ᴹAQ. voiced stops became spirants except after nasals and liquids; [{bdg}|{mnŋ}{bdg}] > [{βðɣ}|{mnŋ}{bdg}]

ᴹAQ. voiced stops became spirants except after nasals and liquids; [{bdg}|{mnŋ}{bdg}] > [{βðɣ}|{mnŋ}{bdg}]

References ✧ PE19/32, 34, 40, 46; PE22/44

Order (02900)

After 00300 second short vowel of same quality lost
After 00400 later [j], [w] became [i], [u] before consonants
After 01200 initial [ɣ] became [h]
After 01300 combinations of voiced stops were unvoiced
After 01400 [z] plus voiced stop became unvoiced
After 02400 voiced stops became nasals before nasals
After 02700 initial [dj] became [j]
After 02800 initial [d] became [l]
Before 03000 velars were dentalized before [j]
Before 03100 initial [ɣ] before [l], [r] sometimes became a vowel
Before 04300 [β], [ɣ] vocalized before voiced consonants
Before 04600 [z] and [ð] assimilated to following [r], [l]
Before 00700 ᴹQ. spirants became stops after [r], [l]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[b] > [β] ✧ PE19/38 (b > v); PE19/50 (b > v)
[mb] > [mb]
[d] > [ð]
[nd] > [nd]
[g] > [ɣ] ✧ PE19/51 (gy > ʒy); PE19/51 (gw > ʒw); PE19/38 (gl > l; initial); PE19/38 (gr > r; initial); PE19/38 (gw > w); PE19/38 (g > ø)
[ŋg] > [ŋg]

