Quenya Semantic Categories



1. Physical World

1.1 World

Ambar n. “The World, Earth, (lit.) Habitation”

1.12 Universe

n. “Creation, the (Material) Universe, Cosmos, World; let it be, what is”
ilu n. “everything, all, the whole; universe, world”
ilúvë n. “the whole, the all, allness”

1.21 Earth, Land

cemen n. “the Earth; earth”
#-ien² suf. “-land”
nór n. “land”

1.214 Mud, Mire

maxo n. “mire”
motto n. “fen, marsh”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

ambo n. “hill, rising ground, mount”
ambuna adj. “hilly”
coron n. “mound”
hamna n. “pile, (artificial) mound”
ingor n. “summit of a mountain”
luppo n. “clumsy piece or lump”
#oroman n. “mountain dweller”
oron (oront-) n. “mountain”
orotinga n. “mountain-top”
orto n. “mount, mountain, hill”
penda adj. “sloping down, (steeply) inclined”
pendë n. “steep incline, hill side”
quín(ë) n. “crest, ridge”
quinna adj. “crested”
taniquelassë n. “*high-white-leaf”
umbo(n) n. “hill, lump, clump, mass”

1.24 Dale, Valley

(a)nacca n. “narrows, defile, pass, cut”
cirya² n. “cleft, pass”
imbë² n. “deep valley, wide ravine”
nan(do) n. “(wide) valley, vale”
rissë n. “?cleft, ravine”
tumba adj. “deep valley”
tumbo (tumbu-) n. “deep vale, valley”

1.25 Isle, Island

#lónë¹ n. “*isle”
nortil n. “cape (of land)”
tol (toll-) n. “island, (steep) isle”

1.27 Shore, Beach

falassë n. “(wave-beaten) shore, seashore, line of surf”
hresta n. “beach, shore”

1.31 Water

hloa n. “fenland”
nén n. “water”
yulunefítë adj. “amphibious”

1.32 Sea

airë² n. “sea”
airon n. “ocean”
ëar n. “sea, great sea”
eäron n. “ocean, great sea”
luimë n. “flood, floodwater, flooded land; flood tide, high tide”
váya n. “ocean, sea”

1.33 Lake, Pond

ailin n. “a large lake”
lón(a) n. “(deep) pool, mere, river-feeding well”
nendë n. “lake”

1.35 Wave, Surge

falasta- v. “to foam, surge”
falma n. “(crested or foaming) wave, breaker”
vaire adj. “?wavy”
wingë n. “foam, spindrift, spray”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

celumë n. “flowing, flood (tide), stream”
-(n)duinë suf. “(large) river”
sír(ë) (síri-) n. “river”

1.37 Spring, Well

celussë n. “freshnet, water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring”
ehtelë n. “spring, issue of water”

1.41 Woods, Forest

taurë n. “forest, (great) wood”
#taurëa adj. “forested”

1.43 Wood, Timber

lepetta n. “Gondorian hardwood”
tauca adj. “stiff, wooden”
toa n. “wood (as material)”
toina adj. “wood”

1.44 Rock, Stone

ondo n. “stone (as a material), (large mass of) rock”
#sar (sard-) n. “stone (small)”
sarnië n. “shingle, pebble bank”
#sinca n. and adj. “flint”
sincahonda adj. “flint-hearted”

1.46 Cave

felco n. “cave, mine, underground dwelling”
felya n. “mine, boring, tunnel, underground dwel[ling]”
hróta n. “dwelling underground, artificial cave or rockhewn hall”
rotto n. “tunnel, small grot”

1.51 Sky, Heavens

fanyarë n. “the skies”
menel n. “the heavens, firmament, sky”

1.52 Sun

Anar n. “Sun”
árë (ári-) n. “sunlight, warmth (especially of the sun); day”
arma n. “ray of sunlight”

1.53 Moon

ceuran n. “new-moon”
Isil [þ] n. “Moon, (lit.) Sheen”
isilmë [þ] n. “moonlight”
Rána n. “Moon, (lit.) Wayward”

1.54 Star

él n. “star”
elen n. “star”
elenya adj. “adjective referring to the stars, *of the stars, stellar”
elvëa adj. “starlike”
meneldil n. “astronomer, (lit.) *lover of the heavens”
nillë¹ [ñ] n. “silver glint; Valinorian imagines [images of real stars]”
tinwë n. “spark, [apparent] star”

1.542 Starlight

silmë n. “starlight”

1.56 Noise, Thunder

rávë n. “roaring noise”
rávëa adj. “roaring”

1.61 Light

alca- v. “to glitter”
cala n. “light”
cálë n. “light”

1.62 Darkness

huinë n. “gloom, darkness, deep shadow; night shade”
lúmë² n. “darkness”

1.622 Dark, Murky

lilómëa adj. “very dark, full of darkness”
lumba adj. “gloomy”
lúna adj. “*dark”
morë (mori-) adj. and n. “dark, black; darkness, night”
úcalima adj. “dim, murky”

1.63 Shade, Shadow

hala n. “cast shadow”
#lómëa adj. “shadowed, gloomy”
lumbulë n. “dark shadow, heavy shadow; deep in shadow”

1.71 Air, Ether

#nefítë adj. “air-breathing”
vilya n. “air, sky”

1.72 Wind

n. “(sound of) wind”
súrë (súri-) [þ] n. “wind, breeze”
vailë n. “wind”
vailima adj. “windy”

1.722 Storm

raumo n. “(noise of a) storm”

1.723 Breeze

hwesta n. “breeze”

1.73 Cloud, Mirk

lumbo n. “cloud; gloom, dark, shade”

1.74 Mist, Fog, Haze

#hísë (hísi-) [þ] n. “mist”
hísië [þ] n. “mist, mistiness”

1.75 Rain (n)

mistë n. “drizzle”
#rossë n. “rain; foam”
#ul- v. “to rain”
ulo n. “rain”

1.76 Snow (n)

hrissë n. “fall of snow”
hristil n. “snow (?peak)”
hrisya- [þ] v. “to snow (impersonal)”
†#hriz- v. “to snow”
lossë¹ n. and adj. “snow, fallen snow; snow-white, snowy”
lossëa adj. “snowy, (snow) white”
#nieninquë n. “snowdrop”
nieninquëa adj. “like a snowdrop”

1.77 Ice, Frost

niquessë n. “frost-patterns; snowflake, ice-flake, (lit.) ”
niquis (niquiss-) n. “ice-flake, snowflake; petal (loose) of a white flower”
nixë n. “frost; ice-flake or snow-flake”

1.772 to Freeze

nicu- v. “to snow, freeze, be cold (of weather), be chill”

1.81 Fire (n)

(apa)ruivë n. “wild fire”
nár n. “fire (as an element)”
ruina adj. “blazing, fiery”
ruinë n. “fire, blaze”

1.82 Flame (n)

fá¹ n. “*flame, ray of light”
rúnya n. “red flame”

1.83 Smoke (n)

usquë n. “dusk, dim light; reek”

1.86 to Light, Kindle

lacalima adj. “not possible to be kindled (made to shine)”
**lacaltaima adj. “not possible to be kindled”
tinta- v. “to kindle, cause to spark”

1.99 Physical World (other)

#caraxë n. “*jagged hedge of spikes”

2. Mankind

2.1 Human Being

Atan n. “Man, (lit.) the Second (People)”
firya adj. “mortal; human”
námo¹ n. “person, somebody (unnamed)”
nassë n. “nature, true-being, *essence; person, individual”
návë n. “being”
quén (quen-) n. “person, individual, man or woman, one, somebody”

2.21 Man

nér (ner-) n. “man, male person”
nercë n. “little man”
nerdo n. “large, strong man”

2.22 Woman

#nillë² (nill-) n. “small [woman]”
nís (niss-) n. “woman”
nisto n. “large woman”

2.24 Female

-ien¹ suf. “feminine ending; feminine patronymic, -daughter”
-issë suf. “ending in feminine names”

2.25 Boy

yonyo n. “boy, son (diminutive)”

2.26 Girl

nettë n. “(little) girl, daughter, sister (diminutive), pretty little thing”
riel(lë) n. “garlanded maiden, maiden crowned with a festive garland”
vénë adj. “virginity; *virgin”
#vénëa n. “*virginal”
wendë n. “maiden, *virgin”
wendelë n. “maidenhood”

2.27 Child

hína (hín-) n. “child”
hindë n. “[unglossed]”
hindo n. “[unglossed]”
onna n. “child”
onya n. “my child”
winima adj. “childish”

2.28 Infant

hinyë n. “baby”
winë n. “baby, little-one, child not yet full grown”
winimo n. “baby, little-one”

2.31 Husband

veru n. “husband”

2.32 Wife

indis (indiss-) n. “wife”
veri n. “wife”

2.33 to Wed, Marry

verta- v. “to give in marriage (a) to (b), take as husband or wife (to oneself)”
verya- v. “to marry (of husband and wife), be joined to”

2.34 Wedding, Marriage

veryanwë n. “*wedding”

2.35 Father

atar¹ n. “father”
atto n. “daddy, father (familiar/family)”
atya¹ n. “daddy, (my) father”
#tata n. “*daddy”

2.36 Mother

amil(lë) n. “mother”
amya n. “mummy, (orig.) my mother”
emmë² n. “mummy, mother (familiar/family)”
ontari(l) n. “*mother, (lit.) genetrix”

2.37 Parent(s)

#nostar n. “begetter, parent”

2.41 Son

anon n. “son”
-ion suf. “-son, masculine patronymic”
yondo n. “son, boy”

2.42 Daughter

anel n. “daughter”
-iel suf. “feminine suffix; -daughter”
seldë n. “daughter”
selyë n. “daughter (diminutive)”
yeldë n. “daughter”

2.44 Brother

hanno n. “brother (diminutive)”
háno n. “brother”

2.45 Sister

nésa [þ] n. “sister”

2.57 Descendant(s)

ontalë n. “descent”

3. Animals

3.11 Animal

#celva n. “animal, living thing that moves”
#cuima n. “creature, animal”
hravan n. “wild beast”
laman (lamn-) n. “animal”
vëo n. “living creature”

3.18 Herdsman

#emer- v. “?to herd (sheep)”
emerwen n. “shepherdess”

3.21 Bull

mundo n. “bull, ox”

3.25 Sheep

máma n. “sheep”
mamil n. “*mummy”

3.41 Horse (generic)

rocco n. “horse”

3.61 Dog

n. “hound (or ?heart)”
roa n. “dog”

3.63 Mouse

peccuvo n. “squirrel, (lit.) nut-hider”

3.64 Bird

aimenal n. “lark”
aiwë n. “(small) bird”
#cirincë n. “scarlet-plumed species of bird”
filincë n. “finch”
lirulin n. “lark”
lómelindë n. “nightingale, (lit.) dusk-singer”
maiwë n. “gull”
quáco n. “crow”
soron [þ] n. “eagle”

3.65 Fish (n)

?fanto n. “whale”

3.71 Wolf

nauro [ñ] n. “werewolf, wolf (not wild wolves)”

3.72 Lion

rá¹ (ráv-) n. “lion”
rauro n. “lion”

3.74 Fox

rusco (ruscu-) n. “fox”
ruscuitë adj. “foxy”

3.79 to Hunt

fara- v. “to hunt”
faralë n. “hunting”

3.81 Insect

n. “small insect”
ungwë n. “spider’s web”
wilwarin (wilwarind-) n. “butterfly”
wilwarindëa adj. “like a butterfly”

3.83 Fly (n)

pupso n. “large fly”

3.85 Snake

(h)lócë n. “snake, serpent, reptile, worm”
leuca n. “snake”

3.86 Swan

alqua n. “swan”

3.99 Animals (other)

quácë n. “frog”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.11 Body

hroa n. “body, bodily form, flesh; physical matter”
hrón n. “matter, substance, flesh; body”
hrondo n. “(physical) body, corporeal form”
#mirroanwë n. and adj. “incarnate”

4.13 Flesh

hrávë n. “flesh”

4.14 Hair

findë n. “hair (especially of the head), tress or plait of hair”
findessë n. “head of hair, person’s hair as a whole”
findilë n. “head of hair”
finë (fini-) n. “(single) hair, filament”

4.142 Beard

#fanga n. “beard”

4.143 Hair (other)

finda¹ adj. “having hair, -haired”
findelë n. “tress, lock [of hair]”
lócë¹ n. “bight, bend, curl of hair”
loxa adj. “brown of hair”
nolya [ñ] adj. “dark-haired”
vaina adj. “blonde, fair of hair”

4.15 Blood

sercë n. “blood”

4.16 Bone

axo¹ n. “bone”

4.17 Horn

rassë n. “horn”

4.20 Head

cas (car-) n. “head”

4.204 Face

#canwa² n. “face”
cendelë n. “face”

4.205 Forehead

#estirnë n. “brow”

4.207 Jaw

anca n. “jaws”
anta n. “jaw”

4.21 Eye

alahen adj. “eyeless”
#hen (hend-) n. “eye”

4.212 Sharpeyed

hendumaica adj. “sharp-eye[d]”

4.213 Evileyed

henulca adj. “*evil-eyed”

4.22 Ear

hlas (hlar-) n. “ear”

4.24 Mouth

anto n. “mouth”
carpa n. “(entire) mouth; phonetic system”
náva² [ñ] n. “mouth”
ópa n. “mouth (opening of which the lips are the edges)”
songa n. “mouth (interior cavity behind the teeth containing the tongue)”

