Q. [ɣ] from [g] vanished; [ɣ] > [ø]

Q. [ɣ] from [g] vanished; [ɣ] > [ø]

In Quenya when the voiced stop g became spirantal ʒ [ɣ], the resulting spirant generally vanished. This sound change is distinct from the much more ancient vanishing or ʒ (or h) in Primitive Elvish. Tolkien gave essentially the same description of this sound change in both the Outline of Phonetic Development [OP1] from the 1930s and the Outline of Phonology [OP2] from the 1950s, but with more details in OP2:

g probably became [ʒ] but this stage was already past in early classical PQ. Initially in AQ and early PQ the sign h was used. It appears to have represented the “clear beginning” (or smooth breathing). But it soon disappeared (OP1: PE19/32).
g became at first the open spirant ʒ, with weak friction. But except initially this sound had already disappeared in Parmaquesta. Initially in early Parmaquesta g > ʒ was still represented by the sign [h]. This may be transcribed with [’], as ’ondo “stone”, since it denoted the “clear beginning” or sharp glottal opening, not shown by original initial vowels. But this sound was lost and its representation given up in normal or classical PQ. The same situation obtained in AQ. But the Rumilian alphabet contained a sign for [ʒ], and it appears that in archaic Quenya this sound, as product of g, still persisted (OP2: PE19/70).

As these notes indicate, it seems that ʒ still existed in Ancient Quenya [AQ] at the time the Sarati alphabet was used, but only barely existed by early Parmaquesta [PQ], lingering only as something like a glottal stop [ʔ] at the beginning of words, but this “clear beginning” sound was soon lost. The tengwar h lost its original function, and its name anna seems to have nothing to do with its original sound. In alternate tengwar modes, h was repurposed to represent vowels, and in Quenya its only remaining function seems to be as a carrier for the underdots used to represent an independent y sound: .

Note that where ʒ disappeared between vowels, the two vowels only combined when identical (aʒa > ā) or produced a normal diphthong (aʒi > ai); other combinations produced disyllabic vowels in hiatus (OP1: PE19/63; OP2: PE19/70-71). Examples include ✶wegō(n) > Q. vëo “living creature” (PE17/189) or ✶rīgā > Q. ría “garland” (PM/347). As shown by the second example, this could even leave a long vowel in hiatus with a short one. Where two short vowels were left in hiatus, Tolkien often indicated this by placing a dieresis (¨) on the first of the pair.

As suggested in the entry on how [lɣ], [rɣ] became [ll], [rr], it is possible ʒ lingered longer in the combinations lʒ, rʒ, since these had divergent developments in the Ñoldorin and Vanyarin dialects of Quenya (to ll, rr and lg, rg, respectively). Assuming this is true, how these might have been represented in Tengwar isn’t clear.

Conceptual Development: The Early Qenya phonetic developments are complicated by the existence of an entire series of voiced spirants in Primitive Elvish in the 1910s and 1920s (rather than just isolated primitive ʒ as in the mid-1930s forward). The medial voiced stops merged with this voiced spirant series in the Kor-Eldarin period in Early Qenya (PE12/15-16). Thus medial g > ʒ > (nil), for example: ᴱ✶nēgittĕ > ᴱQ. neite “wax” (GL/60). However, initial voiced stops were unvoiced, so that g- > k-, such as: ᴱ✶gṛþ- > ᴱQ. karda- “to admire” (GL/42) and ᴱ✶grgu- > ᴱQ. karko “alimentary canel” (PE13/144). Original primitive initial ʒ- did generally vanish in Early Qenya, however as in: ᴱ✶ʒolwḗ > ᴱQ. olwe “a stink” (PE13/145).