Phonetic Rule Examples

abante > aβante b > β ᴹ✶abtā > ᴹQ. avante ✧ PE19/45
abār > aβār b > β ᴹ✶ábārō̆ > ᴹQ. Avar/Avaro ✧ Ety/AB
ɣolbā > ɣolβā b > β ᴹ✶golbā > ᴹQ. olwa ✧ Ety/GÓLOB
jābe > jāβe b > β ᴹ√YAB > ᴹQ. yáve ✧ Ety/YAB
kabubā > kaβuβā b > β ᴹ√KAV- > kavuva > ᴹQ. kauva ✧ PE22/105
kjabe > kjaβe b > β ᴹ√KYAB > ᴹQ. tyave ✧ PE22/102
kjabin > kjaβin b > β ᴹ√KYAB > ᴹQ. tyavin ✧ Ety/KYAB
kub- > kuβ- b > β ᴹ√KUB > ᴹQ. kuve ✧ PE22/102
laibē > laiβē b > β ᴹ✶laibē > ᴹQ. laive ✧ Ety/LIB²
lab- > laβ- b > β ᴹ√DAB > ᴹQ. lav- ✧ Ety/DAB
labe > laβe b > β ᴹ√LAB > ᴹQ. lave ✧ PE22/102
labin > laβin b > β ᴹ√LAB > ᴹQ. lavin ✧ Ety/LAB
ndakuban > ndakuβan b > β ᴹ✶ndăkŭbā̆nyē > ᴹQ. nakuvan ✧ PE21/65
rāba > rāβa b > β ᴹ✶rāba > ᴹQ. ráva ✧ Ety/RAB
rāba > rāβa b > β ᴹ√RAB² > ᴹQ. ráva ✧ Ety/RAMBĀ
sāba > sāβa b > β ᴹ√SAB > ᴹQ. sáva ✧ Ety/SAB
sub- > suβ- b > β ᴹ√SUB > ᴹQ. sumbe ✧ PE22/127
tawar > taβar b > β ᴹ✶tawar > ᴹQ. tavar ✧ Ety/TÁWAR
tawaril > taβaril b > β ᴹ✶táwārē̆ > ᴹQ. tavaril ✧ Ety/TÁWAR
tawaro > taβaro b > β ᴹ✶táwārō̆ > ᴹQ. tavaro/tavaron ✧ Ety/TÁWAR
-uba > -uβa b > β ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. -uva ✧ VT48/32
ūbe > ūβe b > β ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. úve ✧ Ety/UB
ubie > uβie b > β ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. úvie ✧ VT48/32
balā > βalā b > β ᴹ✶bálā > ᴹQ. Vala ✧ Ety/BAL
balī > βalī b > β ᴹ✶bal-ī́ > ᴹQ. †Vali ✧ Ety/BAL
βalīndōr > βalīndōr b > β ᴹ✶balī́-ndō̆re > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ Ety/BAL
βalīndōr > βalīndōr b > β ᴹ✶Bắlī + ndṓrḗ > Bálīndṑrē > Bálĭndṑrĕ > Balindor > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ PE19/59
βalīnōr > βalīnōr b > β ᴹ✶Balī-nṓrē̆ > Bali-nṓr(e) > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ PE18/56
balja > βalja b > β ᴹ√BAL > ᴹQ. valya ✧ Ety/BAL
banā > βanā b > β ᴹ✶bánā > ᴹQ. Vana ✧ Ety/BAN
banda > βanda b > β ᴹ✶banda > ᴹQ. vanda ✧ EtyAC/BAD²
banima > βanima b > β ᴹ√BAN > ᴹQ. vanima ✧ Ety/BAN
banjā > βanjā b > β ᴹ✶bányā > ᴹQ. vanya ✧ Ety/BAN
banta > βanta b > β ᴹ√BAT > ᴹQ. vanta ✧ Ety/BAT
banta- > βanta- b > β ᴹ√BAT > ᴹQ. vanta- ✧ Ety/BAT
banwa > βanwa b > β ABA/BA > Q. vanwa ✧ PE17/16
banwa > βanwa b > β bā̆nwa > Q. vanwa ✧ PE22/137
banwa > βanwa b > β ᴹ√BĀ/BANA > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/97
banwa > βanwa b > β ᴹ√vā- > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/106
banwa > βanwa b > β ᴹ√BA > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/112
