Quenya Semantic Categories



1. Physical World

1.1 World

Ambar n. “The World, Earth, (lit.) Habitation”

1.12 Universe

n. “Creation, the (Material) Universe, Cosmos, World; let it be, what is”

1.21 Earth, Land

cemen n. “the Earth; earth”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

ambo n. “hill, rising ground, mount”
ambuna adj. “hilly”
coron n. “mound”

1.24 Dale, Valley

(a)nacca n. “narrows, defile, pass, cut”
cirya² n. “cleft, pass”

1.32 Sea

airë² n. “sea”
ëar n. “sea, great sea”
eäron n. “ocean, great sea”

1.33 Lake, Pond

ailin n. “a large lake”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

celumë n. “flowing, flood (tide), stream”

1.37 Spring, Well

celussë n. “freshnet, water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring”
ehtelë n. “spring, issue of water”

1.52 Sun

Anar n. “Sun”
árë (ári-) n. “sunlight, warmth (especially of the sun); day”
arma n. “ray of sunlight”

1.54 Star

él n. “star”
elen n. “star”
elenya adj. “adjective referring to the stars, *of the stars, stellar”
elvëa adj. “starlike”

1.61 Light

alca- v. “to glitter”
cala n. “light”
cálë n. “light”

1.99 Physical World (other)

#caraxë n. “*jagged hedge of spikes”

2. Mankind

2.1 Human Being

Atan n. “Man, (lit.) the Second (People)”

2.35 Father

atar¹ n. “father”
atto n. “daddy, father (familiar/family)”
atya¹ n. “daddy, (my) father”

2.36 Mother

amil(lë) n. “mother”
amya n. “mummy, (orig.) my mother”
emmë² n. “mummy, mother (familiar/family)”

2.41 Son

yondo n. “son, boy”

2.42 Daughter

anel n. “daughter”

3. Animals

3.11 Animal

#celva n. “animal, living thing that moves”

3.18 Herdsman

emerwen n. “shepherdess”

3.64 Bird

aiwë n. “(small) bird”
#cirincë n. “scarlet-plumed species of bird”

3.86 Swan

alqua n. “swan”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.16 Bone

axo¹ n. “bone”

4.20 Head

cas (car-) n. “head”

4.204 Face

#canwa² n. “face”
cendelë n. “face”

4.207 Jaw

anca n. “jaws”

4.22 Ear

hlas (hlar-) n. “ear”

4.24 Mouth

anto n. “mouth”
carpa n. “(entire) mouth; phonetic system”

4.27 Tooth

carca n. “fang; [sharp] rock”

4.28 Neck

axë n. “neck, rock ridge”

4.332 Hand (other)

ataformaitë adj. “ambidextrous”
atamaitë adj. “two-handed”
#cambë n. “(hollow of) hand”

4.63 to Wake

cuivië¹ n. “awakening”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

coirëa adj. “living”
coiv(i)ë n. “life”

4.81 Strong, Mighty, Powerful

astalda adj. “strong, *valiant”

4.84 Sick; Sickness

#engwa adj. “sickly”

4.86 to Cure, Heal

#envinyata- v. “to renew, heal”

4.88 Medicine, Drug

asëa [þ] n. “healing herb, athelas”
asëa aranion [þ] n. “kingsfoil, asëa of the Kings”

5. Food and Drink

5.35 Cup

cilinyul n. “drinking-vessel (made of glass)”

5.51 Bread

coimas n. “life-bread, lembas”
lerembas n. “bread taken on leaving home (for a long journey)”

6. Clothing and Adornment

6.41 Cloak

collo n. “cloak”

6.71 Adornment (personal)

carrëa n. “tressure”

6.73 Finger Ring

#corma n. “ring”

6.96 Mirror

cilintilla n. “looking-glass”

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.12 House

coa n. “house; outhouse, shed, hut, booth; building used for a dwelling or other purposes; †body”

7.22 Door, Gate

ando n. “gate, (great) door; †entrances, approaches”

7.45 Lamp

calma n. “lamp, (device for shining) light”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.31 to Sow; Seed

ala-¹ v. “to plant, grow”
erdë n. “singularity”

8.33 Scythe, Sickle

circa n. “sickle”

8.57 Flower

alalbë n. “inflorescence”
alalmë n. “inflorescence”
alba n. “flower”
alma n. “flower”

8.60 Tree (generic)

alalvëa adj. “having many elms”
alda n. “tree”
aldarembina adj. “tree-meshed”
aldinga n. “tree-top”
alvë n. “elm”
culumalda n. “laburnum, *(lit.) orange-tree”

8.68 Tobacco

alanessë n. “nicotiana, pipeweed”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

car- v. “to do, make”
carda n. “deed”
#carë n. “action, doing, making”
carina adj. “done”
#-carya suf. “doing”

