ᴹAQ. [β], [ɣ] vocalized before voiced consonants; [VβC|VɣC|Vɣj|Vɣw] > [VuC|V̄øC|Vij|Vuw]

ᴹAQ. [β], [ɣ] vocalized before voiced consonants; [VβC|VɣC|Vɣj|Vɣw] > [VuC|V̄øC|Vij|Vuw]

References ✧ PE19/40, 45-46

Order (04400)

After 03000 voiced stops became spirants except after nasals and liquids
Before 01000 ᴹQ. [ɣ] from [g] vanished
Before 03000 ᴹQ. [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[VβC] > [VuC]
[aɣC] > [āC]
[eɣC] > [ēC]
[iɣC] > [īC]
[oɣC] > [ōC]
[uɣC] > [ūC]
[Vɣj] > [Vij]
[Vɣw] > [Vuw]

Phonetic Rule Examples

maɣjā > maijā Vɣj > Vij ᴹ✶magyā > ᴹQ. mai(y)a ✧ PE19/46
laɣwe > lauwe Vɣw > Vuw ᴹ✶dagwe > ᴹQ. lau(w)e ✧ PE19/46
jaɣwē > jāwē aɣC > āC ᴹ✶yagwē > ᴹQ. yáwe ✧ Ety/YAG
laɣra > lāra aɣC > āC ᴹ√DAG > ᴹQ. lára ✧ EtyAC/DAG
maɣrā > mārā aɣC > āC ᴹ✶magrā > ᴹQ. mára ✧ Ety/MAƷ|MAG
maɣra > māra aɣC > āC ᴹ✶magra > ᴹQ. mára ✧ PE19/46
saɣrā > sārā aɣC > āC ᴹ✶sagrā > ᴹQ. sára ✧ Ety/SAG
θeɣrā > θērā eɣC > ēC ᴹ✶stegrā > ᴹQ. thḗra ✧ PE19/46
soɣlā > sōlā oɣC > ōC ᴹ✶soglā > ᴹQ. sóla ✧ PE19/46
suɣlo > sūlo uɣC > ūC ᴹ✶suglu > ᴹQ. súlo ✧ Ety/SUK

ᴱQ. [β] became [u] before consonants and finally; [-β|VβC] > [-u|VuC]

Reference ✧ PE12/24 ✧ phonetics

Phonetic Rule Elements

[-β] > [-u] ✧ PE12/24 (ƀ final > u)
[VβC] > [VuC] ✧ PE12/24 (ƀ + consonant > )

Phonetic Rule Examples

aβ > au -β > -u ᴱ√AVA > ᴱQ. ‽au ✧ QL/33
kuβ > kū -β > -u ᴱ√KUVU > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/49
raβ > rau -β > -u ᴱ√RAVA > ᴱQ. Rau ✧ QL/79
araβka > arauka VβC > VuC ᴱ√rava > ᴱQ. arauka ✧ QL/34
famβa > fauka VβC > VuC ᴱ√FABA > ᴱQ. fauka ✧ QL/37
jaβsta > jausta VβC > VuC ᴱ√Ẏ̯AVA > ᴱQ. yausta ✧ QL/105
kaβka > kauka VβC > VuC ᴱ√kava- > ᴱQ. kauka ✧ GL/25
kaβne > kaune VβC > VuC ᴱ√KAV > ᴱQ. kaune ✧ PME/45
kaβne > kaune VβC > VuC ᴱ√KAVA > ᴱQ. kaune ✧ QL/45
kuβne > kūne VβC > VuC ᴱ√kuv > ᴱQ. kūne ✧ PME/49
kuβne > kūne VβC > VuC ᴱ√KUVU > ᴱQ. kūne ✧ QL/49
luβrē > lūre VβC > VuC ᴱ√LUVU > ᴱQ. lūre ✧ QL/57
naβma > nauma VβC > VuC ᴱ√NAVA > ᴱQ. nauma ✧ QL/65
naβst > naust VβC > VuC ᴱ√NAVA > ᴱQ. naus ✧ QL/64
naβta- > nauta- VβC > VuC ᴱ√NAVA > ᴱQ. nauta- ✧ QL/65
raβna > rauna VβC > VuC ᴱ√RAVA > ᴱQ. rauna ✧ QL/79
raβste > rauste VβC > VuC ᴱ√RAVA > ᴱQ. rauste ✧ QL/79
raβta- > rauta- VβC > VuC ᴱ√RAVA > ᴱQ. rauta- ✧ QL/79
soβna > souna VβC > VuC ᴱ✶souna > ᴱQ. sauna ✧ PE13/148
soβne > soune VβC > VuC ᴱ√SOVO > ᴱQ. saune ✧ QL/86
soβsa > sousa VβC > VuC ᴱ√SOVO > ᴱQ. sausa ✧ QL/86
taβle > taule VβC > VuC ᴱ√TAVA > ᴱQ. taule ✧ QL/90
taβno > tauno VβC > VuC ᴱ√TAVA > ᴱQ. tauno ✧ QL/90
tʲaβsta > tʲausta VβC > VuC ᴱ√TYAVA > ᴱQ. tyausta ✧ QL/49
ūβ- > ū- VβC > VuC ᴱ√UVU > ᴱQ. u- ✧ QL/98