bardā > βardā b > β ᴹ✶barádā > ᴹQ. Varda ✧ Ety/BARÁD
bardā > βardā b > β ᴹ✶baradā > ᴹQ. Varda ✧ Ety/BARATH
barile > βarile b > β ᴹ√BAR > ᴹQ. varile ✧ EtyAC/BAR
barja- > βarja- b > β ᴹ✶baryā́- > ᴹQ. varya- ✧ Ety/BAR
barnā > βarnā b > β ᴹ✶barnā́ > ᴹQ. varna ✧ Ety/BAR
barne > βarne b > β ᴹ√BAR > ᴹQ. varne ✧ Ety/BAR
barne > βarne b > β ᴹ√BARÁN > ᴹQ. varne ✧ Ety/BARÁN
berie > βerie b > β ᴹ√BER > ᴹQ. verie ✧ Ety/BER
berja > βerja b > β ᴹ√BER > ᴹQ. verya ✧ Ety/BER
berja- > βerja- b > β ᴹ✶bérya- > ᴹQ. verya- ✧ Ety/BER
berkā > βerkā b > β ᴹ✶berékā > ᴹQ. verka ✧ Ety/BERÉK
besnō > βesnō b > β ᴹ✶besnō > ᴹQ. venno ✧ Ety/BES
bessē > βessē b > β ᴹ✶bessē > ᴹQ. vesse ✧ Ety/BES
besta- > βesta- b > β ᴹ√BES > ᴹQ. vesta- ✧ Ety/BES
besta- > βesta- b > β ᴹ√BES > ᴹQ. vesta- ✧ Ety/WED
bestā > βestā b > β ᴹ✶bestā > ᴹQ. vesta ✧ Ety/BES
bestā > βestā b > β ᴹ√BES > ᴹQ. vesta ✧ Ety/WED
besū > βesū b > β ᴹ✶besū > ᴹQ. veru ✧ Ety/BES
bōre > βōre b > β ᴹ√BOR > ᴹQ. vóre ✧ EtyAC/BOR
bōrea > βōrea b > β ᴹ√BOR > ᴹQ. vórëa ✧ EtyAC/BOR
bōrima > βōrima b > β ᴹ√BOR > ᴹQ. vórima ✧ Ety/BOR
boro > βoro b > β ᴹ√BOR > ᴹQ. voro ✧ Ety/BOR
boronwa > βoronwa b > β ᴹ√BORÓN > ᴹQ. voronwa ✧ Ety/BORÓN
boronwie > βoronwie b > β ᴹ√BORÓN > ᴹQ. voronwie ✧ Ety/BORÓN
gwad- > gwað- d > ð ᴹ√WAD > ᴹQ. ware ✧ PE22/102
lāda > lāða d > ð ᴹ✶lāda > ᴹQ. lára ✧ Ety/DAL
lāda > lāða d > ð ᴹ√LAD > ᴹQ. lāra ✧ EtyAC/LAD
madja > maðja d > ð ᴹ√MAD > ᴹQ. marya ✧ Ety/MAD
madja > maðja d > ð ᴹ√MAD > ᴹQ. marya ✧ EtyAC/MAD
manad > manað d > ð ᴹ√MANAD > ᴹQ. manar ✧ Ety/MANAD
med- > með- d > ð ᴹ√MED > ᴹQ. mere ✧ PE22/102
meldo > melðo d > ð ᴹ√MEL > ᴹQ. meldo ✧ EtyAC/MEL
mid > mið d > ð ᴹ√MI > ᴹQ. mir ✧ Ety/MI
nidwā > niðwā d > ð ᴹ✶nidwō > ᴹQ. nirwa ✧ Ety/NID
nidwa > niðwa d > ð ᴹ√NID² > ᴹQ. nirwa ✧ EtyAC/NID²
nidwe > niðwe d > ð ᴹ√NID² > ᴹQ. nirwe ✧ EtyAC/NID²
njadrō > njaðrō d > ð ᴹ✶nyadrō > ᴹQ. nyarro ✧ Ety/NYAD
palad > palað d > ð ᴹ√PAL > ᴹQ. palar ✧ EtyAC/PAL
redin > reðin d > ð ᴹ√RED > ᴹQ. rerin ✧ Ety/RED
sede > seðe d > ð ᴹ√SED > ᴹQ. sere ✧ PE22/102
sēde > sēðe d > ð ᴹ√SED > ᴹQ. sére ✧ Ety/SED
sedin > seðin d > ð ᴹ√SED > ᴹQ. serin ✧ Ety/SED
j̊ad- > sjað- d > ð ᴹ√SYAD > ᴹQ. hyar- ✧ PE19/45
j̊ade > sjaðe d > ð ᴹ√SYAD > ᴹQ. hyare ✧ PE22/102
j̊adin > sjaðin d > ð ᴹ√SYAD > ᴹQ. hyarin ✧ Ety/SYAD
tad > tað d > ð ᴹ✶tad > ᴹQ. tar ✧ Ety/TA
tad > tað d > ð ᴹ✶tad > ᴹQ. tar ✧ PE19/52
tad > tað d > ð ᴹ✶tā̆d > ᴹQ. tar ✧ PE21/58
wǣdē > wǣðē d > ð ᴹ✶wǣdē > ᴹQ. vēre ✧ Ety/WED
xad- > xað- d > ð ᴹ√KHAD > ᴹQ. har- ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
