fraction, Division

caista fraction. “one tenth”
ca(na)sta fraction. “one fourth”
enquesta fraction. “one sixth”
lepesta fraction. “one fifth”
minquesta fraction. “*one eleventh”
ne(re)sta fraction. “one ninth”
o(to)sta fraction. “one seventh”
to(lo)sta fraction. “one eighth”
yunquesta fraction. “*one twelfth”

13.31 Numerals

caistanótië n. “decimal system”
maquanotië n. “decimal system”

13.32 One

min num. card. “one”
néya adv. “once, at one time”

13.33 Alone, Only

er adj. and adv. “one, alone”
#eressë n. “solitude”
eressëa adj. “lonely”
erinqua adj. “single, alone”
rëa adj. “single”
rië² adv. “only”

13.34 First

eteminya adj. “prominent”
minya ordinal. and adj. “first; eminent, prominent”
*tolya adj. “prominent”
#turco¹ n. “chief”

13.35 Last

métima adj. “last, ultimate, final”
telda adj. “last, final”
#telu adj. “last”

13.36 Two

atta num. card. “two”
onóna adj. and n. “twin-born; one of a pair of twins”
yu- pref. “both”
yúyo adj. “both”

13.37 Second (ordinal)

attëa num. ord. “second”
tatya num. ord. “second”

13.38 Double, Twice

atatya adj. “double”

13.41 Three

neldë num. card. “three”

13.42 Third (ordinal)

neldëa num. ord. “third”
nelya num. ord. “third”

13.43 a Third (fraction)

nel(d)esta fraction. “one third”

13.54 Cardinal Number

canta¹ num. card. “four”
cëa(n) num. card. “ten”
enenquë num. card. “sixteen”
enquë num. card. “six”
lempë num. card. “five”
lepenquë num. card. “*fifteen”
minquë num. card. “eleven”
*nelquë num. card. “*thirteen”
nertë num. card. “nine”
neterquë num. card. “nineteen”
otoquë num. card. “seventeen”
otso num. card. “seven”
quaican num. card. “*fourteen”
quainque num. card. “*sixteen”
quëan num. card. “ten”
toldo num. card. “eight”
yunquë num. card. “twelve”
yunquenta num. card. “thirteen”

13.55 Ordinal Number

cantëa num. ord. “fourth”
enquëa num. ord. “sixth”
lempëa num. ord. “fifth”
lepenya num. ord. “fifth”
nelquëa num. ord. “*thirteenth”
nertëa num. ord. “ninth”
!neterquëa num. ord. “nineteenth”
otsëa num. ord. “seventh”
quainëa num. ord. “tenth”
toldëa num. ord. “eighth”

14. Time

14.11 Time (period)

lúmë¹ n. “time, period of time, hour”

14.12 Age

coimen (coimend-) n. “life-year”
olmen (olmend-) n. “growth-year”
quantolië n. “maturity”
vinimetta n. “end of youth”

14.13 New

céva adj. “fresh, new, renewed”

14.14 Young

vínë n. “youth”
vinya adj. “young, new”
vinyarë n. “youth”
winyamo n. “youngster”

14.15 Old

enwina adj. “old”
yára adj. “old, ancient”

14.18 Now

adv. “now”
silumë adv. “now, (lit.) at this time”

14.19 Soon, Immediately

en adv. “then soon”
adv. “the[?] [?next]”
ron(go) adv. “soon”

14.21 Fast, Swift, Quick

limbë (limbi-) adj. “quick, swift”
linta adj. “swift”
lintië n. and adv. “swiftness, speed; swiftly, *quickly”
#rindë adj. “swift”

14.23 to Hurry, Hasten

tyelca adj. “hasty”

14.25 to Begin; Beginning

yesta n. “beginning”

14.252 to Last

termar- v. “to stand, *endure, last, (lit.) through-abide”

14.254 Patience, Endurance

#tauva- v. “*to endure”

14.26 End (n, temporal)

metta n. “ending, end”
*mette adj. “*end”

14.27 to Finish

finta- v. “to make, finish off, decorate a thing with delicate work; to show skill”
#tel- v. “to end, finish (intrans.)”
telya- v. “to finish, wind up, conclude (trans.)”

14.29 Ready (adj)

férima adj. “ready to hand, (quickly) available”
ferya- v. “to make ready (promptly)”
mína adj. “desiring to start, eager to go”
tensi adv. “already, still, up to now, here; yet [from present]”
tenta adv. “already, still, up to now, here; yet [from past]”

14.30 Eternity

oialë adv. “forever, everlastingly, eternally, in eternity”

14.302 Eternal

oia(la) adj. “everlasting, unceasing, without end, for ever”
oialëa adj. “eternal”
oi(o) adv. and n. “ever, everlastingly; an endless period”
tennoio adv. “forever”

14.31 Always

illumë adv. “*always”
úlumë adv. “ever, at all times (in a series or period)”
vorë adv. “*always”

14.35 Again

at(a)- pref. “double, second time”
en- pref. “re-, again”
han- pref. “*back as an answer or return by another agent”
nan- pref. “back (again)”

14.355 Past, Ago

andanéya adv. “long ago, once upon a time”
auta adv. “ago”
autas n. “a former occur[rence]”
engë adv. “ago, in the past”
adv. “ago, behind (earlier time); yes (it was so)”

14.36 Before (temporal)

fai adv. “*before of time”
nó¹ prep. “before (of time); at back (of place)”
talumë adv. “at that time”

14.37 After

apa¹ prep. “after (of time)”
epë prep. “after (of time), following; before (in all relations but time)”
opo prep. “before, in front (of place); after (of time)”
adv. “then”
uv- v. “*to be going to”

14.41 Day

aurë n. “day (as opposed to night), daylight, sunlight”
n. “day (period from sunset to sunset)”

14.412 Daily

ilaurëa adj. “*daily”
ilyarëa adj. “*daily”

14.42 Night

lómë n. “night, dimness, twilight, dusk, darkness”

14.43 Dawn

amaurëa n. “dawn, early day”
ambarónë n. “dawn”
tindómë n. “(starry) twilight, (usually) time near dawn”

14.462 Dusk

andúnë n. “sunset, evening, (orig.) going down; west”
undómë n. “twilight, time near evening”
úyalë n. “twilight”

14.47 Today

hyárë n. “*today, this day”
siar(ë) n. “*today, this day”
sinar n. “today”
síra n. “*today, this day”

14.48 Tomorrow

entan n. “tomorrow”

14.49 Yesterday

noa adj. and n. “former; yesterday; tomorrow”

14.61 Week

enquië n. “Elvish week of six days”

14.62 Sunday

Anarya n. “Sunday, (lit.) Sun-day”

14.63 Monday

Isilya [þ] n. “*Monday, Moon-day”