References ✧ Let/410; PE17/92; PE19/70-71, 75

Order (01100)

After 04200 AQ. [β], [ɣ] vocalized before voiced consonants
After medial [ŋ] usually became [ɣ]
After 00700 spirants became stops after [r], [l]
Before 01200 [ae], [ao] generally became [ē], [ō]

Related

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ɣ] > [ø] ✧ PE18/105 (gy > y); PE18/105 (gw > w); PE19/72 (gw > ʒw > w); PE19/75 (ʒw > w; initially); PE17/153 (ʒ > nil); PE18/105 (ʒ > [ø]); PE18/105 (g > [ø]); PE19/70 (ʒ > )

Phonetic Rule Examples

ɣaikā > aikā ɣ > ø gayakā > Q. aika ✧ PM/363
ɣaira > aira ɣ > ø GAYA > Q. aira ✧ PM/363
ɣaira > aira ɣ > ø gaı̯ră > Q. †aire ✧ PE17/27
ɣaire > aire ɣ > ø GAYA > Q. airë ✧ PM/363
ɣājā > ājā ɣ > ø gāyā > Q. áya ✧ PM/363
ɣala- > ala- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶galā > ᴹQ. ’alā- ✧ PE22/98
ɣala- > ala- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶galā́ > ᴹQ. ala- ✧ PE22/106
ɣalalme > alalme ɣ > ø GAL > Q. alalme ✧ PE17/153
ɣalalβe > alalβe ɣ > ø GAL-AB > Q. alalbe ✧ PE17/153
ɣalan > alan ɣ > ø galan > Q. alan ✧ PE22/164
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø galadā > Q. alda ✧ Let/426
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/25
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/50
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/63
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø galadā > ʒalaðā > ʒalðā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/135
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø galadā́ > Q. alda ✧ PE17/153
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/153
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø GAL > Q. alda ✧ PE22/160
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø AQ. ʒalda > Q. alda ✧ VT39/7
ɣaldanil > aldanil ɣ > ø Gala(da)ndil > Q. Aldanil ✧ PE21/83
ɣaldarembinā > aldarembinā ɣ > ø galad(a)rembinā > Q. aldarembina ✧ PE17/127
ɣalmā > almā ɣ > ø galmā > Q. alma ✧ PE17/153
ɣalta- > alta- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL² > ᴹQ. alta- ✧ EtyAC/GAL²
ɣaltā > altā ɣ > ø galatā > Q. alta ✧ PE17/50
ɣaltārīɣell > altāriell ɣ > ø galatā-rigellē̆ > Q. altáriel ✧ PE17/50
ɣaltarīɣelle > altarielle ɣ > ø galata-rīg-elle > Q. Altariellë ✧ MR/182
ɣaltārīɣelle > altārielle ɣ > ø alatā-rigellē̆ > Q. Altariel(le) ✧ PE17/50
ɣaltārīɣelle > altārielle ɣ > ø alatā-rigellē̆ > Q. altáriel ✧ PE17/50
ɣalβa > alβa ɣ > ø GAL-AB > Q. alba ✧ PE17/153
ɣalβe > alβe ɣ > ø ALAB > albe > Q. alve ✧ PE17/146
ɣalβe > alβe ɣ > ø ALAB > Q. albe ✧ PE17/153
ɣampa > ampa ɣ > ø gampa > Q. ampa ✧ VT47/20
ɣardā > ardā ɣ > ø gardā > Q. arda ✧ WJ/402
aɣwalda > awalda ɣ > ø WAL > Q. awalda ✧ PE17/189
denweɣ > denwe ɣ > ø Denwego > Q. Lenwe ✧ WJ/412
ɣear > ear ɣ > ø GAY(AR) > Q. ëar ✧ PE17/27