4.25 Lip

n. “lip, (closed) mouth”
#pempë n. “lip”

4.26 Tongue

lamba n. “physical tongue”

4.27 Tooth

carca n. “fang; [sharp] rock”

4.28 Neck

axë n. “neck (vertebrae), rock ridge”
lango n. “neck, (physical) passage”

4.33 Hand

n. “hand”

4.332 Hand (other)

ataformaitë adj. “ambidextrous”
atamaitë adj. “two-handed”
camba n. “(cupped) hand, hollow of the hand”
#cambë n. “(hollow of) hand”
málimë (málimi-) n. “wrist, (lit.) hand-link”
maxë n. “handiness”
morimaitë adj. “black-handed”
nonda n. “hand especially in (?clutching)”
palta n. “flat of the hand”
quár(ë) n. “fist, (tightly closed) hand”

4.34 Finger

amaltil n. “*mother finger”
antil n. “*middle finger”
cantil n. “fourth finger”
enestil n. “*middle finger”
lepecan(t) n. “fourth finger”
lependë n. “middle finger”
lepenel n. “middle finger”
lepente n. “fourth finger”
leper n. “finger”
lepetas (lepetass-) n. “index finger”
lepincë (lepinci-) n. “little finger”
lepsë n. “finger”
lepta n. “finger; thumb”
leuta n. “finger”
nícë n. “little finger”
nihtil n. “little [finger]”
tassa n. “index finger”
tastil n. “*index finger”

4.342 Thumb

atartil n. “thumb”
nápo n. “thumb, (lit.) picker”
tollë² n. “thumb”
tolpë n. “thumb”
toltil n. “thumb”

4.35 Leg

#attalya n. and adj. “biped, *(lit.) two-footed”
ciuca n. “*thigh”
telco (*telqu-) n. “leg; stem (of a tengwa symbol)”

4.37 Foot

tál (tal-) n. “foot”

4.38 Toe

pirë n. “toe”
taltil (taltill-) n. “toe”
taltol n. “big toe”
tolbo n. “big toe; stump, stub; thumb”

4.39 Nail, Claw

nappa n. “claw, talon”

4.392 Wing

ráma n. “wing”

4.393 Feather

quessë n. “feather”

4.41 Breast of Woman

súma n. “hollow cavity, bosom”

4.44 Heart

*hón (hom-) n. “heart (physical)”
#honda adj. “hearted”

4.47 Womb

#carva n. “*womb”
#móna n. “*womb”

4.51 to Breathe; Breath

foa n. “breath, puff of breath”
súlë (súli-) [þ] n. “spirit, emission of power (of will or desire); breath”

4.52 to Gape, Yawn

#háca- v. “to yawn”
hácala adj. “yawning”

4.59 to Lick

laptë n. “gluttonous eating”
lav- v. “to lick”

4.62 Dream (n)

indemma n. “mind-picture (of apparition in dream)”
lórë n. “dream”
óla- v. “to dream”
olor n. “dream, vision”
olosta adj. “dreamy”

4.63 to Wake

cuivië¹ n. “awakening”

4.71 to Beget (of Father)

nosta- v. “to beget, be begotten”
onta- v. “to beget”

4.72 to Bear (of Mother)

#nóna adj. “born”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

ceula adj. “?alive (of vegetable)”
coirëa adj. “living”
#coita- v. “*to live, be alive, have life”
coiv(i)ë n. “life”
cuita- v. “to live”
vehtë n. “life; habitat, haunt”
vehtequentalë n. “biography”

4.75 to Die; Dead; Death

fir- v. “to die, fade, expire, breathe forth”
#fírië n. “death”
fírima adj. “mortal, (lit.) *able to die”
qual- v. “to die”
#quel- v. “to fade”
#quelië n. “*fading”
?urtu n. “death”

4.76 to Kill

nahta-¹ v. “to slay; to hurt, injure, wound”
nahtana adj. “*slain”
nanca adj. “*slain”
#nehtar n. “slayer”

4.77 Corpse, Body

loico n. “corpse, dead body”

4.79 Grave, Tomb

#noirë n. “tomb”

4.81 Strong, Mighty, Powerful

#antorya- v. “to strengthen [of sound]”
antoryamë n. “strengthening”
astalda adj. “strong, *valiant”
melehta adj. “mighty”
melehtë n. “might, power (inherent)”
taura adj. “(very) mighty, masterful; vast, of unmeasured might or size”
#turca adj. “strong, powerful (in body)”
#túrë n. “*might, mastery”
túrëa adj. “mighty, masterful”
turyandë n. “fortification, strengthening”

4.82 Weak, Infirm

limpa adj. “frail, slender and drooping”
úmaitë adj. “clumsy(-handed), unskilled”

4.83 Well; Health

coloitë (coloiti-) adj. “capable of bearing, tolerant (of), enduring”
coloitië n. “endurance, staunchness, fortitude”
málë n. “good health”

4.84 Sick; Sickness

#engwa adj. “sickly”
nimpa adj. “drooping, ailing”

4.85 to Wound; Wound; Wounded

nahte n. “wounding, wound”

4.86 to Cure, Heal

#envinyata- v. “to renew, heal”
hasa- [þ] v. “to treat kindly, make easy, (help to) cure; to treat (medically)”

4.87 Physician

asar(o) [þ] n. “doctor, leech”
asarta [þ] n. “leech, doctor”

4.88 Medicine, Drug

asëa [þ] n. “healing herb, athelas”
asëa aranion [þ] n. “kingsfoil, asëa of the Kings”

4.89 Poison

hloima n. “poison, poisonous substance”
hloirë n. “venom, poison, poisonousness”
hloirëa adj. “venomous”
hloita- v. “to poison, envenom, fill with poison”

4.96 Dumb

úpa adj. “dumb”
úpahtëa adj. “speechless”

4.97 Blind

lacenítë adj. “unseeing, blind”
lomba adj. “blind”

4.99 Naked, Bare

parca adj. “naked (of persons)”
parnë adj. “bare, bald, naked”

5. Food and Drink

5.11 to Eat

mammata- v. “to gobble up; to go on eating, gorge oneself”
mastima adj. “edible”
mat- v. “to eat”
mátima adj. “edible”
#-matya suf. “eating”

5.12 Food

matta n. “food”

5.13 to Drink

yul- v. “to drink”
yulda¹ n. “drink, draught, thing drunk; cup”
yulda² adj. “drunk”
yúlima adj. “drinkable”
yulmë n. “drinking, carousal”
yuluitë (yuluiti-) adj. “drinking (as a habit), *aquatic”

5.14 Hunger (n)

maita adj. “hungry”

5.151 Thirsty

soica adj. “thirsty”

5.17 to Mix, Blend

#ostimë n. “blend”

5.35 Cup

cilinyul n. “drinking-vessel (made of glass)”
yulma n. “cup, drinking vessel, drinking implement, goblet”

5.51 Bread

coimas n. “life-bread, lembas”
lerembas n. “bread taken on leaving home (for a long journey)”
#massa n. “bread”
massánië n. “the Lady, breadgiver”
masta n. “cake, loaf; bread”

5.55 Meal, Flour

mulë n. “meal”
polë (poli-) n. “meal, grist”

5.65 Vegetables

quëa n. “vegetable”

5.71 Fruit

yávë n. “fruit”

5.77 Nut

#pecco n. “nut”

5.79 Oil

?elp- v. “to anoint”

5.84 Honey

lís (liss-) n. “honey”
#melu n. “honey”
melumatya adj. “honey-eating”
nehtë² n. “honey”

5.91 Mead

miruvórë n. “mead, nectar, special wine or cordial, drink of the Elves, (lit.) precious juice”

6. Clothing and Adornment

6.12 Clothes, Clothing

#larma n. “raiment”

6.13 Tailor, Seamstress

serindë [þ] n. “broideress, needlewoman, *seamstress”

6.26 Lace

raiwë n. “lace”

6.33 to Weave

were- v. “to weave”

6.35 to Sew

#ser- [þ] v. “*to sew”

6.38 Thread

ipsin n. “fine thread”
#lanya n. “thread, warp, ‽twine”

6.41 Cloak

collo n. “cloak”
fanta- v. “to veil, cloak, mantle”

6.55 Hat, Cap

ría n. “garland, wreath”
rië¹ n. “garland”
rína adj. “garlanded, crowned”

6.57 Belt, Girdle

#lesta n. “*girdle, belt”

6.63 Pin, Brooch

tancal(a) n. “brooch, clasp”

6.71 Adornment (personal)

carrëa n. “tressure”
netil n. “trinket, (?small thing) of personal adornment”
netya- v. “to trim, adorn”

6.72 Gem, Jewel

mírë n. and adj. “jewel, gem, precious thing, treasure; precious”
mírëa adj. “jewelled”

6.73 Finger Ring

#corma n. “ring”
#millë n. “?ring”

6.96 Mirror

cilintilla n. “looking-glass”

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.11 to Live, Dwell

mar- v. “to abide, be settled or fixed”

7.12 House

coa n. “house; outhouse, shed, hut, booth; building used for a dwelling or other purposes; †body”
mar(da) (mard-) n. “house, dwelling, residence, mansion, a thing or place dwelt in, home”
martan (martam-) n. “dwelling-house”

7.122 Home

már (mar-) n. “home, dwelling, habitation”
mélamar n. “(emotional) home”

7.22 Door, Gate

ando n. “gate, (great) door; †entrances, approaches”
fendë n. “door”
fenna n. “door”

7.26 Floor

talan (talam-) n. “flat space, platform”
talma² n. “flat space, platform”

7.27 Wall

ramba n. “wall”

7.28 Roof

rondo¹ n. “vaulted or arched roof, vaulted hall”
telluma n. “dome, cupola, vault”
telumë n. “roof, canopy; heaven, sky”

7.31 Hearth, Fireplace

ruimen n. “fireplace, hearth”

7.412 Furniture (other)

tolma n. “protuberance contrived to serve a purpose, knob, short rounded handle”
tyellë n. “grade, order, step (in a stairway or ladder)”

7.43 Chair

hanwa n. “seat”
mahalma n. “throne”
tarhanwa n. “throne, (lit.) high seat”

7.45 Lamp

calar n. “lamp”
calma n. “lamp, (device for shining) light”
calmatan n. “lampwright”

7.46 Candle

líco (lícu-) n. “wax”
lícuma n. “taper, candle”
loicolícuma n. “corpse-candle”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.29 Blade, Share

maica² n. “blade of a cutting tool or weapon (especially sword-blade)”

8.31 to Sow; Seed

ala-¹ v. “to plant, grow”
erdë n. “singularity”
resta n. “sown field, tilled ground, acre; *fair”

8.33 Scythe, Sickle

circa n. “sickle”

8.41 Crop, Harvest

yávië n. “autumn, harvest [time or act]”

8.51 Grass

súriquessë n. “species of grass, (lit.) wind feather”

8.53 Plant, Herb

laima n. “plant”
laiquë n. “herb”
#olva n. “growing things with roots in the earth, *plant”

8.55 Branch

olba n. “branch”

8.56 Leaf

lassë n. “leaf”
lillassëa adj. “having many leaves”

8.57 Flower

alalbë n. “inflorescence”
alalmë n. “inflorescence”
alba n. “flower”
alma n. “flower”
lávar n. “(golden) blossom”
lilótëa adj. “having many flowers”
lós [þ] n. “inflorescense, mass of flowers”
lossë² n. “inflorescence (of white flowers)”
lótë n. “flower, single blossom”
lotsë n. “small (single) flower”
olos¹ (olós-) [þ] n. “inflorescense, mass of flowers (on one plant)”
olótë n. “bloom, the flowers collectively of a single plant”
ornemalin n. “bearing yellow flowers”
pirindë n. “flower that opened and shut quickly with any change of light”

8.571 Lily

indil n. “lily, other large single flower”
linquë n. “(leaf of a) hyacinth”

8.60 Tree (generic)

alalvëa adj. “having many elms”
alda n. “tree”
aldarembina adj. “tree-meshed”
aldinga n. “tree-top”
alvë n. “elm”
culumalda n. “laburnum, *(lit.) orange-tree”
farnë (farni-) n. “ash, rowan”
lairelossë n. “summer-snow-white, species of tree in Númenor”
laurinquë n. “yellow-flowered tree”
lintië n. and adv. “swiftness, speed; swiftly, *quickly”
malinornë n. “mallorn, (lit.) golden/yellow tree”
nessamelda n. “species of tree in Númenor, (lit.) beloved of Nessa”
oiolairë n. “ever-summer (a species of tree)”
ornë n. “(tall) tree”
táva n. “great tree”
vardarianna n. “fragrant evergreen tree”

8.61 Oak

nordo n. “oak”
norno n. “oak”

8.63 Birch

hwindë n. “birch”

8.64 Pine

sánë (sáni-) [þ] n. “pine”

8.68 Tobacco

alanessë n. “nicotiana, pipeweed”