14.64 Tuesday

Aldëa n. “*Tuesday, Tree-day (Númenórean)”
Aldúya n. “*Tuesday, Day of the Two Trees”

14.65 Wednesday

Menelya n. “*Wednesday, Heavens-day”

14.66 Thursday

Eärenya n. “Thursday*, Sea-day”

14.67 Friday

Tárion n. “alternate name of the last day of the Eldarin six-day week”
Valanya n. “*Friday, Vala-day”

14.68 Saturday

Elenya n. “Saturday, Star-day*”

14.71 Month

asta n. “month; division, part (esp. one of other equal parts)”
ránasta n. “lunar month”

14.72 Names of the Months

Cermië n. “July”
Hísimë [þ] n. “November, *Misty-one”
Lótessë n. “May, (lit.) *Flower-ness”
Mettelairë n. “August, (lit.) *End-summer”
Metterrívë n. “January, (lit.) *End-winter”
Nárië n. “June, *Fire-ness”
Narquelië n. “October, Sun-fading”
Narvinyë n. “January, *New-fire”
Nénimë n. “February, *Wet-ness”
Ringarë n. “December, *Cold-day”
Súlimë [þ] n. “March, *Windy-one”
Úrimë n. “August, *Hot-one”
Víressë n. “April, *Freshness”
Yavannië n. “September, *Yavanna-ness”

14.73 Year

coranar (coranár-) n. “(solar) year, (lit.) sun-round”
haranyë n. “century (100 years)”
loa n. “(seasonal) year, (lit.) (time of) growth, blooming”
yén n. “Elvish long year (144 solar years)”

14.74 Winter

hrívë n. “winter”

14.75 Spring

coirë n. “stirring, early spring”
tuilë n. “spring”
tuilérë n. “*spring-day”

14.76 Summer

lairë n. “summer”

14.77 Autumn

lasselanta n. “(late) autumn, (lit.) leaf-fall”
lassewinta n. “leaf fall, autumn, (lit.) *leaf blowing”
quellë n. “late autumn and early winter, (lit.) fading”
yáviérë n. “*autumn-day”

14.79 Festival, Holiday

asar [þ] n. “fixed time, festival”
ceuranar n. “new sun after solstice”
loëndë n. “mid-year (Númenórean calendar), (lit.) *year-middle”

14.81 History

lúmequentalëa adj. “historical”
quentasta n. “historical account”
yénië n. “annals”

14.99 Time (other)

en(a) adv. “still”
quiquië adv. “whenever”
xiétë (xiéti-) adj. “passing, impermanent”

15. Sense Perception

15.25 Fragrant, Good Smelling

#nis- [þ] v. “*to smell sweetly”
#nísima [þ] adj. “fragrant”

15.26 Stinking, Bad Smelling

saura [þ] adj. “cruel, evil, vile; stinking, foul; bad, unhealthy, ill, wretched”

15.31 to Taste (subj)

tyav- v. “to taste”

15.33 Taste (n, subj)

tyávë n. “*taste”

15.35 Sweet

lissë¹ (lissi-) adj. “sweet”

15.37 Bitter

sára adj. “*bitter”

15.41 to Hear

#hlar- v. “to hear”

15.42 to Listen, Harken

larmo n. “listener (spy or scout)”
lasta- v. “to listen”

15.44 Sound (n)

hlón(a) (hlon-) n. “noise, sound”
láma n. “sound”
lámatyávë n. “*sound-taste”

15.441 Echo

lamma- v. “?to echo”

15.442 Phonetic

calmatéma n. “k-series”
hlonitë adj. “phonetic”
lambelë n. “phonetics”
#lambetengwë n. “consonant”
#náva-tengwë [ñ] n. “consonant”
#návëa [ñ] n. and adj. “consonant, *consonantal”
ohlon n. “diphthong”
#ólama n. “consonant”
#ólamaitë adj. “consonantal”
óman (omand-) n. “vowel”
ómatailë n. “vowel lengthening”
ómataima n. “vocalic extension”
#ómëa n. and adj. “vowel”
parmatéma n. “p-series”
#pataca n. “consonant”
quessetéma n. “kw-series”
sundóma [þ] n. “determinant vowel, root-vowel”
tincotéma n. “t-series”
tyelpetéma n. “palatal series”

15.51 to See

cen- v. “to see, behold, look”
cénima adj. “visible”
#cenya adj. “*perceptive”
fantarcenya adj. “perspicacious, penetrating of sight or understanding”
hententa- v. “to spot with eye”

15.52 to Look

nattir- v. “to look back”
#palantir- v. “to watch/look afar”
tir- v. “to watch (over), guard, heed; to look (at), gaze, observe”
tirila adj. “watching (something)”
tírima adj. “able to be watched, observable”
tirítë (tiríti-) adj. “watchful, vigilant”
#tirmo n. “watcher”

15.53 Sight (subj)

#cen n. “sight”
cenítë adj. “seeing, *able to see”
tercen n. “insight, (lit.) *through-sight”
#tercenya adj. “of insight”

15.54 Sight (obj), Look (obj), Appearance

nemesta n. “appearance, seeming”

15.55 to Show

leptenta- v. “*to point to, indicate with finger”
tana- v. “to show, indicate”
tëa- v. “to indicate”
tenta- v. “to point (to/out), indicate; to direct toward, be directed toward; to go forth towards (with object)”

15.56 to Shine, Glisten

#cal- v. “to shine”
ilca- v. “to gleam (white)”
nalta [ñ] n. “radiance, glittering reflection”
sil- v. “to shine (white)”
sisíla- v. “to shine (frequentative)”

15.562 Blinking

ita- v. “to sparkle”
itara adj. “gleaming”
itila adj. “twinkling, glinting”
miriéla adj. “?sparkling”
tihta- v. “to blink, peer”
tin- v. “to spark, glitter”
tintila- v. “to twinkle, sparkle, glitter, give tremulous light, †tremble”

15.57 Bright

calima adj. “bright, luminous”
calina adj. “light, bright, sunny, (lit.) illumined”

15.63 Dark in Color

hróva¹ adj. “dark, dark brown (of hair)”

15.64 White

fána adj. “white”
ninquë (ninqui-) adj. “white; pallid, chill, cold”
#ninquita- v. “to whiten, grow white”

15.65 Black

morna adj. “black, dark; black of hair”
mornië n. “blackness, darkness, dark”

15.66 Red

carnë (carni-) adj. “red, scarlet”
narwa adj. “ruddy, red of hair”
runya adj. “fiery red”
rusca¹ adj. “red-brown”
russa adj. “red-haired”
russë n. “head or pelt of red hair”
**úcarnë adj. “not red”
*varnë (varni-) adj. “russet, brown”

15.67 Blue

luinë (luini-) adj. “blue”
#luinincë (luininci-) adj. “bluish”
menelluin adj. “cornflower (color), *(lit.) sky-blue”