ɣear > ear ɣ > ø Gayar- > Q. Eär ✧ PM/363
ɣear > ear ɣ > ø gayār > Q. ëar ✧ WJ/400
ɣille > ille ɣ > ø GIL > Q. ille ✧ PE17/22
kaltārīɣell > kaltāriell ɣ > ø kalatā-rigellē̆ > Q. kaltáriel ✧ PE17/50
kaltārīɣelle > kaltārielle ɣ > ø Kalatā-rigelle > Q. Kaltáriel(le) ✧ PE17/50
ɣlaða- > laða- ɣ > ø g-lada- > Q. lala- ✧ PM/359
ɣlaurē > laurē ɣ > ø glawarē > glaurē > ʒlaurē > Q. laurē ✧ PE19/79
ɣlaure > laure ɣ > ø glawarĭ > Q. laure ✧ PE21/81
ɣlaure > laure ɣ > ø glaware > Q. laure ✧ VT41/10
ɣlaurē > laurē ɣ > ø ᴹ√GLAW(-R) > ᴹQ. laure ✧ Ety/GLAW(-R)
l̥oɣa > l̥oa ɣ > ø sloga > Q. hloä ✧ VT42/9
ɣlosse > losse ɣ > ø (G)LOS > Q. lossë ✧ VT42/18
maɣa > mā ɣ > ø MAG > Q. ✧ PE17/161
māɣa > mā ɣ > ø mag > Q. ✧ VT47/18
maɣi > mai ɣ > ø MAGA > Q. mai ✧ PE22/148
maɣite > maite ɣ > ø magiti- > Q. Maiti- ✧ VT41/10
ŋaltārīɣel > ŋaltāriel ɣ > ø ñgal(a)tā-rig-el- > Q. Ñaltariel ✧ PE17/60
ɣo- > o- ɣ > ø gwo > Q. o- ✧ PE19/106
ɣolassiē > olassiē ɣ > ø gwa-lassa/gwa-lassiē > Q. olassiē ✧ Let/282
ɣondo > ondo ɣ > ø gond(o) > Q. ondo ✧ Let/410
ɣondo > ondo ɣ > ø gon-d > Q. ondo ✧ RC/347
ɣrauko > rauko ɣ > ø grauk- > Q. rauko ✧ WJ/415
rīɣā > rīā ɣ > ø rīgā > Q. ría ✧ PM/347
riɣe > rie ɣ > ø RIG > Q. rië ✧ PE17/182
riɣel > riel ɣ > ø rig- > Q. riel ✧ SA/kal
riɣelle > rielle ɣ > ø RIG > Q. riellë ✧ PM/347
ɣroa > roa ɣ > ø grawa > Q. roa ✧ VT47/35
r̥ūga > r̥ūa ɣ > ø S-RŪGU > Q. hrúa ✧ PE17/170
r̥uɣo > r̥uo ɣ > ø srugu > Q. hruo ✧ PE17/115
uɣu- > ū- ɣ > ø UG > Q. ú ✧ PE22/160
uɣu- > ū- ɣ > ø ū̆gu/gū > Q. ū- ✧ VT49/29
uɣi > ui ɣ > ø ū̆gu/gū > Q. ui ✧ VT49/29
uɣilme > uilme ɣ > ø ugilme > Q. uilme ✧ VT49/29
ɣur- > ur- ɣ > ø GUR > Q. ur(u) ✧ PE17/154
ɣurda > urda ɣ > ø GUR > Q. urda ✧ PE17/154
ɣwa- > wa- ɣ > ø gwo > Q. wa- ✧ PE19/106
ɣwaina > waina ɣ > ø GWAY > waina > Q. vaina ✧ PE17/154
ɣwalda > walda ɣ > ø walna > Q. walda ✧ PE17/154
ɣwalja- > walja- ɣ > ø GWAL > Q. walya ✧ PE17/154
ɣwalme > walme ɣ > ø GWAL > Q. walme ✧ PE17/154
ɣwalme > walme ɣ > ø WAL > Q. walme ✧ PE17/189
ɣwalta- > walta- ɣ > ø GWAL > Q. walta ✧ PE17/154
ɣwanja > wanja ɣ > ø GWAN > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/154
ɣwanja > wanja ɣ > ø GWAN > Q. †wana ✧ PE17/165
-weɣ > -we ɣ > ø weg- > Q. -we ✧ PE17/190
-weɣ > -we ɣ > ø wegū̆/wego > -wē > Q. ✧ PE17/190
-wēɣ > -wē ɣ > ø -wēg(o) > > Q. -we ✧ PE21/81
ɣwende > wende ɣ > ø WEN-ED > Q. wendē ✧ PE17/191
ɣwende > wende ɣ > ø GWEN > Q. wendē ✧ PE17/191
ɣwende > wende ɣ > ø wen > Q. wen ✧ SA/wen
ɣwende > wende ɣ > ø wen(ed) > Q. wende ✧ VT47/42
ɣwenjā > wenjā ɣ > ø gwenyā > Q. wenya ✧ PE17/191
ɣwer- > wer- ɣ > ø WER > Q. were- ✧ PE17/33
ɣwine > wine ɣ > ø wĭnĭ > Q. wine ✧ VT47/26
ɣwirne > wirne ɣ > ø WIS > Q. wirne ✧ PE17/191
βeɣo > βeo ɣ > ø wegō(n) > weo > Q. vëo ✧ PE17/189