8.99 Vegetation (other)

cëa n. “*hedge”
olass(i)ë n. “foliage, collection of leaves”
pilinehtar n. “an unidentified plant, (lit.) ?arrow thorns”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

car- v. “to do, make”
caraitë (caraiti-) adj. “active, busy”
carda n. “deed”
#carë n. “action, doing, making”
cárima adj. “feasible, possible (to do), able to be done”
carina adj. “done”
#-carya suf. “doing”
finya- v. “to do/make a thing (with fine work)”
lacaraitë adj. “impossible”
lacarë n. “not-doing, inaction”
lacárima adj. “not feasible, impossible”
lacarina adj. “undone”
vecca adj. “active”

9.112 Doer, Agent

-ldë² suf. “feminine agent”
-llë¹ suf. “feminine agent”
-mo suf. “agental suffix”
-ndë suf. “feminine agent”
-ndo suf. “masculine agent”
#-r(o) suf. “agental suffix”

9.12 Work, Labor

mólë n. “*labour, work”

9.13 to Work, Toil

moia- v. “to labour, be afflicted”

9.14 to Bend

cúna adj. “bent, curved”
cúna- v. “to bend”
lúva n. “bow (in forming tengwar), bight, bend, curve”

9.17 Bond (n)

naxa¹ n. “bond, fetter”

9.19 Rope, Cord

hísilanya [þ] n. “mist thread, grey elvish rope”
Hísimë [þ] n. “November, *Misty-one”

9.22 to Cut

#aucir- v. “to cut off (and get rid of or lose a portion)”
#hócir- v. “to cut off (so as to have or use a required portion)”
#nac- v. “to hew, cut”
rista n. “*cut”

9.23 Knife (tool)

#cirma n. “knife”
cirmacin (cirmakim-) n. “knife-edge”

9.26 to Break

rac- v. “to break”
rácina adj. “broken”

9.27 to Split

#ruxa- v. “to crumble”

9.31 to Rub

psar- v. “to rub”

9.32 to Stretch

#tailë n. “lengthening”
taina¹ adj. “stretched, elongated”
#taina² n. “extension”

9.34 to Strew, Spread Out

winta- v. “to scatter, blow about”

9.35 to Pour

púlima adj. “pourable, liquid”

9.41 Craft, Trade

arimaitë adj. “skillful”
curu n. “skill”
curwë n. “skill of the hand, technical skill and invention”
maitë (maiti-) adj. “handy, skillful; having a hand, handed; shapely”
taman n. “thing made by handicraft”

9.412 Art

carmë n. “art; making, production; structure”
mairë n. “work of high and beautiful art, the process of producing a work”
maita- v. “to make with art, design, compose”
maitalë n. “the act of doing [artistic] work”
maitar n. “artist; poet”

9.413 Horn

róma n. “horn”
romba n. “horn, trumpet”

9.42 Artisan, Craftsman

ahto n. “wright, maker”

9.422 Tool

carma² n. “tool, implement, means, weapon”
curo (curu-) n. “skillful (?device)”
tamma n. “tool”

9.423 to Use

mahta- v. “to handle, wield, use, make use of; to manage, deal with, treat, control”

9.43 Carpenter

tautamo n. “carpenter (carver)”

9.44 to Build

carasta- v. “to build”
cat- v. “to shape, fashion”
tamna adj. and n. “artificial; artifact”

9.45 to Hew

mac- v. “to hew with a sword”

9.50 Nail, Peg

tasar(ë) (tasari-) [þ] n. “willow”

9.51 Beam

rondo² n. “staff (of hardwood)”
#talca n. “post, mark”
tarma n. “pillar”

9.60 Smith

sintamo n. “smith”
tamo n. “smith, builder”

9.64 Gold

laurë n. “gold (light or colour)”
laurëa adj. “golden (of hue)”
laurië n. and adv. “goldenness; like gold”
malta n. “gold (metal), gold as material”

9.65 Silver

telepta adj. “silver”
telpë (telep-) n. “silver”
telperin adj. “like silver (in hue or worth)”
tyelpë (tyelep-) n. “silver”

9.66 Copper, Bronze

calarus (calarust-) n. “polished copper”
lairus (lairust-) n. “verdigris”
urus (urust-) n. “copper”

9.67 Iron

anga n. “iron”
tinco n. “metal”

9.74 Glass

calca n. “glass”
cilin n. “glass”
silima n. “crystal substance devised by Fëanor”
silma n. and adj. “crystal (white)”

9.82 Sculptor

ondomaitar n. “sculptor in stone”
ontamo n. “mason (sculptor)”

9.87 Painting, Picture

emma n. “*picture”
quantemma n. “fascimile, (lit.) *full-picture”

9.90 Thing

engwë n. “thing”
erma n. “(physical) matter”
nat n. “thing”

9.91 Be

ëa- v. “to be, exist”
ëala n. “being, spirit (not incarnate)”
ná- v. “to be”

9.92 Become

ol- v. “to become”

9.93 Need, Necessity

#sangië n. “necessity”
turindura adj. “done necessarily”

9.943 Fitting, Suitable

camta- v. “to (make) fit, suit, accomodate, adapt”

9.95 Can, May

ec- v. “to have a chance of; may, can”
-ima suf. “-able, possibility”
-itë (-iti-) suf. “adjectival ending; capable of doing, generally (and naturally) doing”
pol- v. “can, to be able to”

9.96 Easy

ancárima adj. “easy, (lit.) very doable”
as(a)- [þ] pref. “easily”
asalastë [þ] adj. “easily heard”
asanótë [þ] adj. “*easily counted”
ascénima [þ] adj. “visible, easily seen”
asra [þ] adj. “?easy”
hrai(a)² adj. “easy”

9.97 Difficult

empollië adv. “*harder”
hrai- pref. “hard, *difficult”
hrai(a)¹ adj. “awkward, difficult, stiff”
hraicénima adj. “scarcely visible, hard to see”
hranga adj. “awkward, difficult, stiff, hard”
úcárima adj. “hard to do, difficult”
urda adj. “hard, difficult, arduous”
ur(u)- pref. “hard, difficult”
urucárima adj. “hard to make / do”
urucarin adj. “made with difficulty”

9.98 to Try

nev- v. “to try”
#ric-¹ v. “to try, put forth effort, strive, endeavour”

9.992 Way, Manner

lé¹ n. “way, method, manner”
lenga- v. “to behave”
lengë n. “gesture, characteristic look, gesture or trait”

9.998 Physical Action (other)

caraitië n. “activity, business”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.12 to Turn

quer- v. “to turn”
#querna adj. “*turned”
#ric-² v. “to twist”

10.13 to Turn Around

nanquer- v. “*to turn back”
nuquerna adj. “reversed, inverted, (lit.) *under-turned”
#queren (querend-) n. “pivot, revolving center”
querma n. “spinning wheel, turn-table”

10.14 to Wind, Wrap

hahta n. “fence, hedge”
raima n. “net”
raina¹ adj. “netted, enlaced, caught in a net”
raita-¹ v. “to make network or lace; to catch in a net”
remba- v. “to net, entrap”
rembë n. “mesh, net (for catching), hunter’s or fisher’s net”
rembina adj. “entangled, meshed, netted, woven”
remma n. “snare”

10.21 to Rise

#ormo n. “riser”
orta-² v. “to rise”
orya-¹ v. “to rise”
oryandë n. “arising”
retto n. “*climber”

10.22 to Lift, Raise

#amorta- v. “to heave”
orta-¹ v. “to raise, cause to rise, lift (up)”
orya-² v. “*to raise”

10.23 to Fall

atalantë n. “collapse, downfall”
atalantëa adj. “ruinous, downfallen”
lanta n. and adj. “fall; falling”
lanta- v. “to fall”
#lantë n. “fall”
núya- v. “to descend”
talta adj. “tottering, unsteady”
talta- v. “to slip, slide down, slide down, fall”

10.24 to Drop

10.26 to Shake

raf- v. “to wave, brandish”

10.32 to Flow

celima adj. “fluent”
celundë n. “welling forth”
nanwë n. “ebb, lowtide”
oloirë n. “great flood”
oloiya- v. “to inundate, flood”
sirëa adj. “flowing, liquid”
sirya- v. “to flow”

10.33 to Sink

núta- v. “to lower”
nútaite (nútaiti-) adj. “?lowering (naturally), degrading”
nútima adj. “*lowerable”
undulav- v. “to drown, swallow, submerge, (lit.) lick down”

10.37 to Fly

wilwa adj. “fluttering to and fro”

10.38 to Blow

hlapu- v. “to blow, fly or stream in the wind”
vangwë n. “blow [of wind]”
váva- v. “*to blow”
váya- v. “to blow”

10.44 to Dance

pirucendëa adj. “on the point of her toes”

10.45 to Walk

pata- v. “to walk”
#telconta- v. “to stride, *(lit.) to leg it”

10.46 to Run

nor-¹ v. “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
norië n. “race, running”
nórima adj. “strong/swift at running, swiftly running a course”
normë n. “race, running”
noroitë (noroiti-) adj. “(capable of) running”
norolinda adj. “*tripping lightly”
norta- v. “to make run (specially used of riding horses or other animals), ride”

10.47 to Go

lelya-¹ v. “to go, proceed (in any direction), travel”
lenda n. “journey”
lenda- v. “to go free”
lomentie n. “?journey away”
men- v. “to go, proceed, move (generally); to come, arrive”
mentië n. “passage, journey, direction of travel”
tinga- v. “to go (for a long while)”
umbestë adv. “was going”

10.48 to Come

#entul- v. “to come again, *return”
entulessë n. “return”
hótul- v. “to come away”
#lenna- v. “to come”
nanwen- v. “to return, go/come back”
tul- v. “to come”
tutulla- v. “to keep on coming (and going)”

10.49 to Depart, Go Away

auta-¹ v. “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
#cir- v. “to cut”
fifíru- v. “to slowly fade away”
heca v. “be gone!, stand aside!”
lenwë n. “leaving, departure”
lenweta- v. “to go away, migrate, leave one’s abode”
silo adv. “hence”
vanwa adj. “gone, lost, departed, vanished, past, over, no longer to be had, passed away, dead”
vanya- v. “to pass”
var adv. “*from, away to”

10.54 to Overtake

#rem- v. “to snare”

10.55 to Reach, Arrive

anya- v. “to reach, go to, arrive at”
ten- v. “to arrive, come”
tenya- v. “to arrive, end at (?specific) place”
tulusta n. “advent, arrival”

10.56 to Approach

úva- v. “to impend, be imminent, draw near”

10.57 to Enter

mitta- v. “to insert”

10.61 to Bear, Carry

#col- v. “to bear, carry, wear”
#colindo n. “bearer”
colla adj. and n. “borne, worn; vestment, cloak”

10.62 to Bring

tulyandë n. “fetching”

10.63 to Send

#lelta- v. “to send, (lit.) *cause to go”
#menta n. “sending, message”
menta- v. “to send, cause to go (in a desired direction)”
tulta- v. “to send”
tultaima adj. “*fetchable, summonable”

10.64 to Lead

mittanya- v. “*to lead (into)”
tulya- v. “*to lead”

10.66 to Ride

roquen n. “knight, horseman, rider”

10.67 to Push, Shove

nir- v. “to press, thrust, force (in a given direction)”
nírë n. “force”
nírítë adj. “forceful, exerting great thrust or pressure, driving”
rúma- v. “to shift, move, heave (of large and heavy things)”

10.72 Path

men n. “way”
tië n. “path, road, way, line”

10.74 Bridge

yanta n. “bridge”

10.75 Cart, Wagon, Carriage

lunca n. “heavy transport wain”
ondolunca n. “stonewain”
raxa n. “wain, *wagon”

10.81 Ship

cirya¹ n. and adj. “(sharp-prowed) ship; swift gliding”
ciryatan n. “shipbuilder, shipwright”

10.82 Sailor

ciryamo n. “mariner”
ciryando n. “sailor”
ciryaquen n. “shipman, sailor”
eärendur n. “(professional) mariner, (lit.) *servant of the sea”

10.83 Boat

luntë n. “boat”

10.87 Mast

tyulma n. “mast”

10.90 Port, Harbor

londë n. “(land-locked) haven”
#londië n. “harbourage”

10.99 Motion (other)

ranya n. “erratic wandering”

11. Possession and Trade

11.11 to Have

#harya- v. “to have”
mai-² v. “to have, possess”
#sam- v. “to have”

11.12 to Own, Possess

auvië n. “possession (abstract), *the act of possessing”
oa- v. “to possess, own, keep”

11.13 to Take

nehta- v. “to deprive”

11.15 to Hold

nahta-² v. “to confine, oppress”

11.16 to Get, Obtain

#cam- v. “to receive”
#cav- v. “to receive”

11.17 to Keep, Retain

hampa adj. “restrained, delayed, kept”

11.21 to Give

anna n. “gift, (orig.) thing handed, brought or sent to a person”
anta- v. “to give, present; †to add to”

11.23 to Restore

ceulë n. “*renewal”

11.24 to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe

cauma n. “protection, shelter, shield”
etelehta- v. “*to deliver”
eterúna- v. “*to deliver”

11.25 to Save, Rescue

#rehta- v. “to rescue, save”
rehtië n. “rescue, saving”
runando n. “*redeemer”

11.27 to Destroy

#nancar- v. “to undo”
#nwar- [ñ] v. “to fret, wear away”

11.28 to Harm, Injure, Damage

χarina adj. “marred”
#hasta- v. “to mar”
hastaina adj. “marred”

11.29 to Spoil

rúcina adj. “confused, shattered, disordered, ruined”
sahta adj. “marred”
úvana adj. “marred”

11.31 to Seek

ces- [þ] v. “to search, examine (in order to find something)”
cesta- [þ] v. “to seek, search for; to ask”
*sur- v. “*to seek”
*surië n. “*(an act of) seeking”

11.32 to Find

hir- v. “to find”
#tuv- v. “to find, discover”
túvima adj. “discoverable”

11.33 to Lose

hecil n. “one lost or forsaken by friends, waif, outcast, outlaw”
hecile n. “one lost or forsaken by friends, waif, outcast, outlaw (f.)”
hecilo n. “one lost or forsaken by friends, waif, outcast, outlaw (m.)”