15.68 Green

laica adj. “green”
laicalassë adj. “green-leaf, green as leaves”
laiqua adj. “green”

15.69 Yellow

malina adj. “yellow, of golden colour”

15.70 Grey

mísë [þ] adj. “(light) grey”
mista [þ] adj. “grey”
sinda [þ] adj. “grey”
sindë (sindi-) [þ] adj. “grey, pale or silvery grey”
sindië [þ] n. “greyness”

15.71 to Touch

appa- v. “to touch”

15.72 to Feel of

lepta- v. “to pick (up/out); to finger, feel with the fingertips”
palta- v. “to feel with the hand, stroke”

15.74 Hard

anastorna adj. “*extremely hard”
norna adj. “tough, stiff; hard, firm, resistant; thrawn, obdurate”
ronda adj. “solid, firm”
sarda adj. “hard (*as stone)”
tancarya- v. “*to become firm”
#torna adj. “hard”
tornanga adj. and n. “hard-iron, iron hard”

15.75 Soft

musse adj. “soft”

15.77 Smooth

hlimbë adj. “sliding, gliding, slippery, sleek”
nalda [ñ] adj. “bright, polished (of metal)”
pas- [þ] v. “to smooth”
pasta adj. “smooth(ed), sleek, glabrous”
pasta- v. “to smooth, iron”
patta adj. “smoothed, sleek”
runda adj. “smooth, polished”

15.78 Sharp

aica adj. “fell, terrible, dire”
maica¹ adj. “sharp, piercing”
*mixa adj. “sharp-pointed”

15.81 Heavy, Weighty

cólo n. “burden”
#lungo (lungu-) adj. “heavy”
lungumaitë adj. “heavy-handed”

15.82 Light, Nimble

cólima adj. “bearable, light (of burdens and things comparable, troubles, labors, afflications)”
fínë n. “dexterity”
fínëa adj. “dexterous”
finwa adj. “clever, fine, delicate; dexterous”
leptafinya adj. “clever-fingered”

15.83 Wet, Damp

nenda adj. “wet”

15.85 Hot, Warm

lauca adj. “*warm”
úra² adj. “torrid, sultry, unpleasantly hot”
úrë n. “heat”

15.855 to Heat, Be Hot

asta- v. “to heat, bake (by exposure to sun)”
urya- v. “to be hot”

15.86 Cold, Frigid

helca adj. “icy, ice-cold”
niquë n. “cold”
ringa adj. “cold”

15.88 Dirty, Soiled

soa n. “filth”

16. Emotion

16.11 Soul, Spirit

coacalina n. “light of the house, indwelling spirit”
fëa n. “(indwelling or incarnate) spirit, soul”
fëafelmë n. “*spirit-impulse”

16.12 Feeling, Emotion

felmë n. “*impulse, emotion”
hondo n. “(seat of the) deepest feelings”
hroafelmë n. “*body-impulse”
inwalmë n. “mood of mind”
inwis (inwist-) n. “change of mind/mood”

16.13 Passion

awalda adj. “move[d], stirred, excited”
walda adj. “excited, wild”
walmë n. “excitement, emotion”
walta- v. “to excite, rouse, stir up”
walya- v. “to be excited (moved)”

16.14 Care (n)

#ap- v. “to touch one, concern, affect”

16.17 Fortune (Good or Bad)

marta- v. “to define, decree, destine”

16.18 Good Fortune

almë n. “good (or blessed) thing, blessing, piece of good fortune”
alya adj. “fair, good”

16.19 Misfortune

umbar n. “fate, doom, curse”

16.212 Please in Polite Phrases

mecin adv. “please”
namárië interj. “farewell, (lit.) be well, let it be well (to you)”
-tar suf. “honorific”
tar n. “honorific, sir, madam”

16.24 Happy; Happiness

al(a)-² pref. “well, happily”
alaquenta adj. “well (happily) said”
alassë n. “happiness”
ama- pref. “*well, happily”
tyalië n. “mirth”

16.25 to Laugh

lala- v. “to laugh”

16.255 Smile

raina² adj. “smiling, gracious, sweet-faced”
raita-² v. “to smile”

16.26 to Play

tyal- v. “to play”

16.27 to Love; Love

emel n. “love [abstract]”
lamélima adj. “unlovable”
#mel- v. “to love”
méla adj. “loving, affectionate”
melima adj. “loving, very affectionate”
melmë n. “love (a particular case [between two people])”
nilmë n. “love, concern for things other than self for their own sakes”

16.272 Friendship

-(n)dil suf. “-friend, -lover; devotion, disinterested love”
nílë (níli-) n. “a special concern with or love for”
oholima adj. “confidential”

16.28 Dear

melda adj. “dear, beloved”

16.29 to Kiss

miqu- v. “to kiss”
miquelis (miqueliss-) n. “(soft, sweet) kiss”

16.31 Pain, Suffering

naica adj. “bitterly painful or grievous”
naira² adj. “dreadful, horrible, unendurable”

16.315 Torture, Torment

nwalmë [ñ] n. “torment”
unqualë n. “death agony”

16.32 Grief, Sorrow

nainië n. “lament”

16.33 Anxiety

penga- v. “to pout”

16.35 Pity (n)

ócama- v. “*to have mercy”
órava- v. “*to have mercy”

16.37 to Cry, Weep

yaimë n. “wailing”
yaimëa adj. “wailing”

16.39 to Groan

nurru- v. “to murmur, grumble, mumble”
yarra- v. “to growl, snarl”

16.41 Hate (n)

nattira- v. “to despise”
uhta- v. “to dislike, feel disgust with, avoid as painful or nasty”

16.42 Anger

hráva adj. “wild, savage”

16.43 Rage, Fury

aha n. “rage”
rúsë [þ] n. “wrath”
rúsëa [þ] adj. “wrathful”
ruxa adj. “wroth”
ursa [þ] n. “rage”
ursa- [þ] v. “to rage”

16.47 Fame, Glory

alcar n. “glory, splendour, radiance, brilliance”
alcarin(qua) adj. “glorious, brilliant”

16.53 Fear, Fright

áya n. “awe”
nor-² [ñ] pref. “fear”
#ruc- v. “to feel fear or horror; *to flee (to)”
rúcima adj. “terrible”
ruhta- v. “to terrify”
þorya- v. “to dread, feel fear”
þossë n. “fear”
þosta- v. “to put to fright, terrify”

16.54 Peril, Danger

#raxë n. “*danger”

16.61 to Will, Wish

avanir n. “unwill”
lélë n. “will”
#mendë n. “*will”
níra n. “will (as a potential or faculty), individual will (in potential)”
nirmë n. “act of will, exercise of will”

16.622 Desire

#írë n. “desire”
írima adj. “desirable, lovely”
lengwë n. “yearning, desire for what is lost or absent”