ga > ɣa g > ɣ ᴹ✶ga > ᴹQ. a ✧ PE22/94
gaira > ɣaira g > ɣ ᴹ√GAY > ᴹQ. aira ✧ Ety/GAY
gaista- > ɣaista- g > ɣ ᴹ✶gais- > ᴹQ. aista- ✧ Ety/GÁYAS
gal- > ɣal- g > ɣ ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. ’al ✧ Ety/GALA
gal- > ɣal- g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. al- ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
gala > ɣala g > ɣ ᴹ√GALÁN > ᴹQ. ala ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹
galan > ɣalan g > ɣ ᴹ√GALÁN > ᴹQ. alan ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹
galas > ɣalas g > ɣ ᴹ√GALÁS > alasa > ᴹQ. alar ✧ EtyAC/GALÁS
galas > ɣalas g > ɣ ᴹ√GALAS > ᴹQ. alar ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
galasse > ɣalasse g > ɣ ᴹ√GALÁS > ᴹQ. alasse ✧ Ety/GALÁS
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ ᴹ✶galadā > ᴹQ. Alda ✧ SD/302
galja > ɣalja g > ɣ ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. alya ✧ Ety/GALA
galja > ɣalja g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. alya ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
galla > ɣalla g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. ala/alla ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
galma > ɣalma g > ɣ ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. alma ✧ Ety/GALA
galma > ɣalma g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL² > ᴹQ. alma ✧ EtyAC/GAL²
galma > ɣalma g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. alma ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
galmare > ɣalmare g > ɣ ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. almare ✧ Ety/GALA
galmare > ɣalmare g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. almare ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
galwa > ɣalwa g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. alwa ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
gampa > ɣampa g > ɣ ᴹ√GAP > ᴹQ. ampa ✧ Ety/GAP
garda > ɣarda g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arda ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
garja- > ɣarja- g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arya- ✧ EtyAC/GAR
garjon > ɣarjon g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. aryon ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
garjon > ɣarjon g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. aryo/aryon ✧ EtyAC/GAR
garma > ɣarma g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arma ✧ EtyAC/GAR