11.34 to Release

lerya- v. “to release, set free, let go”
rúna- v. “to free”
sen- v. “to let loose, free, let go”

11.41 Property

aura n. “possession, thing owned”
satya adj. “private, separate, not common, excluded”
véra adj. “personal, private, own”

11.46 Treasure

harma n. “treasure”
maina n. “thing of excellence, treasure”

11.47 Bank

haura² n. “hoard, store”

11.48 Heir

atamir n. “heirloom”
#hildë n. “heir, follower”

11.52 Poor

penna adj. and n. “lacking; vowel”
penya adj. “lacking, inadequate”
#racina adj. “stripped, deprived”

11.57 Thief

arpo n. “seizer, thief”

11.64 Debt

#lucassë n. “*debt, trespass”
#lucië n. “*debt, trespass”
#lucindo n. “*debtor, one who trespasses”
#luhta n. “*debt, trespass”
#rocindë n. “*debtor, one who trespasses”
#rohta n. “*debt, trespass”

11.66 Account, Reckoning

#onot- v. “*to count up, reckon”
#onótië n. “*reckoning”
onótimo n. “*reckoner”

11.88 Dear, Expensive

mírima adj. “very valuable, very precious, very lovely”
mirwa adj. “precious, valuable”

12. Spatial Relations

12.11 Place

#nómë n. “place”

12.13 to Sit

har- v. “to sit, stay”

12.14 to Lie, Recline

caita-¹ v. “to lie (down)”
caita-² v. “*to lay (transitive)”
penda- v. “to slope, incline”

12.15 to Stand

#ras- v. “to stick out”
#tar- v. “to stand”
tolyo n. “sticker-up”

12.18 to Leave, Relinquish

hehta- v. “to put aside, leave out, exclude, abandon, forsake”
hequa prep. and adv. “leaving aside, not counting, excluding, except”

12.19 Quiet (adj)

úquétima adj. “unspeakable, impossible to say or put into words, unpronounceable”

12.21 to Gather, Collect

comya- v. “to collect”
conta- v. “[unglossed]”
hosta- v. “to gather (hastily together), collect, assemble, pile up”
ócom- v. “to gather, assemble”

12.22 to Join, Unite

#limë (limi-) n. “link”
#sampanë n. “combination”
yanwë n. “joining”

12.221 Together

#as prep. “with”
lé² prep. “with”
o- pref. “together”
#ó prep. “with”
uo adv. “together”
#yo- pref. “together (used in words describing the union of three or more things)”
yó(m) prep. “[together] with”

12.222 And

-ye suf. “and (pairs)”
yo conj. “both ... and”

12.223 Also

sië adv. “thus”
sin¹ adv. “*thus”

12.23 to Separate

sat- v. “to set aside, appropriate to a special purpose or owner”

12.232 to Divide

estat- v. “to distribute in even portions”

12.24 to Open

láta adj. “open (not closed)”
látie n. “openness”
latya n. “opening”
latya- v. “to open anything (so as to allow entry)”

12.25 to Shut, Close

avalatya- v. “to close, shut”
holla adj. “?shut”
holya- v. “to shut, close”
pahta¹ adj. “closed, shut, private”
sac- [þ] v. “to close”

12.26 to Cover

tup- v. “to cover”
#untup- v. “to cover (over or up), (lit.) to cover down”

12.27 to Hide, Conceal

#cuv- v. “to conceal”
fanwa n. “veil, screen”
#nurta- v. “*to hide”
vasar [þ] n. “veil”
vasarya- [þ] v. “to veil”

12.272 Hidden, Concealed

cúvima adj. “concealable”
#cuvo n. “hider”
cuvoitë (cuvoiti-) adj. “hiding, secretive; treacherous”
henfanwa n. “eye-screen, veil upon eyes”
nurtalë n. “hiding”
úfantima adj. “not concealable”
úfanwëa adj. “not veiled, unveiled”

12.31 High

oromar (oromard-) n. “lofty hall, high-mansion, high (lofty) dwelling”
orwa adj. “high, lofty”
tar affix. “high”
tára¹ adj. “lofty, tall, high”
#tárië n. “height”

12.33 Top

cas(ta) adv. “to(wards) the top, upwards”
inga n. “top, highest point”

12.34 Bottom

sundo [þ] n. “base, root, root-word”
tal(da) adv. “to the bottom”

12.35 End

telma n. “conclusion, anything used to finish off a work or affair”

12.352 Point

cendë n. “point”
necel n. “thorn”
ortil n. “up-point”
tildë n. “a fine sharp point”
tillë n. “tip, point; [within compounds] finger, toe”

12.353 Edge

címa n. “edge of a cutting weapon/tool”
cimba n. “edge, brink”
lanca n. “sharp edge (not of tools), sudden end”
lane n. “hem”

12.37 Middle

#endëa adj. “middle”
entya adj. “central, middle”
holmo adv. “sincerely, heartily; (lit.) from the middle”

12.371 Between

enel prep. “in the middle, between”
imbë¹ prep. and adv. “between, among”
imíca prep. “among”
mitta prep. and adv. “between”

12.38 Center

enda n. “heart; center”
endë n. “centre, middle”

12.391 In, Inside

mi prep. “in”
mina prep. and adv. “into, in”

12.392 Out, Outside

#ava¹ adv. and adj. “*outer”
et prep. “out (of)”
#et(e)- pref. “*out”

12.393 Across, Athwart

lá² prep. “beyond, over, across, athwart”
lahta- v. “to cross, pass over, go over; to surpass, excel”
langa n. “thing that crosses, ferry, ford, crossway, bridge, cross-bar”
lanna adv. “athwart”

12.394 Up, Above, Over

#am- pref. “up”
amba¹ adv. “up(wards)”
or prep. “above”
oro- suf. “up, aloft”
to prep. “on, above”

12.395 Down, Below, Beneath

prep. “beneath, not touching, under”
nu prep. “under, beneath”
núla² prep. “under [beyond]”
undu prep. and adv. “down, under”

12.3955 In Front

ompa adv. “forward”

12.396 Behind, At the Rear

#ca(ta) prep. “behind, at back of place”
nanda¹ adj. “?back”

12.397 Beyond

ambela adv. “further still beyond, far away beyond”
olla prep. “over [beyond]”
palla prep. and adv. “far beyond”
pella prep. and adv. “beyond (boundary or limit)”

12.398 To, Towards

an(a) prep. “to, towards, to a point near, alongside”
#†-r² suf. “motion to or towards a point”
sir(a) adv. “hither”
tanna² adv. “thither”

12.399 From, Away

au- pref. “away (from)”
au¹ adv. “away, off, not here (of position)”
hó- pref. “away, from, from among”
-llo suf. “(movement) from, ablative suffix”
prep. “(away) from; by agent [of]”
o prep. “from”
oa adv. “away (of movement)”
oar adv. “away from”
talo adv. “thence”
tar(a) adv. “thither”
va prep. “(away) from”

12.41 Right (vs. Left)

forma n. “right-hand”
#formaitë adj. “righthanded, dexterous”

12.42 Left (vs. Right)

hyarma n. “left hand”

12.43 Near (adj)

am(be)na adv. “nearer to”
ar- pref. “by-, beside, near”
ar(a) prep. and adv. “beside, next [to]; out”
adv. “here”
sinomë n. “here, (lit.) in this place”
sís adv. “here”

12.44 Far (adj)

en adv. “then soon”
haila adj. “far beyond”
han prep. “beyond”
palan adj. and adv. “far, wide, afar, distant”
palantír n. “far-gazer, far-seer, (lit.) that which looks far away”
tanomë adv. “there, (lit.) in the place (referred to)”
tassë adv. “there”

12.45 East

(h)róna adj. “eastern, east”
orróna adj. “eastern”
ro- pref. “uprising, sunrise, east”
rómen n. “east, uprising, sunrise”

12.46 West

andú- pref. “going down, setting (of sun), west”
andúna adj. “western”
nú- pref. “going down, setting (of sun), west”
númen n. “west, direction or region of the sunset, occident, (lit.) going down”
núna adj. “western”

12.47 North

formen n. “north”
forna adj. “northern”

12.48 South

hyar- pref. “left-hand, south”
hyarmen n. “south, (lit.) left-hand direction”
hyarna¹ adj. “southern”

12.51 Form, Shape (n)

canta- v. “to shape”
canta² n. “shape, framework”

12.53 to Grow

lauya- v. “to flourish (green), grow”
losta- v. “to bloom”
napan- v. “to add”

12.54 to Measure

ranga n. “yard, full pace”

12.55 Big, Large, Great

haura¹ adj. “huge”
hoa adj. “big, large”
molda adj. “big, large”
polda adj. “big”
túra adj. “big, great”
velca adj. “large, great, big”

12.56 Small, Little

cinta adj. “small”
níca adj. “little, small”
nípa adj. “small (usually with connotation of weakness)”
#nitya adj. “little”
pia adj. “little”
píca- v. “to lessen, dwindle, wane”

12.57 Long

anda adj. “long, far”
andavë adv. “long, at great length”

12.58 Tall

halla adj. “tall”

12.59 Short

nauca adj. “stunted, shortened, dwarf(ed)”
senna [þ] adj. “short”

12.61 Wide, Broad

naira¹ [ñ] adj. “vast, wide, empty”
palda adj. “wide, broad”
yána adj. “wide, vast, huge”
yonda² adj. “wide, roomy, extensive”

12.62 Narrow

náha adj. “narrow”

12.63 Thick (in Dimension)

?leluya adj. “thick (of a single thing)”

12.64 Thick (in Density)

hyarna² adj. “compact”
nelya- v. “to thicken, congeal”

12.65 Thin (in Dimension)

#fimbë (fimbi-) adj. “slender”

12.66 Thin (in Density)

finda² adj. “fine and delicately made”

12.67 Deep

tumbalë n. “depth, deep valley”

12.72 Hollow, Concave

#náva¹ adj. “hollow”
unquë n. “a hollow”

12.74 Crooked

locin adj. “bent”
numba adj. “bent, humped”
raica adj. “crooked”

12.75 Hook, Crook

ampa n. “hook”

12.76 Angle, Corner

nehtë¹ n. “spearhead, gore, wedge, narrow prominitory; angle”
nerca adj. “sharp, angular”

12.82 Circle

pel- v. “to go round, encircle”

12.84 Line

téma n. “series”

12.85 Hole

samna n. “delved hole, pit”

12.91 Equal, Alike

im- pref. “same”
imma pron. “same, self-same, same thing”
imya adj. “same, identical, self-same”
ovéa adj. “(con)similar, alike”

12.92 Like, Similar

sillë adv. “like this”
véla adj. “*alike, having a likeness or similarity”
yosanwë n. “(pl.) congruence”

12.93 to Change

#ahya- v. “to change”
virya- v. “to change, alternate”
vista- v. “to change (transitive)”
*vistë n. “change”
walwistë n. “change of mind”
wirnë n. “change”

12.94 Sign (n)

tanna¹ n. “sign, token”
tengwë n. “sign, token, indication; writing”

12.99 Spatial Relations (other)

lár n. “league”
*linga- v. “*to hang, dangle”

13. Quantity and Number

13.11 Amount, Quantity

nonwë n. “calculation, sum”
not- v. “to count”
#nótië n. “*counting”
únotë(a) adj. “not counted, uncounted”
únótima adj. “numberless, innumerable, countless, difficult/impossible to count”
urnótima adj. “*difficult to count”

13.12 Number

#notessë n. “numeral”

13.13 Whole

aqua adv. “fully, completely, altogether, wholly”

13.14 All, Every

#il- pref. “every, *all”
illi n. “all”
ilquen n. “everybody”
ilya adj. “every, each, all (of a particular group of things)”

13.15 Much, Many

lanotoitë (lanotoiti-) adj. “innumerable”
#li(n)- pref. “many”
nótima adj. “countable, limited in number (weight and measure); (colloquial) moderate in amount, some, few, several”
-úmë suf. “[large], of quantity”
úmëa adj. “abundant, swarming, teeming”

13.16 More

amba² adj. and n. “more”
ambë adv. “more”
arta¹ adv. “etcetera”
enta adj. “another, one more”
entë¹ adv. “moreover, further(more), what is more”
net(ë) n. “one more beyond (the middle)”

13.17 Few, Little

pitya adj. “petty, little”

13.19 Crowd, Multitude

hyanda n. “pressed mass, crowd”
liyúmë n. “host”
rimbë n. “host, great number”
sanga [þ] n. “throng, press, pressure”
úma- v. “to teem”

13.192 Other Collective Words

heren n. “order”
maqua n. “hand-full, group of five (similar) things; hand (colloquial); closing or closed [hand] (facing down) for taking”
massë² n. “handful, portion, share, capacity”
(o)combë n. “gathering, assembly, assemblage, collection”
-sta¹ suf. “land, *part”
úmë n. “great collection or crowd of things of the same sort, throng”