ᴱQ. between vowels and consonants [ɣ] vanished with compensatory lengthening; [VɣC] > [V̄øC]

Reference ✧ PE12/18

Order (02100)

After voiceless spirants voiced before voiced continuants
Before middle consonant lost in three-consonant cluster

Phonetic Rule Elements

[VɣC] > [V̄øC] ✧ PE12/18 (ʒ > ø)

Phonetic Rule Examples

daɣra > dāra VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. tāra ✧ QL/87
daɣri > dāri VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. tāri ✧ QL/87
foɣle > fōle VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√FOƷO > ᴱQ. fôle ✧ QL/38
hoɣre > hōre VɣC > V̄øC ‽ᴱ√HUHU > ᴱQ. hóre ✧ QL/41
kaɣma > kāma VɣC > V̄øC ‽ᴱ√KAHA > ᴱQ. káma ✧ QL/43
koɣle > kōle VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√KOHO > ᴱQ. kōle ✧ QL/47
laɣta- > lāta- VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√LA’A > ᴱQ. lāta- ✧ QL/50
loɣte > lōte VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√LO’O > ᴱQ. lōte ✧ QL/55
loɣto- > lōto- VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√LO’O > ᴱQ. lōto- ✧ QL/55
luɣme > lūme VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√LUHU > ᴱQ. lūme ✧ QL/56
luɣmen > lūmen VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√LUHU > ᴱQ. lūmen ✧ QL/56
luɣnde > lūnde VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√LUHU > ᴱQ. lunde ✧ QL/56
luɣta- > lūta- VɣC > V̄øC ‽ᴱ√LU’U > ᴱQ. lūta- ✧ QL/56
maɣntḷ > māntḷ VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√MAHA > ᴱQ. mantl ✧ QL/57
maɣra > māra VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√MAHA > ᴱQ. māra ✧ QL/57
noɣla > nōla VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√NOHO > ᴱQ. nōla ✧ QL/67
nuɣme > nūme VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√NUHU > ᴱQ. nūme ✧ QL/68
oɣma > ōma VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√OHO² > ᴱQ. ōma ✧ QL/69
raɣma > rāma VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√RAHA > ᴱQ. rāma ✧ QL/78
ruɣja > rūja VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√RU’U > ᴱQ. rūya ✧ QL/80
saɣŋa- > sāŋa- VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√SAHA > ᴱQ. sanga- ✧ QL/81
seɣŋe > sēŋe VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√SEHE > ᴱQ. senge ✧ QL/82
suɣje > sūje VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√SUHU > ᴱQ. †sūye ✧ QL/86
suɣlime > sūlime VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√SUHU > ᴱQ. sūlime ✧ QL/86
suɣma > sūma VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√SUHU > ᴱQ. sūma ✧ QL/86
suɣne > sūne VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√SUHU > ᴱQ. sūne ✧ QL/86
suɣru > sūru VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√SUHU > ᴱQ. Súru ✧ LT1A/Súruli
vaɣnḷ > vānḷ VɣC > V̄øC ᴱ√VAHA > ᴱQ. vandl ✧ LT1A/Qalvanda