ᴹAQ. voiced stops became spirants except after nasals and liquids; [{bdg}|{mnŋ}{bdg}] > [{βðɣ}|{mnŋ}{bdg}]

ᴹAQ. voiced stops became spirants except after nasals and liquids; [{bdg}|{mnŋ}{bdg}] > [{βðɣ}|{mnŋ}{bdg}]

References ✧ PE19/32, 34, 40, 46; PE22/44

Order (01700)

After 01200 [dj] became [lj]
After 01600 voiced stops became nasals before nasals
Before 01800 initial [ɣ] before [l], [r] sometimes became a vowel
Before 01900 [β], [ɣ] vocalized before voiced consonants
Before 02200 second short vowel of same quality lost
Before 03300 spirants after [r], [l] became stops
Before 03800 velars were dentalized before [j]
Before 04100 [z] and [ð] assimilated to following [r], [l]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[b] > [β] ✧ PE19/38 (b > v); PE19/50 (b > v)
[mb] > [mb]
[d] > [ð]
[nd] > [nd]
[g] > [ɣ] ✧ PE19/51 (gy > ʒy); PE19/51 (gw > ʒw); PE19/38 (gl > l; initial); PE19/38 (gr > r; initial); PE19/38 (gw > w); PE19/38 (g > ø)
[ŋg] > [ŋg]