ᴹQ. [ɣ] from [g] vanished; [ɣ] > [ø]

References ✧ PE19/32, 35, 46, 63; PE22/44

Order (01000)

After 04300 ᴹAQ. [β], [ɣ] vocalized before voiced consonants
After 00700 spirants became stops after [r], [l]
Before 01100 [ae], [ao] generally became [ē], [ō]

Related

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ɣ] > [ø] ✧ PE19/38 (ʒw > w); PE19/51 (ʒw > w); PE19/38 (gy > y); PE19/38 (ʒ > ø; initial); PE19/51 (ʒy > y); PE19/51 (lgw > lw); PE19/51 (rgw > rw)

Phonetic Rule Examples

ɣa > a ɣ > ø ᴹ✶ga > ᴹQ. a ✧ PE22/94
ɣaira > aira ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAY > ᴹQ. aira ✧ Ety/GAY
ɣaista- > aista- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gais- > ᴹQ. aista- ✧ Ety/GÁYAS
ɣal- > al- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. ’al ✧ Ety/GALA
ɣal- > al- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. al- ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ɣala > ala ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALÁN > ᴹQ. ala ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹
ɣalan > alan ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALÁN > ᴹQ. alan ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹
ɣalas > alas ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALÁS > alasa > ᴹQ. alar ✧ EtyAC/GALÁS
ɣalas > alas ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALAS > ᴹQ. alar ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ɣalasse > alasse ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALÁS > ᴹQ. alasse ✧ Ety/GALÁS
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶galadā > ᴹQ. Alda ✧ SD/302
ɣalja > alja ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. alya ✧ Ety/GALA
ɣalja > alja ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. alya ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ɣalla > alla ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. ala/alla ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ɣalma > alma ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. alma ✧ Ety/GALA
ɣalma > alma ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL² > ᴹQ. alma ✧ EtyAC/GAL²
ɣalma > alma ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. alma ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ɣalmare > almare ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. almare ✧ Ety/GALA
ɣalmare > almare ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. almare ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ɣalwa > alwa ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. alwa ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ɣampa > ampa ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAP > ᴹQ. ampa ✧ Ety/GAP
ɣarda > arda ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arda ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