13.21 Full

ataquanta- v. “*to refill, fill a second time, double fill”
enquanta- v. “to refill”
-inqua suf. “-ful, complete”
penquanta adj. “full to the brim, with mouth full”
quanta adj. “full, filled”
quanta- v. “to fill”
quat- v. “to fill [intransitive]”

13.22 Empty

-enca suf. “without, -less”
undumë n. “abyss”

13.24 Half

#per- pref. “half”
peresta fraction. “one half”

13.25 Fraction, Division

caista fraction. “one tenth”
ca(na)sta fraction. “one fourth”
enquesta fraction. “one sixth”
lepesta fraction. “one fifth”
minquesta fraction. “*one eleventh”
ne(re)sta fraction. “one ninth”
o(to)sta fraction. “one seventh”
to(lo)sta fraction. “one eighth”
yunquesta fraction. “*one twelfth”

13.31 Numerals

caistanótië n. “decimal system”

13.32 One

min num. card. “one”
néya adv. “once, at one time”
rëa adj. “single”

13.33 Alone, Only

er adj. and adv. “one, alone”
#eressë n. “solitude”
eressëa adj. “lonely”
erinqua adj. “single, alone”
rië² adv. “only”

13.34 First

eteminya adj. “prominent”
minya ordinal. and adj. “first; eminent, prominent”
*tolya adj. “prominent”
#turco¹ n. “chief”

13.35 Last

métima adj. “last, ultimate, final”
telda adj. “last, final”
#telu adj. “last”

13.36 Two

atta num. card. “two”
onóna adj. and n. “twin-born; one of a pair of twins”
yu- pref. “both”
yúyo adj. “both”

13.37 Second (ordinal)

attëa num. ord. “second”
tatya num. ord. “second”

13.38 Double, Twice

atatya adj. “double”

13.41 Three

neldë num. card. “three”

13.42 Third (ordinal)

neldëa num. ord. “third”
nelya num. ord. “third”

13.43 a Third (fraction)

nel(d)esta fraction. “one third”

13.54 Cardinal Number

canaquë num. card. “*fourteen”
canta¹ num. card. “four”
cëa(n) num. card. “ten”
enenquë num. card. “sixteen”
enquë num. card. “six”
lempë num. card. “five”
lepenquë num. card. “*fifteen”
minquë num. card. “eleven”
nelquë num. card. “*thirteen”
nertë num. card. “nine”
neterquë num. card. “nineteen”
otoquë num. card. “seventeen”
otso num. card. “seven”
quaican num. card. “*fourteen”
quainque num. card. “*sixteen”
quëan num. card. “ten”
#-rasta suf. “twelve”
toldo num. card. “eight”
toloquë num. card. “eighteen”
yunquë num. card. “twelve”
yunquenta num. card. “thirteen”

13.55 Ordinal Number

cantëa num. ord. “fourth”
enquëa num. ord. “sixth”
lempëa num. ord. “fifth”
lepenya num. ord. “fifth”
nelquëa num. ord. “*thirteenth”
nertëa num. ord. “ninth”
!neterquëa num. card. “nineteenth”
otsëa num. ord. “seventh”
quainëa num. ord. “tenth”
toldëa num. ord. “eighth”

13.99 Quantity and Number (other)

maquanotië n. “decimal system”

14. Time

14.11 Time (period)

lúmë¹ n. “time, period of time, hour”

14.13 New

ceura adj. “renewed”
ceuta- v. “to renew, refresh”
céva adj. “fresh, new, renewed”

14.14 Young

vínë n. “youth”
vinya adj. “young, new”
winyamo n. “youngster”

14.15 Old

enwina adj. “old”
yára adj. “old, ancient”

14.18 Now

adv. “now”
silumë adv. “now, (lit.) at this time”
tensi adv. “already, still, up to now, here; yet [from present]”
tenta adv. “already, still, up to now, here; yet [from past]”

14.19 Soon, Immediately

adv. “the[?] [?next]”
ron(go) adv. “soon”

14.21 Fast, Swift, Quick

limbë (limbi-) adj. “quick, swift”
linta adj. “swift”
#rindë adj. “swift”

14.23 to Hurry, Hasten

tyelca adj. “hasty”

14.25 to Begin; Beginning

yesta n. “beginning”

14.252 to Last

#tauva- v. “*to endure”
termar- v. “to stand, *endure, last, (lit.) through-abide”

14.26 End (n, temporal)

metta n. “ending, end”
?mette adj. “end”

14.27 to Finish

finta- v. “to make, finish off, decorate a thing with delicate work; to show skill”
#tel- v. “to end, finish”
telya- v. “to finish, wind up, conclude”

14.29 Ready (adj)

férima adj. “ready to hand, (quickly) available”
ferya- v. “to make ready (promptly)”
mína adj. “desiring to start, eager to go”

14.302 Eternal

oia(la) adj. “everlasting, unceasing, without end, for ever”
oialë adv. “forever, everlastingly, eternally, in eternity”
oialëa adj. “eternal”
oi(o) adv. and n. “ever, everlastingly; an endless period”
tennoio adv. “forever”
úlumë adv. “ever, at all times (in a series or period)”

14.31 Always

illumë adv. “*always”
vorë adv. “*always”

14.35 Again

at(a)- pref. “double, second time”
en- pref. “re-, again”
han- pref. “*back as an answer or return by another agent”
nan- pref. “back (again)”

14.36 Before (temporal)

auta adv. “ago”
autas n. “a former occur[rence]”
engë adv. “ago, in the past”
fai adv. “*before of time”
adv. “ago, behind (earlier time); yes (it was so)”
nó¹ prep. “before (of time); at back (of place)”
talumë adv. “at that time”

14.37 After

apa¹ pref. “after (of time)”
epë prep. “after (of time), following; before (in all relations but time)”
opo prep. “before, in front (of place); after (of time)”
adv. “then”

14.41 Day

aurë n. “day (as opposed to night), daylight, sunlight”
n. “day (period from sunset to sunset)”

14.412 Daily

ilaurëa adj. “*daily”
ilyarëa adj. “*daily”

14.42 Night

lómë n. “night, dimness, twilight, dusk, darkness”

14.43 Dawn

amaurëa n. “dawn, early day”
ambarónë n. “dawn”
tindómë n. “(starry) twilight, (usually) time near dawn”

14.462 Dusk

andúnë n. “sunset, evening, (orig.) going down; west”
undómë n. “twilight, time near evening”
úyalë n. “twilight”

14.47 Today

hyárë n. “*today, this day”
siar(ë) n. “*today, this day”
sinar n. “today”
síra n. “*today, this day”

14.48 Tomorrow

entan n. “tomorrow”

14.49 Yesterday

noa adj. and n. “former; yesterday; tomorrow”

14.61 Week

enquië n. “Elvish week of six days”

14.62 Sunday

Anarya n. “Sunday, (lit.) Sun-day”

14.63 Monday

Isilya [þ] n. “*Monday, Moon-day”

14.64 Tuesday

Aldëa n. “*Tuesday, Tree-day (Númenórean)”
Aldúya n. “*Tuesday, Day of the Two Trees”

14.65 Wednesday

Menelya n. “*Wednesday, Heavens-day”

14.66 Thursday

Eärenya n. “Thursday*, Sea-day”

14.67 Friday

Tárion n. “alternate name of the last day of the Eldarin six-day week”
Valanya n. “*Friday, Vala-day”

14.68 Saturday

Elenya n. “Saturday, Star-day*”

14.71 Month

asta n. “month; division, part (esp. one of other equal parts)”
ránasta n. “lunar month”

14.72 Names of the Months

Cermië n. “July”
Lótessë n. “May, (lit.) *Flower-ness”
Mettelairë n. “August, (lit.) *End-summer”
Metterrívë n. “January, (lit.) *End-winter”
Nárië n. “June, *Fire-ness”
Narquelië n. “October, Sun-fading”
Narvinyë n. “January, *New-fire”
Nénimë n. “February, *Wet-ness”
Ringarë n. “December, *Cold-day”
Súlimë [þ] n. “March, *Windy-one”
Úrimë n. “August, *Hot-one”
Víressë n. “April, *Freshness”
Yavannië n. “September, *Yavanna-ness”

14.73 Year

coranar (coranár-) n. “(solar) year, (lit.) sun-round”
loa n. “(seasonal) year, (lit.) (time of) growth, blooming”
yén n. “Elvish long year (144 solar years)”
yénië n. “annals”

14.74 Winter

hrívë n. “winter”

14.75 Spring

coirë n. “stirring, early spring”
tuilë n. “spring”
tuilérë n. “*spring-day”

14.76 Summer

lairë n. “summer”

14.77 Autumn

lasselanta n. “(late) autumn, (lit.) leaf-fall”
lassewinta n. “leaf fall, autumn, (lit.) *leaf blowing”
quellë n. “late autumn and early winter, (lit.) fading”
yáviérë n. “*autumn-day”

14.99 Time (other)

andanéya adv. “long ago, once upon a time”
asar [þ] n. “fixed time, festival”
ceuranar n. “new sun after solstice”
en(a) adv. “still”
haranyë n. “century (100 years)”
loëndë n. “mid-year (Númenórean calendar), (lit.) *year-middle”
lúmequentalëa adj. “historical”
quentasta n. “historical account”
quiquië adv. “whenever”
xiétë (xiéti-) adj. “passing, impermanent”

15. Sense Perception

15.25 Fragrant, Good Smelling

#nis- [þ] v. “*to smell sweetly”
#nísima [þ] adj. “fragrant”

15.31 to Taste (subj)

#tyav- v. “to taste”

15.33 Taste (n, subj)

tyávë n. “*taste”

15.35 Sweet

lissë¹ (lissi-) adj. “sweet”

15.37 Bitter

sára adj. “*bitter”

15.41 to Hear

#hlar- v. “to hear”

15.42 to Listen, Harken

larmo n. “listener (spy or scout)”
lasta- v. “to listen”

15.44 Sound (n)

hlón(a) (hlon-) n. “noise, sound”
láma n. “sound”
lámatyávë n. “*sound-taste”
lamma- v. “?to echo”

15.442 Phonetic

calmatéma n. “k-series”
hlonitë adj. “phonetic”
lambelë n. “phonetics”
#lambetengwë n. “consonant”
#náva-tengwë [ñ] n. “consonant”
#návëa [ñ] n. “consonant”
ohlon n. “diphthong”
#ólama n. “consonant”
#ólamaitë adj. “consonantal”
óman (omand-) n. “vowel”
ómatailë n. “vowel lengthening”
ómataina n. “vocalic extension”
#ómëa n. and adj. “vowel”
parmatéma n. “p-series”
#pataca n. “consonant”
quessetéma n. “kw-series”
sundóma [þ] n. “determinant vowel, root-vowel”
tincotéma n. “t-series”
tyelpetéma n. “palatal series”

15.51 to See

cen- v. “to see, behold, look”
cénima adj. “visible”
#cenya adj. “*perceptive”
fantarcenya adj. “perspicacious, penetrating of sight or understanding”

15.52 to Look

#cenda n. “inspection, reading”
cenda- v. “to watch (intensively), observe (for some time); to read”
ecces- [þ] v. “to find out, bring out by examining or eyeing[?]”
hententa- v. “to spot with eye”
nattir- v. “to look back”
tir- v. “to watch (over), guard, heed; to look (at), gaze, observe”
tirila adj. “watching (something)”
tírima adj. “able to be watched, observable”
tirítë (tiríti-) adj. “watchful, vigilant”
#tirmo n. “watcher”

15.53 Sight (subj)

#cen n. “sight”
#cenítë adj. “seeing”
tercen n. “insight, (lit.) *through-sight”
#tercenya adj. “of insight”

15.54 Sight (obj), Look (obj), Appearance

nemesta n. “appearance, seeming”

15.55 to Show

leptenta- v. “*to point to, indicate with finger”
tana- v. “to show, indicate”
tëa- v. “to indicate”
tenta- v. “to point (to/out), indicate; to direct toward, be directed toward; to go forth towards (with object)”

15.56 to Shine, Glisten

#cal- v. “to shine”
#calta- v. “to kindle”
ilca- v. “to gleam (white)”
nalta [ñ] n. “radiance, glittering reflection”
sil- v. “to shine (white)”
sisíla- v. “to shine (frequentative)”
tin- v. “to spark, glitter”

15.562 Blinking

ita- v. “to sparkle”
íta¹ n. “flash”
itara adj. “gleaming”
itila adj. “twinkling, glinting”
miriéla adj. “?sparkling”
tihta- v. “to blink, peer”
tintila- v. “to twinkle, sparkle, glitter, give tremulous light, †tremble”

15.57 Bright

calima adj. “bright, luminous”
calina adj. “light, bright, sunny, (lit.) illumined”
fana n. “raiment, veil; (bright) shape or figure; bodily form of an angelic spirit”

15.63 Dark in Color

hróva¹ adj. “dark, dark brown (of hair)”

15.64 White

fána adj. “white”
fanya n. “(white) cloud, white and shining [thing]”
ninquë (ninqui-) adj. “white; pallid, chill, cold”
#ninquita- v. “to whiten, grow white”