garmar > ɣarmar g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. armar ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
garta > ɣarta g > ɣ ᴹ√GARAT > ᴹQ. arta ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GARAT
garwa > ɣarwa g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arwa ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
garwa > ɣarwa g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arwa ✧ EtyAC/GAR
-garwa > -ɣarwa g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. -arwa ✧ EtyAC/GAR
garwe > ɣarwe g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arwe ✧ EtyAC/GAR
gassā > ɣassā g > ɣ ᴹ✶gassā > ᴹQ. assa ✧ Ety/GAS
gatsa > ɣatsa g > ɣ ᴹ√GAT > ᴹQ. atsa ✧ Ety/GAT
gaule > ɣaule g > ɣ ᴹ√GAWA > ᴹQ. aule ✧ Ety/GAWA
gauta- > ɣauta- g > ɣ ᴹ√GAWA > ᴹQ. auta- ✧ Ety/GAWA
geigolosse > ɣeiɣolosse g > ɣ ᴹ✶Geı̯golosse > ᴹQ. Iolosse ✧ Ety/GEY
geira > ɣeira g > ɣ ᴹ√GEY > ᴹQ. íra ✧ Ety/GEY
geire > ɣeire g > ɣ ᴹ√GEY > ᴹQ. íre ✧ Ety/GEY
geja > ɣeja g > ɣ ᴹ✶geı̯ā > ᴹQ. ia ✧ Ety/GEY
geŋgwā > ɣeŋgwā g > ɣ ᴹ✶GENG-WĀ > ᴹQ. engwa ✧ Ety/GENG-WĀ
gilma > ɣilma g > ɣ ᴹ√GIL > ᴹQ. Ilma ✧ Ety/GIL
gilmen > ɣilmen g > ɣ ᴹ√GIL > ᴹQ. ilmen ✧ Ety/WIL
gjello > ɣjello g > ɣ ᴹ√GYEL > ᴹQ. yello ✧ Ety/GYEL
gjerja- > ɣjerja- g > ɣ ᴹ√GYER > ᴹQ. yerya ✧ Ety/GYER
gjernā > ɣjernā g > ɣ ᴹ✶gyernā > ᴹQ. yerna ✧ Ety/GYER
glin- > ɣlin- g > ɣ ᴹ√GLIN > ᴹQ. lin- ✧ Ety/GLIN
glind > ɣlind g > ɣ ᴹ√GLINDI > ᴹQ. ilin ✧ Ety/GLINDI
glinde > ɣlinde g > ɣ ᴹ√GLIN > ᴹQ. linde ✧ Ety/GLIN
gliŋga- > ɣliŋga- g > ɣ ᴹ√GLING > ᴹQ. linga- ✧ Ety/GLING
gola- > ɣola- g > ɣ ᴹ✶golā > ᴹQ. ola- ✧ PE22/113
golbā > ɣolbā g > ɣ ᴹ✶golbā > ᴹQ. olwa ✧ Ety/GÓLOB
golosse > ɣolosse g > ɣ ᴹ√GOLÓS > ᴹQ. olosse ✧ Ety/GOLÓS
golosse > ɣolosse g > ɣ ᴹ√GOLÓS > ᴹQ. †olos/olosse ✧ Ety/GOLÓS
golosse > ɣolosse g > ɣ ᴹ√GOLÓS > ᴹQ. olosse ✧ Ety/LOT(H)
gondo > ɣondo g > ɣ ᴹ√GÓNOD/GONDO > ᴹQ. ondo ✧ Ety/GOND
gondolindē > ɣondolindē g > ɣ Gondō̆-lindē > Q. Ondolinde ✧ PE17/133
gondōm > ɣondōm g > ɣ ᴹ✶góndōm > góndōr > ᴹQ. ondor ✧ PE21/58
gondōm > ɣondōm g > ɣ ᴹ✶gondōm > ʒondō̆n > ᴹQ. ondor ✧ PE21/63
gondōt > ɣondōt g > ɣ ᴹ✶gondōt > ʒondō̆t > ᴹQ. ondot ✧ PE19/52
gorme > ɣorme g > ɣ ᴹ√GOR > ᴹQ. orme ✧ Ety/GOR
gorme > ɣorme g > ɣ ᴹ√GOR > ᴹQ. orme ✧ Ety/KHOR
gorna > ɣorna g > ɣ ᴹ√GOR > ᴹQ. orna ✧ Ety/GOR
gorōmē > ɣorōmē g > ɣ ᴹ✶Górōmē > ᴹQ. Orōme ✧ EtyAC/GÓROM
gosse > ɣosse g > ɣ ᴹ✶Goss > ᴹQ. Osse ✧ Ety/GOS
gosse > ɣosse g > ɣ ᴹ√GOS > ᴹQ. osse ✧ Ety/GOS
gū- > ɣū- g > ɣ ᴹ✶gū̆- > ᴹQ. ū- ✧ Ety/GŪ
gū- > ɣū- g > ɣ ᴹ✶ugu/gū > ᴹQ. ú- ✧ Ety/UGU