ɣarja- > arja- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arya- ✧ EtyAC/GAR
ɣarjon > arjon ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. aryon ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
ɣarjon > arjon ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. aryo/aryon ✧ EtyAC/GAR
ɣarma > arma ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arma ✧ EtyAC/GAR
ɣarmar > armar ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. armar ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
ɣarta > arta ɣ > ø ᴹ√GARAT > ᴹQ. arta ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GARAT
ɣarwa > arwa ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arwa ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
ɣarwa > arwa ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arwa ✧ EtyAC/GAR
-ɣarwa > -arwa ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. -arwa ✧ EtyAC/GAR
ɣarwe > arwe ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arwe ✧ EtyAC/GAR
ɣassā > assā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gassā > ᴹQ. assa ✧ Ety/GAS
ɣatsa > atsa ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAT > ᴹQ. atsa ✧ Ety/GAT
ɣaule > aule ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAWA > ᴹQ. aule ✧ Ety/GAWA
ɣauta- > auta- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAWA > ᴹQ. auta- ✧ Ety/GAWA
-ɣel > -el ɣ > ø ᴹ√ÑEL > ᴹQ. -el ✧ EtyAC/ÑEL
ɣeŋgwā > eŋgwā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶GENG-WĀ > ᴹQ. engwa ✧ Ety/GENG-WĀ
ɣia > ia ɣ > ø ᴹ✶geı̯ā > ᴹQ. ia ✧ Ety/GEY
ɣilma > ilma ɣ > ø ᴹ√GIL > ᴹQ. Ilma ✧ Ety/GIL
ɣilmen > ilmen ɣ > ø ᴹ√GIL > ᴹQ. ilmen ✧ Ety/WIL
ɣīɣolosse > iolosse ɣ > ø ᴹ✶Geı̯golosse > ᴹQ. Iolosse ✧ Ety/GEY
ɣīra > īra ɣ > ø ᴹ√GEY > ᴹQ. íra ✧ Ety/GEY
ɣīre > īre ɣ > ø ᴹ√GEY > ᴹQ. íre ✧ Ety/GEY
ɣjello > jello ɣ > ø ᴹ√GYEL > ᴹQ. yello ✧ Ety/GYEL
ɣjerja- > jerja- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GYER > ᴹQ. yerya ✧ Ety/GYER
ɣjernā > jernā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gyernā > ᴹQ. yerna ✧ Ety/GYER
lāɣ > lā ɣ > ø ᴹ√LAƷ > ᴹQ. ✧ EtyAC/LAƷ
l̥iɣā > l̥iā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶ligā > ᴹQ. lia ✧ Ety/SLIG
l̥iɣante > l̥iante ɣ > ø ᴹ√SLIG > ᴹQ. liante ✧ Ety/SLIG
ɣlin- > lin- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GLIN > ᴹQ. lin- ✧ Ety/GLIN
ɣlinde > linde ɣ > ø ᴹ√GLIN > ᴹQ. linde ✧ Ety/GLIN
ɣliŋga- > liŋga- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GLING > ᴹQ. linga- ✧ Ety/GLING
luɣe > lue ɣ > ø ᴹ√LUG > ᴹQ. lue ✧ PE22/102
maɣā > mā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶magā > ᴹQ. ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ
manweɣe > manwē ɣ > ø ᴹ✶Manwege > ᴹQ. Manwe ✧ EtyAC/MAN
-ɣo > -o ɣ > ø ᴹ✶ʒō̆ > ᴹQ. o ✧ PE21/60