15.65 Black

morna adj. “black, dark; black of hair”
mornië n. “blackness, darkness, dark”

15.66 Red

carnë (carni-) adj. “red, scarlet”
narwa adj. “ruddy, red of hair”
runya adj. “fiery red”
rusca¹ adj. “red-brown”
russa adj. “red-haired”
russë n. “head or pelt of red hair”
**úcarnë adj. “not red”
*varnë (varni-) adj. “russet, brown”

15.67 Blue

luinë (luini-) adj. “blue”
#luinincë (luininci-) adj. “bluish”
menelluin adj. “cornflower (color), *(lit.) sky-blue”

15.68 Green

laica adj. “green”
laicalassë adj. “green-leaf, green as leaves”
laiqua adj. “green”

15.69 Yellow

malina adj. “yellow, of golden colour”

15.70 Grey

mísë [þ] adj. “(light) grey”
mista [þ] adj. “grey”
sinda [þ] adj. “grey”
sindë (sindi-) [þ] adj. “grey, pale or silvery grey”
sindië [þ] n. “greyness”

15.71 to Touch

appa- v. “to touch”

15.72 to Feel of

lepta- v. “to pick (up/out); to finger, feel with the fingertips”
palta- v. “to feel with the hand, stroke”

15.74 Hard

anastorna adj. “*extremely hard”
norna adj. “tough, stiff; hard, firm, resistant; thrawn, obdurate”
ronda adj. “solid, firm”
sarda adj. “hard (*as stone)”
#torna adj. “hard”
tornanga adj. and n. “hard-iron, iron hard”

15.75 Soft

musse adj. “soft”

15.77 Smooth

pas- [þ] v. “to smooth”
pasta [þ] adj. “smooth(ed), sleek, glabrous”
pasta- [þ] v. “to smooth, iron”
patta adj. “smoothed, sleek”
runda adj. “smooth, polished”

15.78 Sharp

aica adj. “fell, terrible, dire”
maica¹ adj. “sharp, piercing”
miχa adj. “sharp-pointed”

15.81 Heavy, Weighty

cólo n. “burden”
#lungo (lungu-) adj. “heavy”
lungumaitë adj. “heavy-handed”

15.82 Light, Nimble

cólima adj. “bearable, light (of burdens and things comparable, troubles, labors, afflications)”
fínë n. “dexterity”
fínëa adj. “dexterous”
finwa adj. “clever, fine, delicate; dexterous”
leptafinya adj. “clever-fingered”

15.83 Wet, Damp

luita- v. “to flood, inundate, drench”
nenda adj. “wet”

15.85 Hot, Warm

asta- v. “to heat, bake (by exposure to sun)”
lauca adj. “*warm”
úra² adj. “torrid, sultry, unpleasantly hot”
úrë n. “heat”
urya- v. “to be hot”

15.86 Cold, Frigid

helca adj. “icy, ice-cold”
niquë n. “cold”
ringa adj. “cold”

15.87 Pure, Clean

úχarin adj. “unmarred”

15.88 Dirty, Soiled

soa n. “filth”

16. Emotion

16.11 Soul, Spirit

coacalina n. “light of the house, indwelling spirit”
fëa n. “(indwelling or incarnate) spirit, soul”
fëafelmë n. “*spirit-impulse”

16.12 Feeling, Emotion

felmë n. “*impulse, emotion”
hroafelmë n. “*body-impulse”
inwalmë n. “mood of mind”
inwis (inwist-) n. “change of mind/mood”

16.13 Passion

walda adj. “excited, wild”
walmë n. “excitement, emotion”
walta- v. “to excite, rouse, stir up”
walya- v. “to be excited (moved)”

16.14 Care (n)

#ap- v. “to touch one, concern, affect”

16.17 Fortune (Good or Bad)

marta- v. “to define, decree, destine”

16.18 Good Fortune

almë n. “good (or blessed) thing, blessing, piece of good fortune”
alya adj. “fair, good”

16.19 Misfortune

umba n. “swarm”
umbar n. “fate, doom, curse”

16.212 Please in Polite Phrases

mecin adv. “please”
namárië interj. “farewell, (lit.) be well, let it be well (to you)”
-tar suf. “honorific”

16.22 Joy

alassë n. “happiness”
tyalië n. “mirth”

16.24 Happy; Happiness

al(a)-² pref. “well, happily”
alaquenta adj. “well (happily) said”
ama- pref. “*well, happily”

16.25 to Laugh, Smile

lala- v. “*to laugh”
raina² adj. “smiling, gracious, sweet-faced”
raita-² v. “to smile”

16.26 to Play

tyal- v. “to play”

16.27 to Love; Love

lamélima adj. “unlovable”
#mel- v. “to love”
méla adj. “loving, affectionate”
melima adj. “loving, very affectionate”

16.272 Friendship

-(n)dil suf. “-friend, -lover; devotion, disinterested love”
nílë (níli-) n. “a special concern with or love for”
oholima adj. “confidential”

16.28 Dear

melda adj. “dear, beloved”

16.29 to Kiss

miqu- v. “to kiss”
miquelis (miqueliss-) n. “(soft, sweet) kiss”

16.31 Pain, Suffering

naica adj. “bitterly painful or grievous”
naira² adj. “dreadful, horrible, unendurable”
nwalmë [ñ] n. “torment”
unqualë n. “death agony”

16.32 Grief, Sorrow

nainië n. “lament”

16.33 Anxiety

penga- v. “to pout”

16.35 Pity (n)

ócama- v. “*to have mercy”
órava- v. “*to have mercy”

16.37 to Cry, Weep

yaimë n. “wailing”
yaimëa adj. “wailing”

16.39 to Groan

yarra- v. “to growl, snarl”

16.41 Hate (n)

nattira- v. “to despise”
uhta- v. “to dislike, feel disgust with, avoid as painful or nasty”

16.42 Anger

hráva adj. “wild, savage”

16.43 Rage, Fury

aha n. “rage”
rúsë [þ] n. “wrath”
rúsëa [þ] adj. “wrathful”
ruxa adj. “wroth”
ursa [þ] n. “rage”
ursa- [þ] v. “to rage”

16.46 Honor (n)

luhta- v. “to bow”

16.47 Fame, Glory

alcar n. “glory, splendour, radiance, brilliance”
alcarin(qua) adj. “glorious, brilliant”

16.53 Fear, Fright

áya n. “awe”
nor-² [ñ] pref. “fear”
#ruc- v. “to feel fear or horror; *to flee (to)”
rúcima adj. “terrible”
ruhta- v. “to terrify”
þorya- v. “to dread, feel fear”
þossë n. “fear”
þosta- v. “to put to fright, terrify”

16.54 Peril, Danger

#raxë n. “*danger”

16.61 to Will, Wish

avanir n. “unwill”
#mendë n. “*will”
níra n. “will (as a potential or faculty), individual will (in potential)”
nirmë n. “act of will, exercise of will”

16.622 Desire

cilmë n. “choice, choosing”
#írë n. “desire”
írima adj. “desirable, lovely”
lengwë n. “yearning, desire for what is lost or absent”

16.63 Hope (n)

estel n. “hope, trust, *faith”
mer- v. “to hope”

16.64 Thanks (n)

#hanta- v. “*to thank, give thanks”
#hantalë n. “thanksgiving”

16.65 Faithful

astar n. “faith, loyalty”
sarta adj. “steadfast, trusty, loyal”
sorna [þ] adj. “steadfast”
vórima adj. “faithful”
voronda adj. “faithful, steadfast (in allegiance, in keeping oath or promise)”
voronwë n. “steadfastness, loyalty, faith(fulness)”

16.66 True

(a)lá interj. “yes”
interj. “yes, it is so, it is a fact”
naitë adj. “true”
naitië adv. “indeed, truly”
nanwa adj. “existing, actual (true)”
náto interj. “it is that; *yes (emphatic)”

16.69 to Forgive

#apsen- v. “to remit, release, forgive”
#avatyar- v. “*to forgive, (lit.) do away with”

16.71 Good

alacarna adj. “well-done, well-made”
alahasta adj. “unmarred”
alamen n. “good omen on departure”
alatúlië n. “welcome”
alatulya- v. “to welcome”
alima adj. “fair, good”
amya-¹ pref. “excellent, admirable”
arya adj. “excelling, *better”
arya- v. “to excel”
ilvan(y)a adj. “perfect”
mai adv. “well”
mai-¹ pref. “excellent, admirable”
maira adj. “admirable, excellent, precious, splendid, sublime”
máralë n. “goodness”
márië adv. and n. “well, happily; goodness, good estate, being well, happiness”
ráta- v. “to excel, surpass”

16.72 Bad

nai- pref. “ill, grievously, abominably”
úmara adj. “bad, ill-used, evil, sinister”
úra¹ adj. “nasty”
urra adj. “bad”

16.73 Right (adj)

mára adj. “good, proper”

16.74 Wrong (adj)

hru- pref. “evil-”
hrúcarë n. “evil-doing”
hrú(y)a adj. “evil, wicked”
naxa² adj. and n. “evil”
olca adj. “bad, wicked”
sau- pref. “very badly”
saucarë n. “doing or making a thing very badly”
saucarya adj. “evil-doing”
ulca adj. “evil; dark, gloomy, sinister”
ulco (ulcu-) n. “evil”
úmárë n. “not good = evil”
úro n. “*evil, nastiness”
us- [þ] pref. “[wrong] with a bad sense; unsuitable, bad, improper, useless, wrong”
uxarë n. “doing wrong”

16.75 Sin, Impiety

hruo n. “*wickedness”
#insangarë n. “*tempation”
#naicando n. “*sinner”
#naico n. “*sinner”
#naiqua- v. “*to sin”
#rohtalië n. “*those who trespass, (lit.) trespass-people”
terfantië n. “*temptation”
#terpellië n. “*temptation”
#úcar- v. “*to trespass, do wrong, sin”
#úcarë n. “*sin, debt, trespass”
#úcarindo n. “*sinner”
#ulcarindo n. “*sinner”
úsahtië [þ] n. “inducement to do wrong, *temptation”

16.77 Error, Mistake

loi- pref. “mistaken, mistake in ...”
loica adj. “failing, short, inadequate”
loicarë n. “mistaken action”
loima n. “mistake”
loiparë n. “mistake in writing”
loiquetë n. “mistake in speech”
loita- v. “to miss, fail, fall short of (transitive)”

16.79 Praise (n)

laita- v. “to praise, bless”
#laitalë n. “praise”

16.81 Beautiful

lelya adj. “delicate, beautiful and fine, slender, lovely”
lelya-² v. “to appear (of beautiful things); to attract, enchant (with dative)”
linda adj. “beautiful (of sound), sweet, melodious; soft, gentle, light”
mairëa adj. “beautiful (of things made by art)”
mimírima adj. “very beautiful”
mirya adj. “beautiful, lovely (of works of art only)”
netya adj. “pretty, dainty”
vanë (vani-) adj. “fair”
vanessë n. “beauty”
vanië n. “beauty”
vanima¹ adj. “beautiful, fair”
vanima² n. “beautiful one, fair one”
vanimalda adj. “most beautiful, exceeding fair; thou beautiful”
vanimelda adj. “beautiful and beloved, elven-fair”
vanya adj. “fair, beautiful, unmarred; fair-haired (yellow to golden)”
wenya adj. “fair, beautiful”

16.82 Ugly

úvanë(a) adj. “without beauty”
úvanima adj. “not fair, ugly; hard to call beautiful, hideous”

16.99 Emotion (other)

awalda adj. “move[d], stirred, excited”
faila adj. “fair-minded, just, generous”
saura [þ] adj. “cruel, evil, vile; stinking, foul; bad, unhealthy, ill, wretched”

17. Mind and Thought

17.11 Mind

órë¹ n. “heart (inner mind); warning, caution, (pre)monition”
sáma n. “mind”
sanar n. “mind, thinker, reflector”

17.12 Reason, Intelligence

incánu n. “mind master”
incánussë n. “mind mastership”
indómë n. “settled character; will of Eru”

17.13 to Think, Reflect

#sana- v. “*to think, reflect”
sanwecenda n. “thought-inspection, thought-reading”
sanwë-latya n. “thought-opening”
sanwementa n. “thought-sending, mental message”
úvië n. “pondering, consideration”

17.15 to Believe

#sav- v. “to believe”

17.151 Guess, Suppose

ai² adv. “supposing, suppose, maybe”
au² adv. “if only”
cé¹ conj. “if”
cé² adv. “may (be)”
céla adv. “maybe not”
cénai conj. “if it be that”
cenasta adv. “if it be so, may be, perhaps”
cíta- v. “to suppose”
?it(ë) adv. “if”
nai adv. “maybe; be it that, may it be that; perhaps, it may be, there is a chance or possibility”
qui conj. “if”
quista- v. “to suppose”

17.17 to Know

ista- v. “to know”

17.171 Knowledge, Science

ingolë n. “lore, science, philosophy”
nólë [ñ] n. “lore, knowledge, long study”
nolmë [ñ] n. “knowledge, philosophy (including science), department of wisdom (science, etc.)”
sívë³ n. “knowing, knowledge”

17.172 Omniscient

ilúcara adj. “omnificient”
iluisa adj. “omniscient”
ilúvala adj. “omnipotent”

17.18 to Seem

nácë interj. “it may be seeming, *qualified yes”
nem-² v. “*it seems (impersonal)”
vëa¹ adj. “seeming, apparent”