gwa- > ɣwa- g > ɣ ᴹ✶gwo- > ᴹQ. ✧ PE19/53
gwað- > ɣwað- g > ɣ ᴹ√WAD > ᴹQ. ware ✧ PE22/102
gwēn > ɣwēn g > ɣ ᴹ√GWEN > ᴹQ. wēn ✧ Ety/GWEN
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ ᴹ√WEN(ED) > ᴹQ. wende ✧ Ety/GWEN
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ ᴹ√WENED > wende > ᴹQ. vende ✧ Ety/WEN
gwenja > ɣwenja g > ɣ ᴹ√GWEN > ᴹQ. wenya ✧ Ety/GWEN
gwil- > ɣwil- g > ɣ ᴹ√WIL > ᴹQ. vilin ✧ Ety/WIL
gwil- > ɣwil- g > ɣ ᴹ√WIL > ᴹQ. wilin ✧ Ety/WIL
gwilmā > ɣwilmā g > ɣ ᴹ✶wilmā > ᴹQ. wilma ✧ Ety/WIL
gwilnā > ɣwilnā g > ɣ ᴹ✶wilnā > wilda > ᴹQ. vilda ✧ EtyAC/WIL
gwilwā > ɣwilwā g > ɣ ᴹ✶wilwā > wilwa > ᴹQ. vilwa ✧ Ety/WIL
gwinde > ɣwinde g > ɣ ᴹ√GWINDI > winde > ᴹQ. vinde ✧ EtyAC/GWINDI
ɣwiŋgē > ɣwiŋgē g > ɣ ᴹ✶wingē > ᴹQ. winge ✧ Ety/WIG
gwinja > ɣwinja g > ɣ ᴹ√GWIN > ᴹQ. winya ✧ EtyAC/GWIN
gwo- > ɣwo- g > ɣ ᴹ✶gwo- > ᴹQ. o-´ ✧ PE19/53
jagwē > jaɣwē g > ɣ ᴹ✶yagwē > ᴹQ. yáwe ✧ Ety/YAG
lagra > laɣra g > ɣ ᴹ√DAG > ᴹQ. lára ✧ EtyAC/DAG
lagwe > laɣwe g > ɣ ᴹ✶dagwe > ᴹQ. lau(w)e ✧ PE19/46
l̥igā > l̥iɣā g > ɣ ᴹ✶ligā > ᴹQ. lia ✧ Ety/SLIG
l̥igante > l̥iɣante g > ɣ ᴹ√SLIG > ᴹQ. liante ✧ Ety/SLIG
luge > luɣe g > ɣ ᴹ√LUG > ᴹQ. lue ✧ PE22/102
magā > maɣā g > ɣ ᴹ✶magā > ᴹQ. ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ
magjā > maɣjā g > ɣ ᴹ✶magyā > ᴹQ. mai(y)a ✧ PE19/46
magrā > maɣrā g > ɣ ᴹ✶magrā > ᴹQ. mára ✧ Ety/MAƷ|MAG
magra > maɣra g > ɣ ᴹ✶magra > ᴹQ. mára ✧ PE19/46
manwege > manweɣe g > ɣ ᴹ✶Manwege > ᴹQ. Manwe ✧ EtyAC/MAN
pege > peɣe g > ɣ ᴹ√PEG > ᴹQ. ✧ Ety/PEG
rīgē > rīɣē g > ɣ ᴹ✶rīgē > ᴹQ. ríe ✧ Ety/RIG
sagrā > saɣrā g > ɣ ᴹ✶sagrā > ᴹQ. sára ✧ Ety/SAG
sogrā > soɣlā g > ɣ ᴹ✶soglā > ᴹQ. sóla ✧ PE19/46
suglo > suɣlo g > ɣ ᴹ✶suglu > ᴹQ. súlo ✧ Ety/SUK
targā > tarɣā g > ɣ ᴹ✶targā > ᴹQ. tarya ✧ Ety/TÁRAG
tūgo > tūɣo g > ɣ ᴹ✶tūgu > ᴹQ. tuo ✧ Ety/TUG
θegrā > θeɣrā g > ɣ ᴹ✶stegrā > ᴹQ. thḗra ✧ PE19/46
ugin > uɣin g > ɣ ᴹ√UGU > ᴹQ. uin ✧ Ety/UGU
ulgundō > ulɣundō g > ɣ ᴹ✶ulgundō > ᴹQ. ulundo ✧ Ety/ÚLUG
-weg > -weɣ g > ɣ ᴹ✶-wego > weg > ᴹQ. -we ✧ Ety/WEG
wega > weɣa g > ɣ ᴹ√WEG > ᴹQ. vea ✧ Ety/WEG
wegē > weɣē g > ɣ ᴹ✶weʒē > ᴹQ. vie ✧ Ety/WEG
wegō > weɣō g > ɣ ᴹ✶wegō > ᴹQ. †veo ✧ Ety/WEG
xōgorē > xōɣorē g > ɣ ᴹ✶Khō-gorē > ᴹQ. Huore ✧ Ety/KHŌ-N
xugan > xuɣan g > ɣ ᴹ√KHUGAN > ᴹQ. huan ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
xugan > xuɣan g > ɣ ᴹ✶khugan > ᴹQ. huan ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
xugo > xuɣo g > ɣ ᴹ√KHUG > ᴹQ. huo ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
ɸelgā > ɸelɣā g > ɣ ᴹ√PHÉLEG > ᴹQ. felya ✧ Ety/PHÉLEG