16.63 Hope (n)

estel n. “hope, trust, *faith”
mer- v. “to hope”

16.64 Thanks (n)

#hanta- v. “*to thank, give thanks”
#hantalë n. “thanksgiving”

16.65 Faithful

astar n. “faith, loyalty”
sarta adj. “steadfast, trusty, loyal”
sorna [þ] adj. “steadfast”
vórima adj. “faithful”
voronda adj. “faithful, steadfast (in allegiance, in keeping oath or promise)”
voronwë n. “steadfastness, loyalty, faith(fulness)”

16.66 True

(a)lá interj. “yes”
interj. “yes, it is so, it is a fact”
naitë adj. “true”
naitië adv. “indeed, truly”
nanwa¹ adj. “existing, actual (true)”
náto interj. “it is that; *yes (emphatic)”

16.68 Deceit

#fintalë n. “trick”

16.69 to Forgive

#apsen- v. “to remit, release, forgive”
#avatyar- v. “*to forgive, (lit.) do away with”

16.71 Good

alacarna adj. “well-done, well-made”
alamen n. “good omen on departure”
alima adj. “fair, good”
amya-¹ pref. “excellent, admirable”
arya adj. “excelling, *better”
arya- v. “to excel”
ilvan(y)a adj. “perfect”
mai adv. “well”
mai-¹ pref. “excellent, admirable”
maira adj. “admirable, excellent, precious, splendid, sublime”
mára adj. “good, proper”
máralë n. “goodness”
márië adv. and n. “well, happily; goodness, good estate, being well, happiness”
ráta- v. “to excel, surpass”

16.72 Bad

nai- pref. “ill, grievously, abominably”
úmara adj. “bad, ill-used, evil, sinister”
úra¹ adj. “nasty”
urra adj. “bad”

16.74 Wrong (adj)

hru- pref. “evil-”
hrúcarë n. “evil-doing”
hrú(y)a adj. “evil, wicked”
naxa² adj. and n. “evil”
olca adj. “bad, wicked”
sau- pref. “very badly”
saucarë n. “doing or making a thing very badly”
saucarya adj. “evil-doing”
ulca adj. “evil; dark, gloomy, sinister”
ulco (ulcu-) n. “evil”
úmárë n. “not good = evil”
úro n. “*evil, nastiness”
us- [þ] pref. “[wrong] with a bad sense; unsuitable, bad, improper, useless, wrong”
uxarë n. “doing wrong”

16.75 Sin, Impiety

hruo n. “*wickedness”
#insangarë n. “*temptation”
#naicando n. “*sinner”
#naico n. “*sinner”
#naiqua- v. “*to sin”
#rohtalië n. “*those who trespass, (lit.) trespass-people”
terfantië n. “*temptation”
#terpellië n. “*temptation”
#úcar- v. “*to trespass, do wrong, sin”
#úcarë n. “*sin, debt, trespass”
#úcarindo n. “*sinner”
#ulcarindo n. “*sinner”
úsahtië [þ] n. “inducement to do wrong, *temptation”

16.77 Error, Mistake

loi- pref. “mistaken, mistake in ...”
loica adj. “failing, short, inadequate”
loicarë n. “mistaken action”
loima n. “mistake”
loiparë n. “mistake in writing”
loiquetë n. “mistake in speech”
loita- v. “to miss, fail, fall short of (transitive)”

16.79 Praise (n)

laita- v. “to praise, bless”
#laitalë n. “praise”

16.81 Beautiful

lelya adj. “delicate, beautiful and fine, slender, lovely”
lelya-² v. “to appear (of beautiful things); to attract, enchant (with dative)”
linda adj. “beautiful (of sound), sweet, melodious; soft, gentle, light”
mairëa adj. “beautiful (of things made by art)”
mimírima adj. “very beautiful”
mirya adj. “beautiful, lovely (of works of art only)”
netya adj. “pretty, dainty”
vanë (vani-) adj. “fair”
vanessë n. “beauty”
vanië n. “beauty”
vanima¹ adj. “beautiful, fair”
vanima² n. “beautiful one, fair one”
vanimalda adj. “most beautiful, exceeding fair; thou beautiful”
vanimelda adj. “beautiful and beloved, elven-fair”
vanya adj. “fair, beautiful, unmarred; fair-haired (yellow to golden)”
wenya adj. “fair, beautiful”

16.82 Ugly

úvanë(a) adj. “without beauty”
úvanima adj. “not fair, ugly; hard to call beautiful, hideous”

16.99 Emotion (other)

faila adj. “fair-minded, just, generous”
ondórëa adj. “hard-hearted, pitiless”
sercilixa adj. “blood-thirsty”

17. Mind and Thought

17.11 Mind

indo n. “(state of) mind, (inner) thought, mood; will, resolve”
órë n. “heart (inner mind); warning, caution, (pre)monition”
sáma n. “mind”
sanar n. “mind, thinker, reflector”

17.12 Reason, Intelligence

finca¹ adj. “clever (in petty ways)”
finya adj. “clever”
incánu n. “mind master”
incánussë n. “mind mastership”
indómë n. “settled character; will of Eru”

17.13 to Think, Reflect

palanyantië n. “telepathy”
#sana- v. “*to think, reflect”
sanwecenda n. “thought-inspection, thought-reading”
sanwë-latya n. “thought-opening”
sanwementa n. “thought-sending, mental message”
úvië n. “pondering, consideration”

17.15 to Believe

#sav- v. “to believe”

17.151 Guess, Suppose

ai² adv. “supposing, suppose, maybe”
au² adv. “if only”
cé¹ adv. “may (be)”
cé² conj. “if”
céla adv. “maybe not”
cenai conj. “if it be that”
cenasta adv. “if it be so, may be, perhaps”
cíta- v. “to suppose”
?it(ë) adv. “if”
nai adv. “maybe; be it that, may it be that; perhaps, it may be, there is a chance or possibility”
qui conj. “if”
quista- v. “to suppose”

17.17 to Know

ista- v. “to know”

17.171 Knowledge, Science

ingolë n. “lore, science, philosophy”
nólë [ñ] n. “lore, knowledge, long study”
nolmë [ñ] n. “knowledge, philosophy (including science), department of wisdom (science, etc.)”
sívë³ n. “knowing, knowledge”

17.172 Omniscient

ilúcara adj. “omnificient”
iluisa adj. “omniscient”
ilúvala adj. “omnipotent”

17.18 to Seem

fana n. “raiment, veil; (bright) shape or figure; bodily form of an angelic spirit”
nácë interj. “it may be seeming, *qualified yes”
nem-² v. “*to seem, appear”
vëa¹ adj. “seeming, apparent”

17.19 Idea, Notion

sanwë n. “thought, an act of thinking”
tenna³ n. “thought, notion, idea”
þelma n. “fixed idea, will”