17.19 Idea, Notion

#fintalë n. “trick”
indo n. “(state of) mind, (inner) thought, mood; will, resolve”
sanwë n. “thought, an act of thinking”
tenna³ n. “thought, notion, idea”
þelma n. “fixed idea, will”

17.20 Imagination

síma n. “imagination, mind”

17.21 Wise

finca¹ adj. “clever (in petty ways)”
finya adj. “clever”
istima adj. “wise (in sense knowing very much), knowledgeable, very well informed, learned”
saila adj. “wise”
tára² adj. “wise”

17.22 Stupid, Foolish

alasaila adj. “unwise”
laista n. “ignorance, (lit.) not-knowing”
laistila adj. “ignorant”

17.24 to Learn

par- v. “to learn”

17.27 Teacher

ingolmo n. “loremaster, wizard, one with very great knowledge”
nolmo [ñ] n. “wise person”

17.31 to Remember

#enyal- v. “to recall”
#enyalië n. “memory, (lit.) recalling”

17.35 Obscure

néca adj. “pale, vague, faint, dim to see”
púrëa adj. “smeared, discoloured, bleared”

17.37 Sure, Certain

sinwa adj. “known, certain, ascertained”
tancata- v. “to make firm, fix, confirm”

17.41 Purpose, Intention

indu- v. “to will, do on purpose”
induinen n. “purpose”
mína- v. “to desire to go in some direction, wish to go to a place, make for it; to have some end in view”
turindo n. “purposeful mind, strong will”

17.42 Cause, Reason

#talma¹ n. “basis”
#tyar- v. “to cause”

17.99 Mind and Thought (other)

cesya- [þ] v. “to cause interest, interest (oneself), (lit.) to cause one to enquire”

18. Language and Music

18.11 Voice (n)

óma n. “voice, resonance of the vocal chords, vowel”

18.12 to Sing

#lindë (lindi-) n. “singing, song, musical sound”
#lir- v. “to sing”
liralë n. “merry singing”
lírë (líri-) n. “song”
liru- v. “to sing”

18.14 Various Cries

a interj. “O, Oh”
ai¹ interj. “ah, alas”
aiya interj. “hail; behold, lo”
alla interj. “welcome, hail”
ela interj. “behold!”
nurru- v. “to murmur, grumble, mumble”
nwámë n. “wolvish howling”
interj. “lo!, what a ..., what is more”

18.15 Gesture-code

hwermë n. “gesture-code”
mátengwië n. “language of the hands”

18.21 to Speak, Talk

carpa- v. “to talk, speak, use tongue”
ósanwë n. “communication of thought, interchange of thought; (lit.) thinking together (dual)”
pahta² n. “speech”
pakta- v. “to speak, talk (intransitive)”
#quétima adj. “speakable, pronounceable, *able to be said”

18.22 to Say

ataquetië n. “saying again, repetition”
enquet- v. “to repeat, say again”
equë v. “say, says, said”
eques (equess-) n. “saying, (current or proverbial) dictum, quotation from someone’s uttered words”
nyar- v. “to relate, recite”
quenna n. “saying, proverb”
quet- v. “to say, speak, tell”

18.23 to be Silent

óricuvoitë adj. “uncommunicative, keeping one’s own counsel (not necessarily sinister)”

18.24 Language

carpassë n. “mouth-system; full organized language, including system, vocabulary, metre, etc.”
Eldarin adj. and n. “of the Eldar; Elvish (language)”
lambë n. “language, tongue, dialect”
lambina adj. “of tongue, spoken with tongue”
#questa n. “speech, language”
#-rin suf. “-ian, racial-adjective, language”
tengwelë n. “language (general term)”
tengwestië n. “language [as a concept]”

18.25 Dialect

Quenya n. “Elvish, High-elven, Elf-latin, †speech”
Quenyarin adj. “*of Quenya”
Sindarin [þ] n. “Grey-elven”

18.26 Word

quetië n. “words”
quetta n. “word”

18.28 Name

#amilessë n. “mother-name”
anessë n. “given (or added) name, nickname, surname”
#cilmessë n. “self-name”
epessë n. “after-name”
essë¹ n. “name”

18.31 to Question, Inquire

ma² adv. “interrogative particle”
man pron. “who”
mana pron. “what”
manen adv. “how”
#maquet- v. “*to ask, question”
minaþurië n. “enquiry”

18.32 to Answer

aquet- v. “to answer”
endaquet- v. “to answer”
hanquenta n. “answer”
náquet- v. “to assent, agree (on fact); (lit.) to say ‘it is’”
tóquet- v. “to answer”

18.33 to Admit, Confess

asa- [þ] v. “to be willing, agree”
sáquet- [þ] v. “I will, to agree (to do); (lit.) to say ‘yes’”
þá adv. “I agree of course, of course I do”

18.34 to Deny

ala-² v. “to deny”
láquet- v. “to deny (fact or accusation); (lit.) to say ‘it is not’”

18.37 to Refuse

apta- v. “to refuse, deny, say nay”
avá (áva-) particle. “don’t, negative imperative”
ava-¹ v. “to refuse, forbid”
ava-² pref. “negation (refusing or forbidden)”

18.38 to Forbid

avanwa adj. “refused, forbidden, banned”
avanyárima adj. “unspeakable, what one must not tell, not to be told or related”
avaquétima adj. “not to be said, that must not be said”
váquet- v. “to refuse, forbid, prohibit; (lit.) to say no, to say ‘I will not or do not’”

18.41 to Call, Summon

yal- v. “to summon”

18.51 to Write

sarmë n. “writing”
tengwacilmë n. “spelling”

18.52 to Read

ethenta- v. “to read aloud”
henta- v. “to eye, examine, read, scan”
hentië n. “reading”
parmahenta- v. “*to read”
parmahentië n. “(book) reading”
tengwa- v. “to read written matter”
#tengwië n. “reading; language (*signing)”

18.53 Letter of the Alphabet

andatehta n. “long-mark”
árë nuquerna n. “árë-reversed”
certa n. “rune”
hwesta sindarinwa n. “Grey-elven hw”
nútil (nútill-) n. “under-point”
#ómatehta n. “vowel-sign”
#óma-tengwë n. “vowel-sign”
sarat n. “letter (of the Rúmilian alphabet)”
silmë nuquerna n. “s-reversed”
tehta n. “(written) mark, sign, symbol, †written letter”
tengwa n. “(written) letter, letter; sign, token, indicator”
tengwassë n. “alphabet”

18.54 Letter, Epistle

centa n. “enquiry, *essay”
tenna² n. “letter (epistola)”

18.57 Pen

tecil n. “pen”

18.61 Book

parma n. “book, writing, composition, written document of some size”
#parma-resta n. “*book-fair”

18.66 Author, Writer

quentaro n. “speaker, reciter”
*†quesso n. “minstrel, reciter”

18.68 Tale, Story

nyárë n. “history, account”
#nyarna n. “long epic tale, story, legend”
nyarnamaitar n. “storyteller”
quenta n. “story, narrative, account, history”
quentalë n. “history, narration”
únyárima adj. “impossible to recount”

18.69 Music

#linda- v. “*to make music”
lindalë n. “music”
lindimaitar n. “composer, musician”
lingë n. “musical sound”
lingëa adj. “with a musical sound”
tanta- v. “to play a harp”

18.70 Instrument

indyel n. “small bell”
nyellë n. “small bell”
tant(il)a n. “harp”
tomba n. “[unglossed]”
tompë n. “[unglossed]”

19. Social Relations

19.11 Country ('European')

#aranië n. “kingdom”
#túrinasta n. “*kingdom”
#túrindië n. “*kingdom”

19.14 Region, Territory

arda n. “region, realm, particular land or region”
-ndor suf. “land, country”
turmen n. “realm”
yondë n. “region, any fairly extensive region with well-marked natural bounds”

19.17 Boundary

landa n. “boundary”
lantalca n. “boundary post or mark”
lanwa adj. “within bounds, limited, finite, (well-)defined”
lanya-¹ v. “to bound, enclose, separate from, mark the limit of”
pelma n. “border, fringe, edge, limiting device”
pelo n. “boundary (fence)”
peltas (peltax-) n. “fence of fixed stakes, a ‘pale’”
yonda¹ adj. “enclosed”
yonwa n. “fence, border, boundary”
yor- v. “to enclose, set bounds to/about”

19.21 People, Populace

lië n. “people, folk”

19.22 a People, Nation

nórë n. “land, country; †people, race, tribe”

19.23 Tribe, Clan, Family

nos(së) n. “kindred, family”

19.31 to Rule, Govern

cunya- v. “to rule”
mahtië n. “management”

19.32 King

aran n. “king”
aranus(së) n. “kingship”
ingaran n. “high-king”

19.33 Queen

tári n. “queen”
táris(së) n. “queenship”

19.35 Prince

aranel n. “princess”
cundo (cundu-) n. “lord, guardian”

19.352 Other Titles of Nobility

heru n. “lord, master”
túrin n. “lord”

19.36 Noble, Nobleman

ar(a)- pref. “noble, high”
arandil n. “king’s friend, royalist”
arandur n. “minister, steward, (lit.) king’s servant”
arata adj. “high, noble, exalted, lofty”
aráto n. “champion, eminent man, noble, lord, king”
arquen n. “noble, knight”

19.41 Master

#ortírië n. “*patronage, (lit.) watching over (from above)”
-tur suf. “master, lord, ruler”

19.412 Lady

#heri n. “lady”
hérincë n. “*little lady”

19.42 Slave

mól n. “slave”

19.43 Servant

-(n)dur suf. “ servant; to serve”
tercáno n. “herald”

19.44 Free (adj)

latina adj. “free (of movement), not encumbered with obstacles”
lehta adj. “free, released”
léra adj. “free (of persons)”
lerina adj. “free (of things)”
lerta- v. “to be free to do”
ráva adj. “free, unfettered, uncontrolled, lawless”

19.45 to Order, Command

canwa¹ n. “announcement, order”
canya- v. “?to command”

19.48 to Compel

or- v. “to warn, urge, feel an urge/wish/desire”
sahta- [þ] v. “to induce”
sahtië [þ] n. “pressure or force (to do something against one’s will or conscience)”

19.51 Friend

aþumo n. “friend at need, friend with shared interests, colleague”
málo n. “friend, comrade”
#meldë n. “*friend (f.)”
#meldo n. “friend, lover”

19.52 Foe, Enemy

#cotto n. “*enemy”

19.53 Companion

satar n. “trusty follower, loyal companion”

19.54 Neighbor

armaro n. “*neighbor”

19.55 Stranger

exa adj. “other”
exe n. “the other”
hyana adj. “other”
nehtano n. “one deprived, exile whose rights and goods have been confiscated”

19.58 to Help, Aid

alya- v. “to cause to prosper, bless (a work), help one”
asië [þ] n. “ease, comfort”
asya- [þ] v. “to ease, assist, comfort”
*sámo [þ] n. “helper”

19.59 to Hinder, Prevent

hranga- v. “to thwart”
nuhta- v. “to stunt, prevent from coming to completion, stop short, not allow to continue”
tapta adj. “impeded”

19.64 Common (adj)

aquapahtië n. “privacy, (lit.) *full-closedness”
ilquárëa adj. “general”
senya adj. “usual”

19.65 to Meet

*omen- v. “to move to a common point, meet”
omentië n. “meeting (of pathways), (lit.) coming together of journey-path, meeting or junction of the directions of two people”
yomenië n. “meeting, gathering”

20. Warfare and Hunting

20.13 War

ohta n. “war”

20.14 Peace

rainë n. “*peace, good will”
sérë n. “*peace”
sívë² n. “peace”

20.17 Soldier

#mehtar n. “warrior”
ohtar n. “warrior”

20.20 Captain

cáno n. “commander, chief(tain), ruler, governor; †crier, herald”

20.26 Spear

hatal n. “spear”
nernehta n. “man-spearhead”

20.27 Sword

#andamacil n. “long sword”
ecet n. “short stabbing sword”
#hyando n. “cleaver”
macar n. “swordsman; †forger”
macil n. “sword, forged sword blade, cutting sword”

20.33 Helmet

ambalotsë n. “uprising-flower”
carma¹ n. “helm”
castol(o) [þ] n. “helmet”
sól [þ] n. “?helmet, ?top”
þolon n. “helmet”

20.34 Shield

#sanda [þ] n. “shield”
sandastan (sandastam-) [þ] n. “shield-barrier”

20.35 Fortress

carasse n. “built fort or dwelling surrounded by bulwarks”
minassë n. “fort, city (with a citadel and central watch tower)”
osto n. “fortress, stronghold, strong place”
turco² n. “*stronghold”

20.36 Tower

marto n. “tower”
mindë n. “turret”
mindon n. “(lofty) tower”
taras n. “great towering building (fort/city/castle), tower; mount, hill”
tarminas n. “great towering building (fort/city/castle), tower”
tirion n. “watch-tower”

20.41 Victory

#-ndacil suf. “-victor, -slayer”
tur- v. “to master, conquer, dominate, win”
turu- v. “to master, defeat, have victory over”

21. Law and Judgment

21.11 Special Law

axan n. “law, rule, commandment”
namna n. “statute”