9.14 to Bend

cúna adj. “bent, curved”
cúna- v. “to bend”

9.22 to Cut

#aucir- v. “to cut off (and get rid of or lose a portion)”

9.41 Craft, Trade

curu n. “skill”
curwë n. “skill of the hand, technical skill and invention”

9.412 Art

carmë n. “art; making, production; structure”

9.422 Tool

carma² n. “tool, implement, means, weapon”
curo (curu-) n. “skillful (?device)”
tamma n. “tool”

9.44 to Build

carasta- v. “to build”
cat- v. “to shape, fashion”

9.66 Copper, Bronze

calarus (calarust-) n. “polished copper”

9.67 Iron

anga n. “iron”

9.74 Glass

cilin n. “glass”

9.87 Painting, Picture

emma n. “*picture”

9.96 Easy

as(a)- [þ] pref. “easily”
asalastë [þ] adj. “easily heard”
asanótë [þ] adj. “*easily counted”
ascénima [þ] adj. “visible, easily seen”
asra [þ] adj. “?easy”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.22 to Lift, Raise

#amorta- v. “to heave”

10.23 to Fall

atalantë n. “collapse, downfall”
atalantëa adj. “ruinous, downfallen”

10.48 to Come

#entul- v. “to come again, *return”
*ettul- v. “to come out, issue”

10.49 to Depart, Go Away

auta-¹ v. “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
#cir- v. “to cut”
vanya- v. “to pass”

10.61 to Bear, Carry

#col- v. “to bear, carry, wear”
#colindo n. “bearer”
colla adj. and n. “borne, worn; vestment, cloak”

10.81 Ship

cirya¹ n. and adj. “(sharp-prowed) ship; swift gliding”

10.82 Sailor

ciryamo n. “mariner”
ciryando n. “sailor”
ciryaquen n. “shipman, sailor”

11. Possession and Trade

11.21 to Give

anna n. “gift, (orig.) thing handed, brought or sent to a person”
anta- v. “to give, present; †to add to”

11.24 to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe

etelehta- v. “*to deliver”
eterúna- v. “*to deliver”

11.31 to Seek

ces- [þ] v. “to search, examine (in order to find something)”
cesta- [þ] v. “to seek, search for; to ask”

11.48 Heir

atamir n. “heirloom”

11.57 Thief

arpo n. “seizer, thief”

12. Spatial Relations

12.14 to Lie, Recline

caita-¹ v. “to lie (down)”

12.21 to Gather, Collect

comya- v. “to collect”
conta- v. “[unglossed]”

12.25 to Shut, Close

avalatya- v. “to close, shut”

12.37 Middle

#endëa adj. “middle”
entya adj. “central, middle”

12.38 Center

enda n. “heart; center”
endë n. “centre, middle”

12.392 Out, Outside

#ava¹ adv. and adj. “*outer”
et prep. “out (of)”
#et(e)- pref. “*out”

12.394 Up, Above, Over

#am- pref. “up”
amba¹ adv. “up(wards)”

12.397 Beyond

ambela adv. “further still beyond, far away beyond”

12.398 To, Towards

an(a) prep. “to, towards, to a point near, alongside”
ana-¹ pref. “to, towards”

12.399 From, Away

au- pref. “away (from)”
au¹ adv. “away, off, not here (of position)”

12.43 Near (adj)

am(be)na adv. “nearer to”

12.44 Far (adj)

en adv. “then soon”

12.46 West

andúna adj. “western”

12.51 Form, Shape (n)

canta- v. “to shape”
canta² n. “shape, framework”

12.56 Small, Little

cinta adj. “small”

12.57 Long

anda adj. “long, far”
andavë adv. “long, at great length”

12.75 Hook, Crook

ampa n. “hook”

12.93 to Change

#ahya- v. “to change”

13. Quantity and Number

13.13 Whole

aqua adv. “fully, completely, altogether, wholly”

13.16 More

amba² adj. and n. “more”
ambë adv. “more”
arta¹ adv. “etcetera”
enta adj. “another, one more”

13.21 Full

ataquanta- v. “*to refill, fill a second time, double fill”
enquanta- v. “to refill”

13.22 Empty

-enca suf. “without, -less”

13.25 Fraction, Division

caista fraction. “one tenth”

13.31 Numerals

atatya adj. “double”
atta num. card. “two”
attëa num. ord. “second”
canta¹ num. card. “four”
cantëa num. ord. “fourth”
enquë num. card. “six”
enquëa num. ord. “sixth”

13.33 Alone, Only

er adj. and adv. “one, alone”
#eressë n. “solitude”
eressëa adj. “lonely”
erinqua adj. “single, alone”

13.34 First

eteminya adj. “prominent”

14. Time

14.13 New

ceura adj. “renewed”