17.20 Imagination

síma n. “imagination, mind”

17.21 Wise

istima adj. “wise (in sense knowing very much), knowledgeable, very well informed, learned”
saila adj. “wise”
tára² adj. “wise”

17.22 Stupid, Foolish

alasaila adj. “unwise”
laista n. “ignorance, (lit.) not-knowing”
laistila adj. “ignorant”

17.24 to Learn

par- v. “to learn”

17.27 Teacher

ingolmo n. “loremaster, wizard, one with very great knowledge”
nolmo [ñ] n. “wise person”

17.31 to Remember

#enyal- v. “to recall”
#enyalië n. “memory, (lit.) recalling”

17.35 Obscure

néca adj. “pale, vague, faint, dim to see”
púrëa adj. “smeared, discoloured, bleared”

17.37 Sure, Certain

sinwa adj. “known, certain, ascertained”
tancata- v. “to make firm, fix, confirm”

17.41 Purpose, Intention

indu- v. “to will, do on purpose”
induinen n. “purpose”
lelya-⁴ v. “to will with conscious purpose, immediate or remote”
mína- v. “to desire to go in some direction, wish to go to a place, make for it; to have some end in view”
turindo n. “purposeful mind, strong will”

17.42 Cause, Reason

#talma¹ n. “basis”
#tyar- v. “to cause”

17.99 Mind and Thought (other)

cesya- [þ] v. “to cause interest, interest (oneself), (lit.) to cause one to enquire”

18. Language and Music

18.11 Voice (n)

óma n. “voice, resonance of the vocal chords, vowel”

18.12 to Sing

#lindë (lindi-) n. “singing, song, musical sound”
#lir- v. “to sing”
liralë n. “merry singing”
lírë (líri-) n. “song”
liru- v. “to sing”

18.14 Various Cries

interj. “O, Oh”
ai¹ interj. “ah, alas”
aiya interj. “hail; behold, lo”
alla interj. “welcome, hail”
ela interj. “behold!”
interj. “lo!, what a ..., what is more”

18.15 Gesture-code

hwermë n. “gesture-code”
mátengwië n. “language of the hands”

18.21 to Speak, Talk

carpa- v. “to talk, speak, use tongue”
ósanwë n. “communication of thought, interchange of thought; (lit.) thinking together (dual)”
pahta² n. “speech”
pakta- v. “to speak, talk (intransitive)”

18.22 to Say

ataquetië n. “saying again, repetition”
enquet- v. “to repeat, say again”
equë v. “say, says, said”
eques (equess-) n. “saying, (current or proverbial) dictum, quotation from someone’s uttered words”
nyar- v. “to relate, recite”
quenna n. “saying, proverb”
quet- v. “to say, speak, tell”
#quétima adj. “speakable, pronounceable, *able to be said”
úquétima adj. “unspeakable, impossible to say or put into words, unpronounceable”

18.23 to be Silent

óricuvoitë adj. “uncommunicative, keeping one’s own counsel (not necessarily sinister)”

18.24 Language

carpassë n. “mouth-system; full organized language, including system, vocabulary, metre, etc.”
lambë n. “language, tongue, dialect”
lambina adj. “of tongue, spoken with tongue”
#questa n. “speech, language”
#-rin suf. “-ian, racial-adjective, language”
tengwelë n. “language (general term)”
tengwestië n. “language [as a concept]”

18.25 Dialect

Eldarin adj. and n. “of the Eldar; Elvish (language)”
Quenya n. “Elvish, High-elven, Elf-latin, †speech”
Quenyarin adj. “*of Quenya”
Sindarin [þ] n. “Grey-elven”

18.26 Word

quetië n. “words”
quetta n. “word”

18.28 Name

#amilessë n. “mother-name”
anessë n. “given (or added) name, nickname, surname”
#cilmessë n. “self-name”
epessë n. “after-name”
essë¹ n. “name”

18.31 to Question, Inquire

ma² adv. “interrogative particle”
man pron. “who”
mana pron. “what”
manen adv. “how”
#maquet- v. “*to ask, question”
minaþurië n. “enquiry”

18.32 to Answer

aquet- v. “to answer”
endaquet- v. “to answer”
hanquenta n. “answer”
náquet- v. “to assent, agree (on fact); (lit.) to say ‘it is’”
tóquet- v. “to answer”

18.33 to Admit, Confess

asa- [þ] v. “to be willing, agree”
sáquet- [þ] v. “I will, to agree (to do); (lit.) to say ‘yes’”
þá adv. “I agree of course, of course I do”

18.34 to Deny

ala-² v. “to deny”
láquet- v. “to deny (fact or accusation); (lit.) to say ‘it is not’”

18.35 to Ask, Request

cesta-² v. “to ask”

18.37 to Refuse

apta- v. “to refuse, deny, say nay”
áva particle. “don’t, negative imperative”
ava-¹ v. “to refuse, forbid”
ava-² pref. “negation (refusing or forbidden)”

18.38 to Forbid

avanwa adj. “refused, forbidden, banned”
avanyárima adj. “unspeakable, what one must not tell, not to be told or related”
avaquétima adj. “not to be said, that must not be said”
váquet- v. “to refuse, forbid, prohibit; (lit.) to say no, to say ‘I will not or do not’”

18.41 to Call, Summon

yal- v. “to summon”

18.51 to Write

sarmë n. “writing”
tengwacilmë n. “spelling”
tengwë n. “sign, token, indication; writing”

18.52 to Read

#cenda n. “inspection, reading”
cenda- v. “to watch (intensively), observe (for some time); to read”
ethenta- v. “to read aloud”
henta- v. “to eye, examine, read, scan”
hentië n. “reading”
parmahenta- v. “*to read”
parmahentië n. “(book) reading”
tengwa- v. “to read written matter”
#tengwië n. “reading; language (*signing)”

18.53 Letter of the Alphabet

andatehta n. “long-mark”
árë nuquerna n. “árë-reversed”
certa n. “rune”
hwesta sindarinwa n. “Grey-elven hw”
nútil (nútill-) n. “under-point”
#ómatehta n. “vowel-sign”
#óma-tengwë n. “vowel-sign”
sarat n. “letter (of the Rúmilian alphabet)”
silmë nuquerna n. “s-reversed”
tehta n. “(written) mark, sign, symbol, †written letter”
tengwa n. “(written) letter; sign, token, indicator”
tengwassë n. “alphabet”

18.54 Letter, Epistle

centa n. “enquiry, *essay”
tenna² n. “letter (epistola)”

18.57 Pen

tecil n. “pen”

18.61 Book

parma n. “book, writing, composition, written document of some size”
#parma-resta n. “*book-fair”

18.66 Author, Writer

quenso n. “minstrel, reciter”
quentaro n. “speaker, reciter”