Phonetic Rule Examples

abār > aβār b > β ᴹ✶ábārō̆ > ᴹQ. Avar/Avaro ✧ Ety/AB
ɣolbā > ɣolβā b > β ᴹ✶golbā > ᴹQ. olwa ✧ Ety/GÓLOB
kjawe > kjaβe b > β ᴹ√KYAB > ᴹQ. tyave ✧ PE22/102
kjawin > kjaβin b > β ᴹ√KYAB > ᴹQ. tyavin ✧ Ety/KYAB
labe > laβe b > β ᴹ√LAB > ᴹQ. lave ✧ PE22/102
labin > laβin b > β ᴹ√LAB > ᴹQ. lavin ✧ Ety/LAB
ndakuban > ndakuβan b > β ᴹ✶ndăkŭbā̆nyē > ᴹQ. nakuvan ✧ PE21/65
rāba > rāβa b > β ᴹ✶rāba > ᴹQ. ráva ✧ Ety/RAB
rāba > rāβa b > β ᴹ√RAB² > ᴹQ. ráva ✧ Ety/RAMBĀ
sāba > sāβa b > β ᴹ√SAB > ᴹQ. sáva ✧ Ety/SAB
-uba > -uβa b > β ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. -uva ✧ VT48/32
ūbe > ūβe b > β ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. úve ✧ Ety/UB
ubie > uβie b > β ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. úvie ✧ VT48/32
balā > βalā b > β ᴹ✶bálā > ᴹQ. Vala ✧ Ety/BAL
balī > βalī b > β ᴹ✶bal-ī́ > ᴹQ. †Vali ✧ Ety/BAL
βalīndōr > βalīndōr b > β ᴹ✶balī́-ndō̆re > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ Ety/BAL
βalīndōr > βalīndōr b > β ᴹ✶Bắlī + ndṓrḗ > Bálīndṑrē > Bálĭndṑrĕ > Balindor > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ PE19/59
βalīnōr > βalīnōr b > β ᴹ✶Balī-nṓrē̆ > Bali-nṓr(e) > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ PE18/56
banda > βanda b > β ᴹ✶banda > ᴹQ. vanda ✧ EtyAC/BAD²
banima > βanima b > β ᴹ√BAN > ᴹQ. vanima ✧ Ety/BAN
banjā > βanjā b > β ᴹ✶bányā > ᴹQ. vanya ✧ Ety/BAN
banwa > βanwa b > β ABA/BA > Q. vanwa ✧ PE17/16
banwa > βanwa b > β bā̆nwa > Q. vanwa ✧ PE22/137
banwa > βanwa b > β ᴹ√BĀ/BANA > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/97
banwa > βanwa b > β ᴹ√vā- > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/106
banwa > βanwa b > β ᴹ√BA > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/112
baradā > βaradā b > β ᴹ✶barádā > ᴹQ. Varda ✧ Ety/BARÁD
baradā > βaradā b > β ᴹ✶baradā > ᴹQ. Varda ✧ Ety/BARATH
barane > βarane b > β ᴹ√BARÁN > ᴹQ. varne ✧ Ety/BARÁN
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð ᴹ✶galadā > ᴹQ. Alda ✧ SD/302
nelede > neleðe d > ð ᴹ√NÉL-ED > ᴹQ. nelde ✧ Ety/NEL
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > ᴹQ. noldo ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ᴹ√ŊGÓLODŌ > ŋoldo > ᴹQ. noldo ✧ PE18/40
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ᴹ✶ñgolodō > ᴹQ. ñoldo ✧ PE19/36
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ᴹ✶ñgòlodṓ > ᴹQ. ñgoldṓ ✧ PE19/58
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ ᴹ✶galadā > ᴹQ. Alda ✧ SD/302
gampa > ɣampa g > ɣ ᴹ√GAP > ᴹQ. ampa ✧ Ety/GAP
garda > ɣarda g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arda ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
geja > ɣeja g > ɣ ᴹ✶geı̯ā > ᴹQ. ia ✧ Ety/GEY
golbā > ɣolbā g > ɣ ᴹ✶golbā > ᴹQ. olwa ✧ Ety/GÓLOB
gondo > ɣondo g > ɣ ᴹ√GÓNOD/GONDO > ᴹQ. ondo ✧ Ety/GOND
gondolindē > ɣondolindē g > ɣ Gondō̆-lindē > Q. Ondolinde ✧ PE17/133
gondōm > ɣondōm g > ɣ ᴹ✶góndōm > góndōr > ᴹQ. ondor ✧ PE21/58
gondōm > ɣondōm g > ɣ ᴹ✶gondōm > ʒondō̆n > ᴹQ. ondor ✧ PE21/63
gondōt > ɣondōt g > ɣ ᴹ✶gondōt > ʒondō̆t > ᴹQ. ondot ✧ PE19/52
gorōmē > ɣorōmē g > ɣ ᴹ✶Górōmē > ᴹQ. Orōme ✧ EtyAC/GÓROM
gū- > ɣū- g > ɣ ᴹ✶gū̆- > ᴹQ. ū- ✧ Ety/GŪ
gū- > ɣū- g > ɣ ᴹ✶ugu/gū > ᴹQ. ú- ✧ Ety/UGU
gwa- > ɣwa- g > ɣ ᴹ✶gwo- > ᴹQ. ✧ PE19/53
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ ᴹ√WEN(ED) > ᴹQ. wende ✧ Ety/GWEN
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ ᴹ√WENED > wende > ᴹQ. vende ✧ Ety/WEN
gwenja > ɣwenja g > ɣ ᴹ√GWEN > ᴹQ. wenya ✧ Ety/GWEN
gwinja > ɣwinja g > ɣ ᴹ√GWIN > ᴹQ. winya ✧ EtyAC/GWIN
gwo- > ɣwo- g > ɣ ᴹ✶gwo- > ᴹQ. o-´ ✧ PE19/53
lagwe > laɣwe g > ɣ ᴹ✶dagwe > ᴹQ. lau(w)e ✧ PE19/46
magā > maɣā g > ɣ ᴹ✶magā > ᴹQ. ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ
magjā > maɣjā g > ɣ ᴹ✶magyā > ᴹQ. mai(y)a ✧ PE19/46
magrā > maɣrā g > ɣ ᴹ✶magrā > ᴹQ. mára ✧ Ety/MAƷ|MAG
magra > maɣra g > ɣ ᴹ✶magra > ᴹQ. mára ✧ PE19/46
pʰelgā > pʰelɣā g > ɣ ᴹ√PHÉLEG > ᴹQ. felya ✧ Ety/PHÉLEG
rīgē > rīɣē g > ɣ ᴹ✶rīgē > ᴹQ. ríe ✧ Ety/RIG
sagrā > saɣrā g > ɣ ᴹ✶sagrā > ᴹQ. sára ✧ Ety/SAG
sogrā > soɣlā g > ɣ ᴹ✶soglā > ᴹQ. sóla ✧ PE19/46
stegrā > steɣrā g > ɣ ᴹ✶stegrā > ᴹQ. thḗra ✧ PE19/46
-weg > -weɣ g > ɣ ᴹ✶-wego > weg > ᴹQ. -we ✧ Ety/WEG
wegō > weɣō g > ɣ ᴹ✶wegō > ᴹQ. †veo ✧ Ety/WEG

ᴱQ. initial voiced stops became voiceless; [{bdggʷ}-] > [{ptkkʷ}-]

Reference ✧ PE12/17

Order ()

After initial [gʷ] became [w]
After palatals became dentals before [i]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[b-] > [p-]
[d-] > [t-]
[g-] > [k-]
[gʷ-] > [kʷ-]