14.35 Again

at(a)- pref. “double, second time”
en- pref. “re-, again”

14.37 After

apa¹ pref. “after (of time)”
epë prep. “after (of time), following; before (in all relations but time)”
opo prep. “before, in front (of place); after (of time)”

14.41 Day

aurë n. “day (as opposed to night), daylight, sunlight”

14.43 Dawn

amaurëa n. “dawn, early day”
ambarónë n. “dawn”

14.462 Dusk

andúnë n. “sunset, evening, (orig.) going down; west”

14.61 Week

enquië n. “Elvish week of six days”

14.62 Sunday

Anarya n. “Sunday, (lit.) Sun-day”

14.64 Tuesday

Aldëa n. “*Tuesday, Tree-day (Númenórean)”
Aldúya n. “*Tuesday, Day of the Two Trees”

14.68 Saturday

Elenya n. “Saturday, Star-day*”

14.71 Month

asta n. “month; division, part (esp. one of other equal parts)”

14.72 Names of the Months

Cermië n. “July”

14.73 Year

coranar (coranár-) n. “(solar) year, (lit.) sun-round”

14.75 Spring

coirë n. “stirring, early spring; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] life”

14.99 Time (other)

andanéya adv. “long ago, once upon a time”
asar [þ] n. “fixed time, festival”
ceuranar n. “new sun after solstice”
en(a) adv. “still”

15. Sense Perception

15.442 Phonetic

calmatéma n. “k-series”

15.51 to See

cen- v. “to see, behold, look”
cénima adj. “visible”

15.52 to Look

#cenda n. “inspection, reading”
cenda- v. “to watch (intensively), observe (for some time); to read”
ecces- [þ] v. “to find out, bring out by examining or eyeing[?]”

15.56 to Shine, Glisten

#cal- v. “to shine”
#calta- v. “to kindle”

15.57 Bright

calima adj. “bright, luminous”
calina adj. “light, bright, sunny, (lit.) illumined”

15.66 Red

carnë (carni-) adj. “red, scarlet”

15.78 Sharp

aica adj. “fell, terrible, dire”

15.85 Hot, Warm

asta- v. “to heat, bake (by exposure to sun)”

16. Emotion

16.11 Soul, Spirit

coacalina n. “light of the house, indwelling spirit”

16.18 Good Fortune

almë n. “good (or blessed) thing, blessing, piece of good fortune”
alya adj. “fair, good”

16.22 Joy

alassë n. “happiness”

16.24 Happy; Happiness

al(a)-² pref. “well, happily”

16.43 Rage, Fury

aha n. “rage”

16.47 Fame, Glory

alcar n. “glory, splendour, radiance, brilliance”
alcarin(qua) adj. “glorious, brilliant”

16.53 Fear, Fright

áya n. “awe”

16.622 Desire

cilmë n. “choice, choosing”

16.63 Hope (n)

estel n. “hope, trust, *faith”

16.65 Faithful

astar n. “faith, loyalty”

16.69 to Forgive

#apsen- v. “to remit, release, forgive”
#avatyar- v. “*to forgive, (lit.) do away with”

16.71 Good

alacarna adj. “well-done, well-made”
alahasta adj. “unmarred”
alamen n. “good omen on departure”
alatúlië n. “welcome”
alatulya- v. “to welcome”
amatúlië n. “blessed arrival”
amatulya- v. “to welcome (of something blessed)”
arya adj. “excelling, *better”
arya- v. “to excel”

16.99 Emotion (other)

awalda adj. “move[d], stirred, excited”
faila adj. “fair-minded, just, generous”

17. Mind and Thought

17.22 Stupid, Foolish

alasaila adj. “unwise”

17.31 to Remember

#enyal- v. “to recall”
#enyalië n. “memory, (lit.) recalling”

17.99 Mind and Thought (other)

cesya- [þ] v. “to cause interest, interest (oneself), (lit.) to cause one to enquire”

18. Language and Music

18.14 Various Cries

ai¹ interj. “ah, alas”
aiya interj. “hail; behold, lo”
alla interj. “welcome, hail”
ela interj. “behold!”