18.68 Tale, Story

nyárë n. “history, account”
#nyarna n. “long epic tale, story, legend”
nyarnamaitar n. “storyteller”
quenta n. “story, narrative, account, history”
quentalë n. “history, narration”
únyárima adj. “impossible to recount”

18.69 Music

#linda- v. “*to make music”
lindalë n. “music”
lindimaitar n. “composer, musician”
lingë n. “musical sound”
lingëa adj. “with a musical sound”

18.72 Harp, Lute

tanta- v. “to play a harp”
tant(il)a n. “harp”

18.73 Bell, Ringing

indyel n. “small bell”
nyellë n. “small bell”

18.74 Drum

tomba n. “[unglossed]”
tompë n. “[unglossed]”

19. Social Relations

19.14 Region, Territory

arda n. “region, realm, particular land or region”
#-ien² suf. “-land”
-ndor suf. “land, country”
turmen n. “realm”
yondë n. “region, any fairly extensive region with well-marked natural bounds”

19.17 Boundary

hahta n. “fence, hedge”
landa n. “boundary”
lantalca n. “boundary post or mark”
lanwa adj. “within bounds, limited, finite, (well-)defined”
lanya-¹ v. “to bound, enclose, separate from, mark the limit of”
pelo n. “boundary (fence)”
peltas (peltax-) n. “fence of fixed stakes, a ‘pale’”
yonda¹ adj. “enclosed”
yonwa n. “fence, border, boundary”
yor- v. “to enclose, set bounds to/about”

19.21 People, Populace

lië n. “people, folk”

19.22 a People, Nation

#aranië n. “kingdom”
nórë n. “land, country; †people, race, tribe”
#túrinasta n. “*kingdom”
#túrindië n. “*kingdom”

19.23 Tribe, Clan, Family

nos(së) n. “kindred, family”

19.31 to Rule, Govern

cunya- v. “to rule”
mahtië n. “management”
túrëa adj. “mighty, masterful”

19.32 King

aran n. “king”
aranus(së) n. “kingship”
ingaran n. “high-king”

19.33 Queen

tári n. “queen”
táris(së) n. “queenship”

19.35 Prince

aranel n. “princess”
cundo (cundu-) n. “lord, guardian”

19.352 Other Titles of Nobility

19.36 Noble, Nobleman

ar(a)- pref. “noble, high”
arandil n. “king’s friend, royalist”
arandur n. “minister, steward, (lit.) king’s servant”
arata adj. “high, noble, exalted, lofty”
aráto n. “champion, eminent man, noble, lord, king”
arquen n. “noble, knight”

19.41 Master

heru n. “lord, master”
#ortírië n. “*patronage, (lit.) watching over (from above)”
-tur suf. “master, lord, ruler”
túrin n. “lord”

19.412 Lady

#heri n. “lady”
hérincë n. “*little lady”

19.42 Slave

mól n. “slave”

19.43 Servant

-(n)dur suf. “servant; to serve”
tercáno n. “herald”

19.44 Free (adj)

latina adj. “free (of movement), not encumbered with obstacles”
lehta adj. “free, released”
léra adj. “free (of persons)”
lerina adj. “free (of things)”
lerta- v. “to be free to do”
ráva adj. “free, unfettered, uncontrolled, lawless”

19.45 to Order, Command

canwa¹ n. “announcement, order”
canya- v. “?to command”

19.48 to Compel

or- v. “to warn, urge, feel an urge/wish/desire”
ora- v. “to warn, urge, feel an urge/wish/desire”
sahta- [þ] v. “to induce”
sahtië [þ] n. “pressure or force (to do something against one’s will or conscience)”

19.51 Friend

aþumo n. “friend at need, friend with shared interests, colleague”
málo n. “friend, comrade”
#meldë n. “*friend (f.)”
#meldo n. “friend, lover”

19.52 Foe, Enemy

#cotto n. “*enemy”

19.53 Companion

satar n. “trusty follower, loyal companion”

19.54 Neighbor

armaro n. “*neighbor”

19.57 Host

alatúlië n. “welcome”
alatulya adj. “welcome”

19.58 to Help, Aid

alya- v. “to cause to prosper, bless (a work), help one”
asië [þ] n. “ease, comfort”
asya- [þ] v. “to ease, assist, comfort”
*sámo [þ] n. “helper”

19.59 to Hinder, Prevent

hranga- v. “to thwart”
nuhta- v. “to stunt, prevent from coming to completion, stop short, not allow to continue”
tapta adj. “impeded”

19.64 Common (adj)

aquapahtië n. “privacy, (lit.) *full-closedness”
ilquárëa adj. “general”
senya¹ adj. “usual”

19.65 to Meet

*omen- v. “to move to a common point, meet”
omentië n. “meeting (of pathways), (lit.) coming together of journey-path, meeting or junction of the directions of two people”
yomenië n. “meeting, gathering”

20. Warfare and Hunting

20.13 War

ohta n. “war”

20.14 Peace

rainë n. “*peace, good will”
sérë n. “*peace”
sívë² n. “peace”

20.17 Soldier

#mehtar n. “warrior”
ohtar n. “warrior”

20.20 Captain

cáno n. “commander, chief(tain), ruler, governor; †crier, herald”

20.26 Spear

hatal n. “spear”
nernehta n. “man-spearhead”

20.27 Sword

#andamacil n. “long sword”
ecet n. “short stabbing sword”
#hyando n. “cleaver”
macar n. “swordsman; †forger”
macil n. “sword, forged sword blade, cutting sword”

20.33 Helmet

ambalotsë n. “uprising-flower”
carma¹ n. “helm”
castol(o) [þ] n. “helmet”
sól [þ] n. “?helmet, ?top”
þolon n. “helmet”

20.34 Shield

#sanda [þ] n. “shield”
sandastan (sandastam-) [þ] n. “shield-barrier”

20.35 Fortress

carasse n. “built fort or dwelling surrounded by bulwarks”
minassë n. “fort, city (with a citadel and central watch tower)”
osto n. “fortress, stronghold, strong place”
turco² n. “*stronghold”

20.36 Tower

marto n. “tower”
mindë n. “turret”
mindon n. “(lofty) tower”
taras n. “great towering building (fort/city/castle), tower; mount, hill”
tarminas n. “great towering building (fort/city/castle), tower”
tirion n. “watch-tower”

20.41 Victory

#-ndacil suf. “-victor, -slayer”
tur- v. “to master, conquer, dominate, win”
turu- v. “to master, defeat, have victory over”

21. Law and Judgment

21.11 Special Law

axan n. “law, rule, commandment”
namna n. “statute”

21.16 to Judge

#ham- v. “to judge”
nam- v. “to judge”
náma n. “judgment or desire”
nav-¹ v. “to judge”
nem-¹ v. “to judge”

21.162 to Decide

cilmë n. “choice, choosing”