ᴱQ. initial voiced stops were unvoiced; [{bdggʷ}-] > [{ptkkʷ}-]

Reference ✧ PE12/17

Order ()

After initial [gʷ] became [w]
After palatals became dentals before [i]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[b-] > [p-]
[d-] > [t-]
[g-] > [k-]
[gʷ-] > [kʷ-]

Phonetic Rule Examples

balava- > palava- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palava- ✧ QL/71
balāva- > palāva- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palāva ✧ QL/71
balis > palis b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palis ✧ QL/71
balo > palo b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palo ✧ QL/71
balta > palta b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palta ✧ QL/71
balwa- > palwa- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palwa- ✧ QL/71
bē > pē b- > p- ᴱ√ > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/72
bondo > pondo b- > p- ᴱ√BOÐO > ᴱQ. pondo ✧ QL/75
bonte > ponte b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. ponte ✧ QL/75
bosta > posta b- > p- ᴱ√BOÐO > ᴱQ. posta ✧ QL/75
bote > pote b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. pote ✧ QL/75
botsi > potsi b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. potsi ✧ QL/75
bulko > pulko b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulko ✧ QL/75
bulme > pulme b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulme ✧ QL/75
bulu- > pulu- b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulu- ✧ QL/75
bulwa > pulwa b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulwa ✧ QL/75
burja- > purja- b- > p- ᴱ✶búrı̯ā > ᴱQ. purya ✧ PE13/116
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ✶dagā́ > ᴱQ. tá- ✧ PE13/161
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/87
da > ta d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/87
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ✶da’a > > ᴱQ. ✧ PE13/142
dajorme > tajorme d- > t- ᴱ√TAʕA > ᴱQ. tayorme ✧ QL/87
dāra > tāra d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. tāra ✧ QL/87
daramb > taramb d- > t- ᴱ√TARAMA > ᴱQ. taran ✧ QL/89
dāri > tāri d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. tāri ✧ QL/87
darwa > tarwa d- > t- ᴱ✶dar’wa- > ᴱQ. tarwa ✧ PE13/161
dorme > torme d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > tahorme > taorme > ᴱQ. torme ✧ QL/87
gala- > kala- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kala- ✧ QL/44
gala > kala g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kala ✧ QL/44
galaine > kalaine g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalaine ✧ QL/44
gāle > kāle g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kále ✧ QL/44
galenda > kalenda g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalenda ✧ QL/44
galle > kalle g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalle ✧ QL/44
gallu- > kallu- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kal(l)u- ✧ QL/44
galma > kalma g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalma ✧ QL/44
galmarn > kalmarn g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalmar ✧ QL/44
galta- > kalta- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalta- ✧ QL/44
galwa > kalwa g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalwa ✧ QL/44
gargo > kargo g- > k- ᴱ✶grgu- > ᴱQ. karko ✧ PE13/144
garθa- > karθa- g- > k- ᴱ√gṛþ- > ᴱQ. karda ✧ GL/42
giw- > kiw- g- > k- ᴱ√giu̯i > ᴱQ. kiu̯ ✧ GL/39
gōpa > kōpa g- > k- ᴱ√KOPO > ᴱQ. kópa ✧ QL/47
gos > kos g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kos ✧ QL/48
gosar > kosar g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kosar ✧ QL/48
gosta- > kosta- g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kosta- ✧ QL/48
gwin > kwin g- > k- ᴱ√QIMI > ᴱQ. qin ✧ QL/77
gwinde > kwinde g- > k- ᴱ√QIMI > ᴱQ. (i) qinde ✧ QL/77
gʷen > kʷen gʷ- > kʷ- ᴱ✶Gwendi- > ᴱQ. Qen ✧ PE13/146

ᴱQ. voiced stops became spirants after vowels; [V{bddʲggʷ}] > [V{βððʲɣɣʷ}]

Order ()

Before [ð] became [z]
Before 02400 [ɣ] otherwise vanished

Phonetic Rule Elements

[Vb] > [Vβ] ✧ PE12/16 (b > v (w); medial)
[Vd] > [Vð] ✧ PE12/16 (d > z; medial)
[Vdʲ] > [Vðʲ] ✧ PE12/16 (d͡y > ; medial)
[Vg] > [Vɣ] ✧ PE12/16 (g > -; medial)
[Vgʷ] > [Vɣʷ] ✧ PE12/16 (g͡w > ; medial)

Phonetic Rule Examples

ambodt > amboðt Vd > Vð ᴱ✶a-mbod-t’ > ᴱQ. ambos ✧ PE13/139
fada > faða Vd > Vð ᴱ✶swada > ᴱQ. fara ✧ PE13/146
daga > daɣa Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶dagā́ > ᴱQ. tá- ✧ PE13/161
daɣā > daɣa Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶da’a > > ᴱQ. ✧ PE13/142
gʷegie > gʷeɣie Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶gu̯eg- > ᴱQ. wie ✧ GL/44
nēgitte > nēɣitte Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶nēgittĕ > ᴱQ. neite ✧ GL/60
negōn > neɣōn Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶negōn > ᴱQ. nion ✧ GL/60