ɣo- > o- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gwo- > ᴹQ. o-´ ✧ PE19/53
ɣola- > ola- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶golā > ᴹQ. ola- ✧ PE22/113
ɣolosse > olosse ɣ > ø ᴹ√GOLÓS > ᴹQ. olosse ✧ Ety/GOLÓS
ɣolosse > olosse ɣ > ø ᴹ√GOLÓS > ᴹQ. †olos/olosse ✧ Ety/GOLÓS
ɣolosse > olosse ɣ > ø ᴹ√GOLÓS > ᴹQ. olosse ✧ Ety/LOT(H)
ɣolwā > olwā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶golbā > ᴹQ. olwa ✧ Ety/GÓLOB
ɣondo > ondo ɣ > ø ᴹ√GÓNOD/GONDO > ᴹQ. ondo ✧ Ety/GOND
ɣondolindē > ondolindē ɣ > ø Gondō̆-lindē > Q. Ondolinde ✧ PE17/133
ɣondōm > ondōm ɣ > ø ᴹ✶góndōm > góndōr > ᴹQ. ondor ✧ PE21/58
ɣondōm > ondōm ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gondōm > ʒondō̆n > ᴹQ. ondor ✧ PE21/63
ɣondōt > ondōt ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gondōt > ʒondō̆t > ᴹQ. ondot ✧ PE19/52
ɣorme > orme ɣ > ø ᴹ√GOR > ᴹQ. orme ✧ Ety/GOR
ɣorme > orme ɣ > ø ᴹ√GOR > ᴹQ. orme ✧ Ety/KHOR
ɣorna > orna ɣ > ø ᴹ√GOR > ᴹQ. orna ✧ Ety/GOR
ɣoromē > oromē ɣ > ø ᴹ✶Górōmē > ᴹQ. Orōme ✧ EtyAC/GÓROM
ɣosse > osse ɣ > ø ᴹ✶Goss > ᴹQ. Osse ✧ Ety/GOS
ɣosse > osse ɣ > ø ᴹ√GOS > ᴹQ. osse ✧ Ety/GOS
peɣe > pē ɣ > ø ᴹ√PEG > ᴹQ. ✧ Ety/PEG
rīɣē > rīē ɣ > ø ᴹ✶rīgē > ᴹQ. ríe ✧ Ety/RIG
tūɣo > tuo ɣ > ø ᴹ✶tūgu > ᴹQ. tuo ✧ Ety/TUG
ɣū- > ū- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gū̆- > ᴹQ. ū- ✧ Ety/GŪ
ɣū- > ū- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶ugu/gū > ᴹQ. ú- ✧ Ety/UGU
uɣin > uin ɣ > ø ᴹ√UGU > ᴹQ. uin ✧ Ety/UGU
ɣwa- > wa- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gwo- > ᴹQ. ✧ PE19/53
ɣwað- > wað- ɣ > ø ᴹ√WAD > ᴹQ. ware ✧ PE22/102
-weɣ > -we ɣ > ø ᴹ✶-wego > weg > ᴹQ. -we ✧ Ety/WEG
weɣa > wea ɣ > ø ᴹ√WEG > ᴹQ. vea ✧ Ety/WEG
ɣwēn > wēn ɣ > ø ᴹ√GWEN > ᴹQ. wēn ✧ Ety/GWEN
ɣwende > wende ɣ > ø ᴹ√WEN(ED) > ᴹQ. wende ✧ Ety/GWEN
ɣwende > wende ɣ > ø ᴹ√WENED > wende > ᴹQ. vende ✧ Ety/WEN
ɣwenja > wenja ɣ > ø ᴹ√GWEN > ᴹQ. wenya ✧ Ety/GWEN
weɣō > weo ɣ > ø ᴹ✶wegō > ᴹQ. †veo ✧ Ety/WEG
ɣwil- > wil- ɣ > ø ᴹ√WIL > ᴹQ. vilin ✧ Ety/WIL
ɣwil- > wil- ɣ > ø ᴹ√WIL > ᴹQ. wilin ✧ Ety/WIL
ɣwildā > wildā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶wilnā > wilda > ᴹQ. vilda ✧ EtyAC/WIL
ɣwilmā > wilmā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶wilmā > ᴹQ. wilma ✧ Ety/WIL
ɣwilwā > wilwā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶wilwā > wilwa > ᴹQ. vilwa ✧ Ety/WIL
ɣwinde > winde ɣ > ø ᴹ√GWINDI > winde > ᴹQ. vinde ✧ EtyAC/GWINDI
ɣwiŋgē > wiŋgē ɣ > ø ᴹ✶wingē > ᴹQ. winge ✧ Ety/WIG
ɣwinja > winja ɣ > ø ᴹ√GWIN > ᴹQ. winya ✧ EtyAC/GWIN
xuɣan > xuan ɣ > ø ᴹ√KHUGAN > ᴹQ. huan ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
xuɣan > xuan ɣ > ø ᴹ✶khugan > ᴹQ. huan ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
xuɣo > xuo ɣ > ø ᴹ√KHUG > ᴹQ. huo ✧ Ety/KHUGAN