21.17 Judgment

námië n. “single judgment or desire”

21.18 Judge (n)

enelmo n. “go-between, intervener, intermediary, mediator”
námo² n. “judge”

21.23 Witness (n)

astarindo n. “bystander; supporter”
astarmo n. “bystander; witness”

21.25 Oath

vanda n. “oath, pledge, solemn promise”

21.39 Jail, Prison

avalerya- v. “to restrain, to deprive of liberty”
mando n. “custody, safe keeping; prison, duress”
nahta-² v. “to confine, oppress”
nasquë n. “bondage, durance”

21.395 Exile, Outlaw

#etya adj. “exiled”
hecil n. “one lost or forsaken by friends, waif, outcast, outlaw”
hecile n. “one lost or forsaken by friends, waif, outcast, outlaw (f.)”
hecilo n. “one lost or forsaken by friends, waif, outcast, outlaw (m.)”
nehtano n. “one deprived, exile whose rights and goods have been confiscated”

21.41 Crime, Misdeed

ongwë n. “crime”

22. Religion and Beliefs

22.12 God

Eru n. “The One, God”
Eruva adj. “divine”
Vala n. “(Angelic) Power, ‘God’, Authority”
vala- v. “to have [divine] power”
Valië n. “Female Vala”

22.13 Temple

ainas (*ainar-) n. “hallow, fane”

22.17 to Pray

arca- v. “*to pray, petition”
#arcandë n. “*petition”
#hyam- v. “*to pray”
#kyermë n. “prayer”
násan interj. “*amen, (lit.) may it be so”
násië interj. “*amen, (lit.) may it be so”

22.19 Holy, Sacred

aina adj. “holy, revered, numinous”
ainima adj. “blessed, holy (of things)”
aira adj. “holy, sanctified”
airë¹ (airi-) adj. and n. “holy; sanctity, holiness”
airëa adj. “holy (applied to persons)”
#airita- v. “to hallow”
aista adj. “*holy”
varanda adj. “sublime”

22.23 to Bless

aina- v. “to hallow, bless, treat as holy”
aistana adj. “*blessed”
amanya adj. “*blessed”
amatúlië n. “blessed arrival”
amatulya adj. “welcome (of something blessed)”
calambar adj. “*light-fated”
lissë² n. “grace”
mána n. “blessing, good thing”
manaitë adj. “*blessed, having grace”
manaquenta adj. “*blessed”
manna adj. “*blessed”
#manta- v. “to bless”
manya- v. “to bless”

22.24 to Curse

húna adj. “cursed, accursed”
húta- v. “to curse”
naiquet- v. “to curse or blaspheme”

22.26 to Fast

lamate n. “fasting, a fast”

22.33 Angel

Ainu n. “holy one, spirit”
Maia n. “(angelic) spirit, the Beautiful”

22.35 Demon, Evil Spirit

rauco n. “demon, powerful hostile and terrible creature”

22.37 Idol

aian n. “holy thing or object or place”

22.42 Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery

núla¹ [ñ] adj. “dark, occult, mysterious”
núlë [ñ] n. “black arts, sorcery”

22.44 Elf, Fairy

aleldarin adj. “unelvish”
aleldarinwa adj. “unElvish”
Elda n. “Elf, (lit.) one of the Star-folk”
Eldalië n. “People of the Elves, Elven-folk”
Quendë n. “Elf, (lit.) One That Speaks”
Quenderin adj. and n. “Quendian, of the Quendi, belonging to the Elves as a whole”
Sindel [þ] n. “Grey-elf”

22.441 Dryad, Nymph

#wingil (wingild-) n. “*nymph, mermaid, foam-maid”

22.442 Dwarf

Casar n. “Dwarf”
nauco n. “dwarf”
nuxo n. “Petty dwarf”

22.445 Goblin, Monster

úvanimo n. “monster, corrupt or evil creature”

22.446 Orc, Goblin

orco n. “Orc”
urco (urcu-) n. “bogey, orc”

22.447 Dragon

foalócë n. “*breath-dragon”
urulócë n. “fire-serpent, fire-drake”

22.45 Ghost, Specter, Phantom

ausa n. “dim shape, spectral or vague apparition”
fairë n. “spirit (disembodied), phantom; †radiance”
n. “spirit, shadow”
nimulë n. “phantom, a seeming”

22.47 Omen

#apacen n. “foresight, (lit.) *after-sight”
#apacenya adj. “of foresight”
umbë n. “imminence, threat; premonition, fear, unwelcome expectation”

23. Grammar

23.1 Article

article. “accusative definite article”
article. “the”

23.2 Negation

ála particle. “do not”
al(a)-¹ pref. “in-, un-, not; †-less, without”
-enca suf. “without, -less”
interj. “nay, no”
la- pref. “not, in-, un-”
lá- v. “to not be”
lá¹ adv. “no, not”
las adv. “it is/was not so”
lasir conj. “rather the reverse”
nec- pref. “without”
pen prep. “without, not having”
pen- v. “not to have”
ú prep. and adv. “without, destitute of”
ú- pref. “no, not, un-, in-; hard, difficult, bad, uneasy; hardly, with difficulty, ‘badly’”
ua- v. “to not be, to not do”
ui adv. “no, it is n[ot]”
ui- v. “to not be, to not do”
uito interj. “it is not that”
úna¹ adj. “deprived of, destitute, forlorn”
úna² ? “*it is not”
únat n. “thing impossible to be or to be done”
úsië conj. “on the contrary”
úsir conj. “on the contrary”
interj. and adv. “will not, do not, shall not”

23.3 Preposition

atar² prep. “*for”
ier prep. “*as”
meter prep. “*for (the purpose of), towards the end”
prep. “touching, against, on (above but touching); as regards, concerning”
rá² prep. “*for, on behalf of”
se² prep. “at, in”
sívë¹ prep. “*as”
tambë prep. “*as, so”
tenna¹ prep. “until, up to, as far as, to the point, to reach”
tier prep. “*so”
ve¹ prep. “as, like, similar, after the manner [of]”

