ᴹQ. [ɣ] from [g] vanished; [ɣ] > [ø]

ᴹQ. [ɣ] from [g] vanished; [ɣ] > [ø]

References ✧ PE19/32, 35, 46, 63; PE22/44

Order (01000)

After 04300 ᴹAQ. [β], [ɣ] vocalized before voiced consonants
After 00700 spirants became stops after [r], [l]
Before 01100 [ae], [ao] generally became [ē], [ō]

Related

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ɣ] > [ø] ✧ PE19/38 (ʒw > w); PE19/51 (ʒw > w); PE19/38 (gy > y); PE19/38 (ʒ > ø; initial); PE19/51 (ʒy > y); PE19/51 (lgw > lw); PE19/51 (rgw > rw)

Phonetic Rule Examples

ɣa > a ɣ > ø ᴹ✶ga > ᴹQ. a ✧ PE22/94
ɣaira > aira ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAY > ᴹQ. aira ✧ Ety/GAY
ɣaista- > aista- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gais- > ᴹQ. aista- ✧ Ety/GÁYAS
ɣal- > al- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. ’al ✧ Ety/GALA
ɣal- > al- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. al- ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ɣala > ala ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALÁN > ᴹQ. ala ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹
ɣalan > alan ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALÁN > ᴹQ. alan ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹
ɣalas > alas ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALÁS > alasa > ᴹQ. alar ✧ EtyAC/GALÁS
ɣalas > alas ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALAS > ᴹQ. alar ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ɣalasse > alasse ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALÁS > ᴹQ. alasse ✧ Ety/GALÁS
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶galadā > ᴹQ. Alda ✧ SD/302
ɣalja > alja ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. alya ✧ Ety/GALA
ɣalja > alja ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. alya ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ɣalla > alla ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. ala/alla ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ɣalma > alma ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. alma ✧ Ety/GALA
ɣalma > alma ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL² > ᴹQ. alma ✧ EtyAC/GAL²
ɣalma > alma ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. alma ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ɣalmare > almare ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. almare ✧ Ety/GALA
ɣalmare > almare ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. almare ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ɣalwa > alwa ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. alwa ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ɣampa > ampa ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAP > ᴹQ. ampa ✧ Ety/GAP
ɣarda > arda ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arda ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
ɣarja- > arja- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arya- ✧ EtyAC/GAR
ɣarjon > arjon ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. aryon ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
ɣarjon > arjon ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. aryo/aryon ✧ EtyAC/GAR
ɣarma > arma ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arma ✧ EtyAC/GAR
ɣarmar > armar ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. armar ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
ɣarta > arta ɣ > ø ᴹ√GARAT > ᴹQ. arta ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GARAT
ɣarwa > arwa ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arwa ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
ɣarwa > arwa ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arwa ✧ EtyAC/GAR
-ɣarwa > -arwa ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. -arwa ✧ EtyAC/GAR
ɣarwe > arwe ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arwe ✧ EtyAC/GAR
ɣassā > assā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gassā > ᴹQ. assa ✧ Ety/GAS
ɣatsa > atsa ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAT > ᴹQ. atsa ✧ Ety/GAT
ɣaule > aule ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAWA > ᴹQ. aule ✧ Ety/GAWA
ɣauta- > auta- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAWA > ᴹQ. auta- ✧ Ety/GAWA