ᴱQ. [ɣ] otherwise vanished; [ɣ] > [ø]

References ✧ PE12/18, 24

Order (02400)

After voiced stops became spirants after vowels
After 02000 intervocalic voiceless spirants became voiced
Before 00900 ᴹQ. [wo] became [o]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ɣ] > [ø] ✧ PE12/16 (ɣ > -; medial); PE12/17 (h > ø); PE12/18 (ɣ > ø)

Phonetic Rule Examples

aɣa > ā ɣ > ø ᴱ√‘AHA > ᴱQ. â ✧ QL/29
daɣa > dā ɣ > ø ᴱ✶dagā́ > ᴱQ. tá- ✧ PE13/161
daɣa > dā ɣ > ø ᴱ✶da’a > > ᴱQ. ✧ PE13/142
daɣorme > daorme ɣ > ø ᴱ√TAHA > tahorme > taorme > ᴱQ. torme ✧ QL/87
foɣa > foa ɣ > ø ᴱ√foχo > ᴱQ. foa ✧ GL/36
foɣa > foa ɣ > ø ᴱ√FOƷO > ᴱQ. foa ✧ QL/38
foɣina > foina ɣ > ø ᴱ√FOƷO > ᴱQ. foina ✧ QL/38
gʷeɣie > gʷeie ɣ > ø ᴱ✶gu̯eg- > ᴱQ. wie ✧ GL/44
koɣua > kouo ɣ > ø ᴱ√KOHO > koχuo > ᴱQ. kuo ✧ QL/47
laɣa > lā ɣ > ø ᴱ√LAHA > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/50
leɣa > lea ɣ > ø ᴱ✶leχa > ᴱQ. lea ✧ GL/53
luɣin > luin ɣ > ø ᴱ√LUHU > ᴱQ. luin ✧ QL/56
meɣar > mear ɣ > ø ᴱ√MEHE > ᴱQ. mear ✧ QL/60
naɣūa > naūa ɣ > ø ᴱ✶naχū́a > naū́a > náuwa > ᴱQ. nauva ✧ PE12/10
neɣier > neier ɣ > ø ᴱ√NEHE > neχier > neier > ᴱQ. nier ✧ QL/65
nēɣitte > nēitte ɣ > ø ᴱ✶nēgittĕ > ᴱQ. neite ✧ GL/60
neɣōn > neōn ɣ > ø ᴱ✶negōn > ᴱQ. nion ✧ GL/60
nʲeɣie > nʲeie ɣ > ø ᴱ✶nı̯eχie > ᴱQ. nie ✧ GL/60
nʲeɣie > nʲeie ɣ > ø ᴱ✶nyeχie > ᴱQ. nie ✧ QL/68
oɣar > oar ɣ > ø ᴱ√’O’O > ᴱQ. oar ✧ QL/70
oɣaris > oaris ɣ > ø ᴱ√’O’O > ᴱQ. oaris ✧ QL/70
ɣolwe > olwe ɣ > ø ᴱ✶ʒolwé: > ᴱQ. olwe ✧ PE13/145
ɣolweja > olweja ɣ > ø ᴱ✶ʒolwéya > ᴱQ. olwea ✧ PE13/145
ouɣe > oue ɣ > ø ᴱ✶ou̯χe > ᴱQ. ue ✧ QL/71
ouɣe > oue ɣ > ø ᴱ√OWO > ᴱQ. UE ✧ QL/97
paɣīan > paīan ɣ > ø ᴱ✶pah͡y-īand > păχī́ănd > pắ(h)īăn(d) > ᴱQ. paiyan ✧ PE12/8
ruɣe > rue ɣ > ø ᴱ√RU’U > ᴱQ. rue ✧ QL/80
ruɣin > ruin ɣ > ø ᴱ√RU’U > ᴱQ. ruin ✧ QL/80
taɣime > taime ɣ > ø ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. Taime ✧ QL/88
teɣa > tea ɣ > ø ᴱ√TEHE > ᴱQ. tea ✧ QL/90
teɣie > teie ɣ > ø ᴱ✶teχiḗ > tēye > tĕ́hie > ᴱQ. tī̆e ✧ PE12/8
ɣuŋwe > uŋwe ɣ > ø ᴱ√GUŊU > ᴱQ. ungwe ✧ QL/98
urɣirda > urirda ɣ > ø ᴱ✶ur’-irda > ᴱQ. ulird(e)a ✧ PE13/144
βaɣa > βā ɣ > ø ᴱ√VAHA > ᴱQ. vā² ✧ QL/99