23.4 Pronoun

aiquen pron. “if anybody, whoever”
-cca suf. “your (dual)”
-ccë suf. “you (dual)”
e pron. “one, (neut[er]) it, a thing”
?elmë pron. “we (emphatic inclusive), *we (emphatic exclusive)”
elvë pron. “we (emphatic inclusive)”
elyë pron. “thou (emphatic polite)”
emmë¹ pron. “we (emphatic exclusive), *we (dual emphatic exclusive)”
eo pron. “person, somebody (unnamed)”
esto pron. “they (dual emphatic)”
pron. “who, what, which, that”
ilcë pron. “you (plural emphatic)”
-ilco suf. “you (dual)”
imlë pron. “yourself (polite)”
immë¹ pron. “ourselves (exclusive)”
immë² pron. “ourselves (dual, emphatic)”
immo pron. “same one (person), self”
imni pron. “myself”
indë pron. “yourselves”
inquë pron. “thou-and-I (emphatic)”
insa pron. “itself”
insë pron. “himself, herself”
intë¹ pron. “themselves”
intë² pron. “they (emphatic)”
intyë pron. “yourself (familiar)”
inwë pron. “ourselves (inclusive)”
inyë pron. “I (emphatic)”
issë pron. “he, *she, it (emphatic)”
-lda¹ suf. “your (plural)”
-lda² suf. “your (dual)”
-ldë¹ suf. “you (plural)”
le pron. “you (plural)”
-lla¹ suf. “your (plural polite)”
-llë² suf. “you (plural)”
-lma¹ suf. “our (exclusive)”
-lma² suf. “our (inclusive)”
-lma³ suf. “our (inclusive dual)”
-lmë¹ suf. “we (exclusive)”
-lmë² suf. “we (inclusive)”
-lta suf. “theirs”
-ltë suf. “they”
-lva suf. “our (inclusive)”
-lvë suf. “we (inclusive)”
-lya¹ suf. “your (polite)”
-l(yë) suf. “you (polite)”
lye pron. “you (polite)”
ma¹ pron. “something, a thing, anything”
me pron. “us (exclusive)”
menya pron. “*our (exclusive)”
-mma¹ suf. “our (exclusive dual)”
-mma² suf. “our (exclusive)”
-mmë¹ suf. “we (exclusive dual)”
-mmë² suf. “we (exclusive)”
-mmo suf. “we (exclusive dual)”
mo pron. “one, anyone, someone, somebody”
-nca suf. “your (plural familiar)”
-ncë suf. “you (plural familiar)”
-ngo suf. “we (inclusive dual)”
-ngwa suf. “our (inclusive dual)”
-ngwë suf. “we (inclusive dual)”
ni pron. “me, I”
-nquë suf. “thou-and-I (dual)”
-nta¹ suf. “their”
-nta² suf. “their”
-ntë suf. “they”
-ntyë suf. “you (plural familiar)”
-nya suf. “my”
-n(yë) suf. “I”
-rya¹ suf. “his, her, its”
-rya² suf. “their (colloquial)”
sa¹ pron. “it (inanimate); that”
sana adj. “that very thing (already referred to)”
se¹ pron. “he, she, it (animate)”
si¹ adj. and pron. “this”
sina adj. “this”
sítë adj. “of this sort”
-s(sa) suf. “3rd person singular neuter”
-s(së) suf. “he, she, it; him, her, it”
-ssë³ suf. “himself, *herself, itself”
-sta³ suf. “your (dual)”
-sta⁴ suf. “their (dual)”
-s(të) suf. “3rd person singular animate”
-stë¹ suf. “you (dual)”
-t² suf. “they (object suffix)”
ta¹ pron. “that, there”
tai¹ pron. “them (inanimate)”
taitë adj. “of that sort”
tallë adv. “like that”
tama n. “that matter”
tana adj. and pron. “that”
tanen adv. “in that way”
te pron. “them”
-ttë¹ suf. “they (dual)”
-ttë² suf. “themselves”
tu pron. “them (dual)”
-twa suf. “their (dual)”
-tya suf. “your (familiar)”
-tyë suf. “you (familiar)”
tye pron. “you (familiar), thee”
ve² pron. “us (inclusive)”
ya pron. “which, that (relative pronoun)”
-ya³ suf. “his, her, its (colloquial)”
yallë adv. “as, in the same way as, like”
ye pron. “who”

23.5 Noun Inflection

-i¹ suf. “general plural for nouns”
-ië¹ suf. “abstract noun, adverb”
-lë suf. “abstract noun, adverb”
-li suf. “partitive plural (suffix); many, some, a lot of”
#-më suf. “abstract noun”
-n² suf. “dative”
-ndon suf. “-like, -ily”
-nen suf. “instrumental”
-nna suf. “(movement) to, towards, onto, at (arriving at a point); allative suffix”
-o suf. “of; genitive ending”
-r¹ suf. “plural suffix”
#-rë suf. “abstract noun”
-ssë¹ suf. “locative ending”
#-ssë² suf. “abstract noun”
-t¹ suf. “dual ending”
-u suf. “dual ending”
-va suf. “possessive or adjectival ending”

23.6 Verb Inflection

#a- pref. “infinitive prefix”
á particle. “imperative particle”
-ëa¹ suf. “continuative present”
-i² suf. “simplest aorist infinitive”
-ië² suf. “gerund suffix, -ing”
-ië³ suf. “perfect suffix”
-(i)la suf. “active participle”
-ina suf. “adjective suffix; passive participle”
-ita suf. “particular infinitive”
-lya² suf. “imperfect participle”
-mie suf. “a single action”
-nwa suf. “passive suffix; active participle (intransitive verbs)”
#-sta² suf. “verbal noun suffix”
*-ula suf. “likelihood or aptitude”
-uva suf. “future tense suffix”
-xë¹ suf. “reflexive verbal inflection”

23.7 Comparative, Intensive

an- pref. “intensive prefix”
ar(i)- pref. “superlative prefix; good”
#-incë suf. “diminutive ending”
íta² adv. “very, extremely; (lit.) multiplied, increased”
langë adv. “surpassingly, superlatively, extremely”
-lda³ suf. “a comparative suffix”
na-¹ pref. “plu-”
#-on suf. “augmentative, great”

23.8 Conjunction

an conj. and adv. “for, but, then, or; moreover, furthermore”
apa³ conj. “but”
hela conj. “*other than”
hya¹ conj. “or”
ita conj. “that which, what”
itas adv. “in that case”
lan conj. “*while”
laqui conj. “unless”
mal conj. “but”
ono conj. “but”
pan conj. “*since”
san conj. and adv. “*then, so, thus”
sinen adv. “by this means, so”
ta³ adv. and conj. “so, like that, also; and also, then”
conj. “when”
yan conj. and adv. “*as”

23.9 Affix

#-a suf. “adjectival suffix”
ana-¹ pref. “to, towards”
-da suf. “product of an action”
-e suf. “plural of adjectives”
-ëa² suf. “ordinal suffix”
-ma suf. “instrumental”
-ta suf. “causative verb suffix”
-tië suf. “verbal suffix”
-vë suf. “abstract noun, adverb”
-wë suf. “name-suffix (often masculine)”
-ya¹ suf. “adjective suffix”
-ya² suf. “suffix of endearment”
-ya⁴ suf. “verbal suffix”

23.99 Grammar (other)

mestanyatsë n. “suffixion”
minquetyarmë n. “accentuation”
mittandë n. “infixion, intrusion”
tengwesta n. “grammar, morphology, system or code of signs, collection of matter concerning writing, *language structure”