-ɣel > -el ɣ > ø ᴹ√ÑEL > ᴹQ. -el ✧ EtyAC/ÑEL
ɣeŋgwā > eŋgwā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶GENG-WĀ > ᴹQ. engwa ✧ Ety/GENG-WĀ
ɣia > ia ɣ > ø ᴹ✶geı̯ā > ᴹQ. ia ✧ Ety/GEY
ɣilma > ilma ɣ > ø ᴹ√GIL > ᴹQ. Ilma ✧ Ety/GIL
ɣilmen > ilmen ɣ > ø ᴹ√GIL > ᴹQ. ilmen ✧ Ety/WIL
ɣīɣolosse > iolosse ɣ > ø ᴹ✶Geı̯golosse > ᴹQ. Iolosse ✧ Ety/GEY
ɣīra > īra ɣ > ø ᴹ√GEY > ᴹQ. íra ✧ Ety/GEY
ɣīre > īre ɣ > ø ᴹ√GEY > ᴹQ. íre ✧ Ety/GEY
ɣjello > jello ɣ > ø ᴹ√GYEL > ᴹQ. yello ✧ Ety/GYEL
ɣjerja- > jerja- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GYER > ᴹQ. yerya ✧ Ety/GYER
ɣjernā > jernā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gyernā > ᴹQ. yerna ✧ Ety/GYER
lāɣ > lā ɣ > ø ᴹ√LAƷ > ᴹQ. ✧ EtyAC/LAƷ
l̥iɣā > l̥iā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶ligā > ᴹQ. lia ✧ Ety/SLIG
l̥iɣante > l̥iante ɣ > ø ᴹ√SLIG > ᴹQ. liante ✧ Ety/SLIG
ɣlin- > lin- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GLIN > ᴹQ. lin- ✧ Ety/GLIN
ɣlinde > linde ɣ > ø ᴹ√GLIN > ᴹQ. linde ✧ Ety/GLIN
ɣliŋga- > liŋga- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GLING > ᴹQ. linga- ✧ Ety/GLING
luɣe > lue ɣ > ø ᴹ√LUG > ᴹQ. lue ✧ PE22/102
maɣā > mā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶magā > ᴹQ. ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ
manweɣe > manwē ɣ > ø ᴹ✶Manwege > ᴹQ. Manwe ✧ EtyAC/MAN
-ɣo > -o ɣ > ø ᴹ✶ʒō̆ > ᴹQ. o ✧ PE21/60
ɣo- > o- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gwo- > ᴹQ. o-´ ✧ PE19/53
ɣola- > ola- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶golā > ᴹQ. ola- ✧ PE22/113
ɣolosse > olosse ɣ > ø ᴹ√GOLÓS > ᴹQ. olosse ✧ Ety/GOLÓS
ɣolosse > olosse ɣ > ø ᴹ√GOLÓS > ᴹQ. †olos/olosse ✧ Ety/GOLÓS
ɣolosse > olosse ɣ > ø ᴹ√GOLÓS > ᴹQ. olosse ✧ Ety/LOT(H)
ɣolwā > olwā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶golbā > ᴹQ. olwa ✧ Ety/GÓLOB
ɣondo > ondo ɣ > ø ᴹ√GÓNOD/GONDO > ᴹQ. ondo ✧ Ety/GOND
ɣondolindē > ondolindē ɣ > ø Gondō̆-lindē > Q. Ondolinde ✧ PE17/133
ɣondōm > ondōm ɣ > ø ᴹ✶góndōm > góndōr > ᴹQ. ondor ✧ PE21/58
ɣondōm > ondōm ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gondōm > ʒondō̆n > ᴹQ. ondor ✧ PE21/63
ɣondōt > ondōt ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gondōt > ʒondō̆t > ᴹQ. ondot ✧ PE19/52
ɣorme > orme ɣ > ø ᴹ√GOR > ᴹQ. orme ✧ Ety/GOR
ɣorme > orme ɣ > ø ᴹ√GOR > ᴹQ. orme ✧ Ety/KHOR
ɣorna > orna ɣ > ø ᴹ√GOR > ᴹQ. orna ✧ Ety/GOR
ɣoromē > oromē ɣ > ø ᴹ✶Górōmē > ᴹQ. Orōme ✧ EtyAC/GÓROM
ɣosse > osse ɣ > ø ᴹ✶Goss > ᴹQ. Osse ✧ Ety/GOS
ɣosse > osse ɣ > ø ᴹ√GOS > ᴹQ. osse ✧ Ety/GOS
peɣe > pē ɣ > ø ᴹ√PEG > ᴹQ. ✧ Ety/PEG
rīɣē > rīē ɣ > ø ᴹ✶rīgē > ᴹQ. ríe ✧ Ety/RIG
tūɣo > tuo ɣ > ø ᴹ✶tūgu > ᴹQ. tuo ✧ Ety/TUG
ɣū- > ū- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gū̆- > ᴹQ. ū- ✧ Ety/GŪ
ɣū- > ū- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶ugu/gū > ᴹQ. ú- ✧ Ety/UGU
uɣin > uin ɣ > ø ᴹ√UGU > ᴹQ. uin ✧ Ety/UGU
ɣwa- > wa- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gwo- > ᴹQ. ✧ PE19/53
ɣwað- > wað- ɣ > ø ᴹ√WAD > ᴹQ. ware ✧ PE22/102
-weɣ > -we ɣ > ø ᴹ✶-wego > weg > ᴹQ. -we ✧ Ety/WEG
weɣa > wea ɣ > ø ᴹ√WEG > ᴹQ. vea ✧ Ety/WEG
ɣwēn > wēn ɣ > ø ᴹ√GWEN > ᴹQ. wēn ✧ Ety/GWEN
ɣwende > wende ɣ > ø ᴹ√WEN(ED) > ᴹQ. wende ✧ Ety/GWEN
ɣwende > wende ɣ > ø ᴹ√WENED > wende > ᴹQ. vende ✧ Ety/WEN
ɣwenja > wenja ɣ > ø ᴹ√GWEN > ᴹQ. wenya ✧ Ety/GWEN
weɣō > weo ɣ > ø ᴹ✶wegō > ᴹQ. †veo ✧ Ety/WEG
ɣwil- > wil- ɣ > ø ᴹ√WIL > ᴹQ. vilin ✧ Ety/WIL
ɣwil- > wil- ɣ > ø ᴹ√WIL > ᴹQ. wilin ✧ Ety/WIL
ɣwildā > wildā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶wilnā > wilda > ᴹQ. vilda ✧ EtyAC/WIL
ɣwilmā > wilmā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶wilmā > ᴹQ. wilma ✧ Ety/WIL
ɣwilwā > wilwā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶wilwā > wilwa > ᴹQ. vilwa ✧ Ety/WIL
ɣwinde > winde ɣ > ø ᴹ√GWINDI > winde > ᴹQ. vinde ✧ EtyAC/GWINDI
ɣwiŋgē > wiŋgē ɣ > ø ᴹ✶wingē > ᴹQ. winge ✧ Ety/WIG
ɣwinja > winja ɣ > ø ᴹ√GWIN > ᴹQ. winya ✧ EtyAC/GWIN
xuɣan > xuan ɣ > ø ᴹ√KHUGAN > ᴹQ. huan ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
xuɣan > xuan ɣ > ø ᴹ✶khugan > ᴹQ. huan ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
xuɣo > xuo ɣ > ø ᴹ√KHUG > ᴹQ. huo ✧ Ety/KHUGAN