Phonetic Rule Examples

balava- > palava- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palava- ✧ QL/71
balāva- > palāva- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palāva ✧ QL/71
balis > palis b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palis ✧ QL/71
balo > palo b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palo ✧ QL/71
balta > palta b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palta ✧ QL/71
balwa- > palwa- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palwa- ✧ QL/71
bē > pē b- > p- ᴱ√ > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/72
bondo > pondo b- > p- ᴱ√BOÐO > ᴱQ. pondo ✧ QL/75
bonte > ponte b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. ponte ✧ QL/75
bosta > posta b- > p- ᴱ√BOÐO > ᴱQ. posta ✧ QL/75
bote > pote b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. pote ✧ QL/75
botsi > potsi b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. potsi ✧ QL/75
bulko > pulko b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulko ✧ QL/75
bulme > pulme b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulme ✧ QL/75
bulu- > pulu- b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulu- ✧ QL/75
bulwa > pulwa b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulwa ✧ QL/75
burja- > purja- b- > p- ᴱ✶búrı̯ā > ᴱQ. purya ✧ PE13/116
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ✶dagā́ > ᴱQ. tá- ✧ PE13/161
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/87
da > ta d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/87
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ✶da’a > > ᴱQ. ✧ PE13/142
dajorme > tajorme d- > t- ᴱ√TAʕA > ᴱQ. tayorme ✧ QL/87
dāra > tāra d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. tāra ✧ QL/87
daramb > taramb d- > t- ᴱ√TARAMA > ᴱQ. taran ✧ QL/89
dāri > tāri d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. tāri ✧ QL/87
darwa > tarwa d- > t- ᴱ✶dar’wa- > ᴱQ. tarwa ✧ PE13/161
dorme > torme d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > tahorme > taorme > ᴱQ. torme ✧ QL/87
gala- > kala- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kala- ✧ QL/44
gala > kala g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kala ✧ QL/44
galaine > kalaine g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalaine ✧ QL/44
gāle > kāle g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kále ✧ QL/44
galenda > kalenda g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalenda ✧ QL/44
galle > kalle g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalle ✧ QL/44
gallu- > kallu- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kal(l)u- ✧ QL/44
galma > kalma g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalma ✧ QL/44
galmarn > kalmarn g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalmar ✧ QL/44
galta- > kalta- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalta- ✧ QL/44
galwa > kalwa g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalwa ✧ QL/44
gargo > kargo g- > k- ᴱ✶grgu- > ᴱQ. karko ✧ PE13/144
garθa- > karθa- g- > k- ᴱ√gṛþ- > ᴱQ. karda ✧ GL/42
giw- > kiw- g- > k- ᴱ√giu̯i > ᴱQ. kiu̯ ✧ GL/39
gōpa > kōpa g- > k- ᴱ√KOPO > ᴱQ. kópa ✧ QL/47
gos > kos g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kos ✧ QL/48
gosar > kosar g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kosar ✧ QL/48
gosta- > kosta- g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kosta- ✧ QL/48
gwin > kwin g- > k- ᴱ√QIMI > ᴱQ. qin ✧ QL/77
gwinde > kwinde g- > k- ᴱ√QIMI > ᴱQ. (i) qinde ✧ QL/77
gʷen > kʷen gʷ- > kʷ- ᴱ✶Gwendi- > ᴱQ. Qen ✧ PE13/146

ᴱQ. voiced stops became spirants after vowels; [V{bddʲggʷ}] > [V{βððʲɣɣʷ}]

Order ()

Before [ð] became [z]
Before 02500 [ɣ] otherwise vanished

Phonetic Rule Elements

[Vb] > [Vβ] ✧ PE12/16 (b > v (w); medial)
[Vd] > [Vð] ✧ PE12/16 (d > z; medial)
[Vdʲ] > [Vðʲ] ✧ PE12/16 (d͡y > ; medial)
[Vg] > [Vɣ] ✧ PE12/16 (g > -; medial)
[Vgʷ] > [Vɣʷ] ✧ PE12/16 (g͡w > ; medial)

Phonetic Rule Examples

ambodt > amboðt Vd > Vð ᴱ✶a-mbod-t’ > ᴱQ. ambos ✧ PE13/139
fada > faða Vd > Vð ᴱ✶swada > ᴱQ. fara ✧ PE13/146
daga > daɣa Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶dagā́ > ᴱQ. tá- ✧ PE13/161
daɣā > daɣa Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶da’a > > ᴱQ. ✧ PE13/142
gʷegie > gʷeɣie Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶gu̯eg- > ᴱQ. wie ✧ GL/44
nēgitte > nēɣitte Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶nēgittĕ > ᴱQ. neite ✧ GL/60
negōn > neɣōn Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶negōn > ᴱQ. nion ✧ GL/60