18.21 to Speak, Talk

carpa- v. “to talk, speak, use tongue”

18.22 to Say

ataquetië n. “saying again, repetition”
enquet- v. “to repeat, say again”
equë v. “say, says, said”
eques (equess-) n. “saying, (current or proverbial) dictum, quotation from someone’s uttered words, *quote”

18.24 Language

carpassë n. “mouth-system; full organized language, including system, vocabulary, metre, etc.”
Eldarin adj. and n. “of the Eldar; Elvish (language)”

18.28 Name

#amilessë n. “mother-name”
anessë n. “given (or added) name, nickname, surname”
epessë n. “after-name”
essë¹ n. “name”

18.37 to Refuse

apta- v. “to refuse, deny, say nay”
avá (áva-) particle. “don’t, negative imperative”
ava-¹ v. “to refuse, forbid”
ava-² pref. “negation (refusing or forbidden)”

18.38 to Forbid

avanwa adj. “refused, forbidden, banned”
avanyárima adj. “unspeakable, what one must not tell, not to be told or related”
avaquétima adj. “not to be said, that must not be said”

18.52 to Read

ethenta- v. “to read aloud”

18.53 Letter of the Alphabet

andatehta n. “long-mark”
certa n. “rune”

18.54 Letter, Epistle

centa n. “enquiry, *essay”

19. Social Relations

19.11 Country ('European')

#aranië n. “kingdom”
#túrinasta n. “*kingdom”
#túrindië n. “*kingdom”

19.14 Region, Territory

arda n. “region, realm, particular land or region”

19.31 to Rule, Govern

cunya- v. “to rule”

19.32 King

aran n. “king”
aranus(së) n. “kingship”

19.35 Prince

aranel n. “princess”
cundo (cundu-) n. “lord, guardian”

19.36 Noble, Nobleman

ar(a)- pref. “noble, high”
arandil n. “king’s friend, royalist”
arandur n. “minister, steward, (lit.) king’s servant”
arata adj. “high, noble, exalted, lofty”
aráto n. “champion, eminent man, noble, lord, king”
arquen n. “noble, knight”

19.45 to Order, Command

canwa¹ n. “announcement, order”
canya- v. “?to command”

19.52 Foe, Enemy

#cotto n. “*enemy”

19.58 to Help, Aid

alya- v. “to cause to prosper, bless (a work), help one”
asië [þ] n. “ease, comfort”
asya- [þ] v. “to ease, assist, comfort”

20. Warfare and Hunting

20.20 Captain

cáno n. “commander, chief(tain), ruler, governor; †crier, herald”

20.27 Sword

#andamacil n. “long sword”
ecet n. “short stabbing sword”

20.33 Helmet

ambalotsë n. “uprising-flower”
carma¹ n. “helm”
castol(o) [þ] n. “helmet”

20.34 Shield

cauma n. “protection, shelter, shield”

20.35 Fortress

carasse n. “built fort or dwelling surrounded by bulwarks”

20.41 Victory

#-ndacil suf. “-victor, -slayer”

21. Law and Judgment

21.11 Special Law

axan n. “law, rule, commandment”

21.23 Witness (n)

astarindo n. “bystander; supporter”
astarmo n. “bystander; witness”

21.37 Penalty, Punishment

21.39 Jail, Prison

avalerya- v. “to restrain, to deprive of liberty”

22. Religion and Beliefs

22.12 God

Eru n. “The One, God”
Eruva adj. “divine”

22.13 Temple

ainas n. “hallow, fane”

22.19 Holy, Sacred

aina adj. “holy, revered, numinous”
ainima adj. “blessed, holy (of things)”
aira adj. “holy, sanctified”
airë¹ (airi-) adj. and n. “holy; sanctity, holiness”
airëa adj. “holy (applied to persons)”
#airita- v. “to hallow”

22.23 to Bless

aina- v. “to hallow, bless, treat as holy”
amanya adj. “*blessed”
calambar adj. “*light-fated”
manaitë adj. “*blessed, having grace”

22.33 Angel

Ainu n. “holy one, spirit”

22.37 Idol

aian n. “holy thing or object or place”

22.44 Elf, Nymph, Fairy

Casar n. “dwarf”
Elda n. “Elf, (lit.) one of the Star-folk”
Eldalië n. “People of the Elves, Elven-folk”

22.45 Ghost, Specter, Phantom

ausa n. “dim shape, spectral or vague apparition”

23. Grammar

23.3 Preposition

an conj. and adv. “for, but, then, or; moreover, furthermore”
ar(a) prep. and adv. “beside, next [to]; out”
#as prep. “with”
#ca prep. “behind, at back of place”
#ó prep. “with”

23.4 Pronoun

-cca suf. “your (dual)”
-ccë suf. “you (dual)”
?elmë pron. “we (emphatic inclusive), *we (emphatic exclusive)”
elvë pron. “we (emphatic inclusive)”
elyë pron. “thou (emphatic polite)”
emmë¹ pron. “we (emphatic exclusive), *we (dual emphatic exclusive)”
esto pron. “they (dual emphatic)”
issë pron. “he, *she, it (emphatic)”

23.7 Comparative, Intensive

an- pref. “intensive prefix”

23.8 Conjunction

ar conj. “and”

23.9 Affix

ar- pref. “by-, beside, near”
-da suf. “product of an action”
-e suf. “plural of adjectives”
-ëa² suf. “ordinal suffix”