21.16 to Judge

#ham- v. “to judge”
nam- v. “to judge”
náma n. “judgment or desire”
nav-¹ v. “to judge”
nem-¹ v. “to judge”

21.162 to Decide

#pan- v. “*to arrange, set in order”

21.17 Judgment

námië n. “single judgment or desire”

21.18 Judge (n)

enelmo n. “go-between, intervener, intermediary, mediator”
námo² n. “judge”

21.23 Witness (n)

astarindo n. “bystander; supporter”
astarmo n. “bystander; witness”

21.25 Oath

vanda n. “oath, pledge, solemn promise”

21.37 Penalty, Punishment

ahtar- v. “to do back, react; to requite, avenge”

21.39 Jail, Prison

avalerya- v. “to restrain, to deprive of liberty”
mando n. “custody, safe keeping; prison, duress”
nasquë n. “bondage, durance”

21.41 Crime, Misdeed

ongwë n. “crime”

21.999 Law (other)

#etya adj. “exiled”

22. Religion and Beliefs

22.12 God

Eru n. “The One, God”
Eruva adj. “divine”
Vala n. “(Angelic) Power, ‘God’, Authority”
vala- v. “to have [divine] power”
Valië n. “Female Vala”

22.13 Temple

ainas n. “hallow, fane”

22.17 to Pray

arca- v. “*to pray, petition”
#arcandë n. “*petition”
#hyam- v. “*to pray”
#kyermë n. “prayer”
násan interj. “*amen, (lit.) may it be so”
násië interj. “*amen, (lit.) may it be so”

22.19 Holy, Sacred

aina adj. “holy, revered, numinous”
ainima adj. “blessed, holy (of things)”
aira adj. “holy, sanctified”
airë¹ (airi-) adj. and n. “holy; sanctity, holiness”
airëa adj. “holy (applied to persons)”
#airita- v. “to hallow”
aista adj. “*holy”
varanda adj. “sublime”

22.23 to Bless

aina- v. “to hallow, bless, treat as holy”
aistana adj. “*blessed”
amanya adj. “*blessed”
amatúlië n. “blessed arrival”
amatulya- v. “to welcome (of something blessed)”
calambar adj. “*light-fated”
lissë² n. “grace”
mána n. “blessing, good thing”
manaitë adj. “*blessed, having grace”
manaquenta adj. “*blessed”
manna adj. “*blessed”
#manta- v. “to bless”
manya- v. “to bless”

22.24 to Curse

húna adj. “cursed, accursed”
húta- v. “to curse”
naiquet- v. “to curse or blaspheme”

22.26 to Fast

lamate n. “fasting, a fast”

22.33 Angel

Ainu n. “holy one, spirit”
Maia n. “(angelic) spirit, the Beautiful”

22.35 Demon, Evil Spirit

rauco n. “demon, powerful hostile and terrible creature”

22.37 Idol

aian n. “holy thing or object or place”

22.42 Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery

núla¹ [ñ] adj. “dark, occult, mysterious”
núlë [ñ] n. “black arts, sorcery”

22.44 Elf, Nymph, Fairy

aleldarin adj. “unelvish”
aleldarinwa adj. “unElvish”
Casar n. “dwarf”
Elda n. “Elf, (lit.) one of the Star-folk”
Eldalië n. “People of the Elves, Elven-folk”
nauco n. “dwarf”
nuxo n. “Petty dwarf”
#Perian (Periand-) n. “Halfing”
Quendë n. “Elf, (lit.) One That Speaks”
Quenderin adj. and n. “Quendian, of the Quendi, belonging to the Elves as a whole”
Sindel [þ] n. “Grey-elf”
#wingil (wingild-) n. “*nymph, mermaid, foam-maid”

22.441 Goblin, Monster

foalócë n. “*breath-dragon”
orco n. “Orc”
urco (urcu-) n. “bogey, orc”
urulócë n. “fire-serpent, fire-drake”
úvanimo n. “monster, corrupt or evil creature”

22.45 Ghost, Specter, Phantom

ausa n. “dim shape, spectral or vague apparition”
fairë n. “spirit (disembodied), phantom; †radiance”
n. “spirit, shadow”

22.47 Omen

#apacen n. “foresight, (lit.) *after-sight”
#apacenya adj. “of foresight”
umbë n. “imminence, threat; premonition, fear, unwelcome expectation”

23. Grammar

23.1 Article

article. “the”

23.2 Negation

ála particle. “do not”
al(a)-¹ pref. “in-, un-, not; †-less, without”
interj. “nay, no”
la- pref. “not, in-, un-”
lá- v. “to not be”
lá¹ adv. “no, not”
las adv. “it is/was not so”
lasir conj. “rather the reverse”
nec- pref. “without”
pen prep. “without, not having”
pen- v. “not to have”
ú prep. and adv. “without, destitute of”
ú- pref. “no, not, un-, in-; hard, difficult, bad, uneasy; hardly, with difficulty, ‘badly’”
ua- v. “to not be, to not do”
ui adv. “no, it is n[ot]”
ui- v. “to not be, to not do”
uito interj. “it is not that”
úna¹ adj. “deprived of, destitute, forlorn”
úna² ? “*it is not”
únat n. “thing impossible to be or to be done”
úsië conj. “on the contrary”
úsir conj. “on the contrary”
interj. and adv. “will not, do not, shall not”

23.3 Preposition

atar² prep. “*for”
ier prep. “*as”
meter prep. “*for (the purpose of), towards the end”
prep. “touching, against, on (above but touching); as regards, concerning”
rá² prep. “*for, on behalf of”
se² prep. “at, in”
sívë¹ prep. “*as”
tambë prep. “*as, so”
tenna¹ prep. “until, up to, as far as, to the point, to reach”
ter prep. “through”
tier prep. “*so”
ve¹ prep. “as, like, similar, after the manner [of]”

23.4 Pronoun

aiquen pron. “if anybody, whoever”
-cca suf. “your (dual)”
-ccë suf. “you (dual)”
e pron. “one, (neut[er]) it, a thing”
?elmë pron. “we (emphatic inclusive), *we (emphatic exclusive)”
elvë pron. “we (emphatic inclusive)”
elyë pron. “thou (emphatic polite)”
emmë¹ pron. “we (emphatic exclusive), *we (dual emphatic exclusive)”
eo pron. “person, somebody (unnamed)”
esto pron. “they (dual emphatic)”
hya² pron. “other thing”
hye pron. “other person, him (the other)”
pron. “who, what, which, that”
ilcë pron. “you (plural emphatic)”
-ilco suf. “you (dual)”
imlë pron. “yourself (polite)”
immë¹ pron. “ourselves (exclusive)”
immë² pron. “ourselves (dual, emphatic)”
immo pron. “same one (person), self”
imni pron. “myself”
indë pron. “yourselves”
inquë pron. “thou-and-I (emphatic)”
insa pron. “itself”
insë pron. “himself, herself”
intë¹ pron. “themselves”
intë² pron. “they (emphatic)”
intyë pron. “yourself (familiar)”
inwë pron. “ourselves (inclusive)”
inyë pron. “I (emphatic)”
issë pron. “he, *she, it (emphatic)”
-lda¹ suf. “your (plural)”
-lda² suf. “your (dual)”
-ldë¹ suf. “you (plural)”
le pron. “you (plural)”
-lla¹ suf. “your (plural polite)”
-llë² suf. “you (plural)”
-lma¹ suf. “our (exclusive)”
-lma² suf. “our (inclusive)”
-lma³ suf. “our (inclusive dual)”
-lmë¹ suf. “we (exclusive)”
-lmë² suf. “we (inclusive)”
-lta suf. “theirs”
-ltë suf. “they”
-lva suf. “our (inclusive)”
-lvë suf. “we (inclusive)”
-lya¹ suf. “your (polite)”
-l(yë) suf. “you (polite)”
lye pron. “you (polite)”
ma¹ pron. “something, a thing, anything”
me pron. “us (exclusive)”
menya pron. “*our (possessive pronoun)”
-mma¹ suf. “our (exclusive dual)”
-mma² suf. “our (exclusive)”
-mmë¹ suf. “we (exclusive dual)”
-mmë² suf. “we (exclusive)”
-mmo suf. “we (exclusive dual)”
mo pron. “one, anyone, someone, somebody”
-nca suf. “your (plural familiar)”
-ncë suf. “you (plural familiar)”
-ngo suf. “we (inclusive dual)”
-ngwa suf. “our (inclusive dual)”
-ngwë suf. “we (inclusive dual)”
ni pron. “me, I”
-nquë suf. “thou-and-I (dual)”
-nta suf. “theirs”
-ntë suf. “they”
-nya suf. “my”
-n(yë) suf. “I”
-rya¹ suf. “his, her, its”
-rya² suf. “their (colloquial)”
sa¹ pron. “it (inanimate); that”
sana adj. “that very thing (already referred to)”
-s(ë) suf. “he, she, it; him, her, it”
se¹ pron. “he, she, it (animate)”
si¹ adj. and pron. “this”
sina adj. “this”
sítë adj. “of this sort”
-s(sa) suf. “3rd person singular neuter”
-ssë³ suf. “himself, *herself, itself”
-sta³ suf. “your (dual)”
-sta⁴ suf. “their (dual)”
-s(të) suf. “3rd person singular animate”
-stë¹ suf. “you (dual)”
-t² suf. “they (object suffix)”
ta¹ pron. “that, there”
tai¹ pron. “them (inanimate)”
taitë adj. “of that sort”
tallë adv. “like that”
tama n. “that matter”
tana adj. and pron. “that”
tanen adv. “in that way”
te pron. “them”
-ttë¹ suf. “they (dual)”
-ttë² suf. “themselves”
pron. “them (dual)”
-twa suf. “their (dual)”
-tya suf. “your (familiar)”
-tyë suf. “you (familiar)”
tye pron. “you (familiar), thee”
ve² pron. “us (inclusive)”
ya pron. “which, where, that (relative pronoun)”
-ya³ suf. “his, her, its (colloquial)”
yallë adv. “as, in the same way as, like”
ye pron. “who”

23.5 Noun Inflection

-i¹ suf. “general plural for nouns”
-ië¹ suf. “abstract noun, adverb”
-lë suf. “abstract noun, adverb”
-li suf. “partitive plural (suffix); many, some, a lot of”
#-më suf. “abstract noun”
-n² suf. “dative”
-ndon suf. “-like, -ily”
-nen suf. “instrumental”
-nna suf. “(movement) to, towards, onto, at (arriving at a point); allative suffix”
-o suf. “of; genitive ending”
-r¹ suf. “plural suffix”
#-rë suf. “abstract noun”
-ssë¹ suf. “locative ending”
#-ssë² suf. “abstract noun”
-t¹ suf. “dual ending”
-u suf. “dual ending”
-va suf. “possessive or adjectival ending”

23.6 Verb Inflection

#a- pref. “infinitive prefix”
á particle. “imperative particle”
-ëa¹ suf. “continuative present”
-i² suf. “simplest aorist infinitive”
-ië² suf. “gerund suffix, -ing”
-ië³ suf. “perfect suffix”
-(i)la suf. “active participle”
-ina suf. “adjective suffix; passive participle”
-ita suf. “particular infinitive”
-lya² suf. “imperfect participle”
-mie suf. “a single action”
-nwa suf. “passive suffix; active participle (intransitive verbs)”
#-sta² suf. “verbal noun suffix”
*-ula suf. “likelihood or aptitude”
-uva suf. “future tense suffix”
-xë¹ suf. “reflexive verbal inflection”

23.7 Comparative, Intensive

an- pref. “intensive prefix”
ar(i)- pref. “superlative prefix; good”
#-incë suf. “diminutive ending”
íta² adv. “very, extremely; (lit.) multiplied, increased”
langë adv. “surpassingly, superlatively, extremely”
-lda³ suf. “a comparative suffix”
na-¹ pref. “plu-”
#-on suf. “augmentative, great”

23.8 Conjunction

an conj. and adv. “for, but, then, or; moreover, furthermore”
apa³ conj. “but”
ar conj. “and”
epetai conj. “consequently, thereupon, thence, whereupon, (lit.) following which (fact)”
etta conj. “*therefore, (lit.) out of that”
hela conj. “*other than”
hya¹ conj. “or”
ita conj. “that which, what”
itas adv. “in that case”
lan conj. “*while”
laqui conj. “unless”
mal conj. “but”
ono conj. “but”
pan conj. “*since”
potai conj. “*therefore, (lit.) before which”
san conj. and adv. “*then, so, thus”
sinen adv. “by this means, so”
ta³ adv. and conj. “so, like that, also; and also, then”
conj. “when”

23.9 Affix

#-a suf. “adjectival suffix”
ana-¹ pref. “to, towards”
-da suf. “product of an action”
-e suf. “plural of adjectives”
-ëa² suf. “ordinal suffix”
-ma suf. “instrumental”
-ta suf. “causative verb suffix”
-tië suf. “verbal suffix”
-vë suf. “abstract noun, adverb”
-wë suf. “name-suffix (often masculine)”
-ya¹ suf. “adjective suffix”
-ya² suf. “suffix of endearment”
-ya⁴ suf. “verbal suffix”

23.99 Grammar (other)

mestanyatsë n. “suffixion”
minquetyarmë n. “accentuation”
mittandë n. “infixion, intrusion, insertion”
tengwesta n. “grammar, morphology, system or code of signs, collection of matter concerning writing, *language structure”