ᴱQ. [ɣ] otherwise vanished; [ɣ] > [ø]

References ✧ PE12/18, 24

Order (02400)

After voiced stops became spirants after vowels
After 02000 intervocalic voiceless spirants became voiced
Before 00900 ᴹQ. [wo] became [o]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ɣ] > [ø] ✧ PE12/16 (ɣ > -; medial); PE12/17 (h > ø); PE12/18 (ɣ > ø)

Phonetic Rule Examples

aɣa > ā ɣ > ø ᴱ√‘AHA > ᴱQ. â ✧ QL/29
daɣa > dā ɣ > ø ᴱ✶dagā́ > ᴱQ. tá- ✧ PE13/161
daɣa > dā ɣ > ø ᴱ✶da’a > > ᴱQ. ✧ PE13/142
daɣorme > daorme ɣ > ø ᴱ√TAHA > tahorme > taorme > ᴱQ. torme ✧ QL/87
foɣa > foa ɣ > ø ᴱ√foχo > ᴱQ. foa ✧ GL/36
foɣa > foa ɣ > ø ᴱ√FOƷO > ᴱQ. foa ✧ QL/38
foɣina > foina ɣ > ø ᴱ√FOƷO > ᴱQ. foina ✧ QL/38
gʷeɣie > gʷeie ɣ > ø ᴱ✶gu̯eg- > ᴱQ. wie ✧ GL/44
koɣua > kouo ɣ > ø ᴱ√KOHO > koχuo > ᴱQ. kuo ✧ QL/47
laɣa > lā ɣ > ø ᴱ√LAHA > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/50
leɣa > lea ɣ > ø ᴱ✶leχa > ᴱQ. lea ✧ GL/53
luɣin > luin ɣ > ø ᴱ√LUHU > ᴱQ. luin ✧ QL/56
meɣar > mear ɣ > ø ᴱ√MEHE > ᴱQ. mear ✧ QL/60
naɣūa > naūa ɣ > ø ᴱ✶naχū́a > naū́a > náuwa > ᴱQ. nauva ✧ PE12/10
neɣier > neier ɣ > ø ᴱ√NEHE > neχier > neier > ᴱQ. nier ✧ QL/65
nēɣitte > nēitte ɣ > ø ᴱ✶nēgittĕ > ᴱQ. neite ✧ GL/60
neɣōn > neōn ɣ > ø ᴱ✶negōn > ᴱQ. nion ✧ GL/60
nʲeɣie > nʲeie ɣ > ø ᴱ✶nı̯eχie > ᴱQ. nie ✧ GL/60
nʲeɣie > nʲeie ɣ > ø ᴱ✶nyeχie > ᴱQ. nie ✧ QL/68
oɣar > oar ɣ > ø ᴱ√’O’O > ᴱQ. oar ✧ QL/70
oɣaris > oaris ɣ > ø ᴱ√’O’O > ᴱQ. oaris ✧ QL/70
ɣolwe > olwe ɣ > ø ᴱ✶ʒolwé: > ᴱQ. olwe ✧ PE13/145
ɣolweja > olweja ɣ > ø ᴱ✶ʒolwéya > ᴱQ. olwea ✧ PE13/145
ouɣe > oue ɣ > ø ᴱ✶ou̯χe > ᴱQ. ue ✧ QL/71
ouɣe > oue ɣ > ø ᴱ√OWO > ᴱQ. UE ✧ QL/97
paɣīan > paīan ɣ > ø ᴱ✶pah͡y-īand > păχī́ănd > pắ(h)īăn(d) > ᴱQ. paiyan ✧ PE12/8
ruɣe > rue ɣ > ø ᴱ√RU’U > ᴱQ. rue ✧ QL/80
ruɣin > ruin ɣ > ø ᴱ√RU’U > ᴱQ. ruin ✧ QL/80
taɣime > taime ɣ > ø ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. Taime ✧ QL/88
teɣa > tea ɣ > ø ᴱ√TEHE > ᴱQ. tea ✧ QL/90
teɣie > teie ɣ > ø ᴱ✶teχiḗ > tēye > tĕ́hie > ᴱQ. tī̆e ✧ PE12/8
ɣuŋwe > uŋwe ɣ > ø ᴱ√GUŊU > ᴱQ. ungwe ✧ QL/98
urɣirda > urirda ɣ > ø ᴱ✶ur’-irda > ᴱQ. ulird(e)a ✧ PE13/144
βaɣa > βā ɣ > ø ᴱ√VAHA > ᴱQ. vā² ✧ QL/99