Q. [ɣ] from [g] vanished; [ɣ] > [ø]

Q. [ɣ] from [g] vanished; [ɣ] > [ø]

References ✧ Let/410; PE17/92; PE19/70-71, 75

Order ()

After medial [ŋ] usually became [ɣ]
Before [ae], [ao] generally became [ē], [ō]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ɣ] > [ø] ✧ PE18/105 (gy > y); PE18/105 (gw > w); PE19/72 (gw > ʒw > w); PE19/75 (ʒw > w; initially); PE17/153 (ʒ > nil); PE18/105 (ʒ > [ø]); PE18/105 (g > [ø]); PE19/70 (ʒ > )

Phonetic Rule Examples

ɣaira > aira ɣ > ø GAYA > Q. aira ✧ PM/363
ɣaira > aira ɣ > ø gaı̯ră > Q. †aire ✧ PE17/27
ɣaire > aire ɣ > ø GAYA > Q. airë ✧ PM/363
ɣājā > ājā ɣ > ø gāyā > Q. áya ✧ PM/363
ɣajkā > ajkā ɣ > ø gayakā > Q. aika ✧ PM/363
ɣal- > al- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. ’al ✧ Ety/GALA
ɣala- > ala- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶galā > ᴹQ. ’alā- ✧ PE22/98
ɣala- > ala- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶galā́ > ᴹQ. ala- ✧ PE22/106
ɣalalme > alalme ɣ > ø GAL > Q. alalme ✧ PE17/153
ɣalalβe > alalβe ɣ > ø GAL-AB > Q. alalbe ✧ PE17/153
ɣalan > alan ɣ > ø galan > Q. alan ✧ PE22/164
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø galadā > Q. alda ✧ Let/426
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/25
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/50
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/63
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø galadā > ʒalaðā > ʒalðā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/135
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø galadā́ > Q. alda ✧ PE17/153
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/153
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø GAL > Q. alda ✧ PE22/160
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø AQ. ʒalda > Q. alda ✧ VT39/7
ɣaldanil > aldanil ɣ > ø Gala(da)ndil > Q. Aldanil ✧ PE21/83
ɣaldarembinā > aldarembinā ɣ > ø galad(a)rembinā > Q. aldarembina ✧ PE17/127
ɣalmā > almā ɣ > ø galmā > Q. alma ✧ PE17/153
ɣalta- > alta- ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAL² > ᴹQ. alta- ✧ EtyAC/GAL²
ɣaltāriell > altāriell ɣ > ø galatā-rigellē̆ > Q. altáriel ✧ PE17/50
ɣaltarielle > altarielle ɣ > ø galata-rīg-elle > Q. Altariellë ✧ MR/182
ɣaltārielle > altārielle ɣ > ø alatā-rigellē̆ > Q. Altariel(le) ✧ PE17/50
ɣaltārielle > altārielle ɣ > ø alatā-rigellē̆ > Q. altáriel ✧ PE17/50
ɣalβa > alβa ɣ > ø GAL-AB > Q. alba ✧ PE17/153
ɣalβe > alβe ɣ > ø ALAB > albe > Q. alve ✧ PE17/146
ɣalβe > alβe ɣ > ø ALAB > Q. albe ✧ PE17/153
ɣampa > ampa ɣ > ø gampa > Q. ampa ✧ VT47/20
ɣar- > ar- ɣ > ø ÑAR > Q. ar- ✧ PE17/169
ɣardā > ardā ɣ > ø gardā > Q. arda ✧ WJ/402
aɣwalda > awalda ɣ > ø WAL > Q. awalda ✧ PE17/189
denweɣ > denwe ɣ > ø Denwego > Q. Lenwe ✧ WJ/412
ɣear > ear ɣ > ø GAY(AR) > Q. ëar ✧ PE17/27
ɣear > ear ɣ > ø Gayar- > Q. Eär ✧ PM/363
ɣear > ear ɣ > ø gayār > Q. ëar ✧ WJ/400
ɣaltārīɣell > ɣaltāriell ɣ > ø galatā-rigellē̆ > Q. altáriel ✧ PE17/50
ɣaltarīɣelle > ɣaltarielle ɣ > ø galata-rīg-elle > Q. Altariellë ✧ MR/182
ɣaltārīɣelle > ɣaltārielle ɣ > ø alatā-rigellē̆ > Q. Altariel(le) ✧ PE17/50
ɣaltārīɣelle > ɣaltārielle ɣ > ø alatā-rigellē̆ > Q. altáriel ✧ PE17/50
ɣille > ille ɣ > ø GIL > Q. ille ✧ PE17/22
kaltārīɣell > kaltāriell ɣ > ø kalatā-rigellē̆ > Q. kaltáriel ✧ PE17/50
kaltārīɣelle > kaltārielle ɣ > ø Kalatā-rigelle > Q. Kaltáriel(le) ✧ PE17/50
ɣlala- > lala- ɣ > ø g-lada- > Q. lala- ✧ PM/359
ɣlaurē > laurē ɣ > ø glawarē > glaurē > ʒlaurē > Q. laurē ✧ PE19/79
ɣlaure > laure ɣ > ø glawarĭ > Q. laure ✧ PE21/81
ɣlaure > laure ɣ > ø glaware > Q. laure ✧ VT41/10
ɣlaurē > laurē ɣ > ø ᴹ√GLAW(-R) > ᴹQ. laure ✧ Ety/GLAW(-R)
l̥oɣa > l̥oa ɣ > ø sloga > Q. hloä ✧ VT42/9
ɣlosse > losse ɣ > ø (G)LOS > Q. lossë ✧ VT42/18
maɣa > mā ɣ > ø MAG > Q. ✧ PE17/161
māɣa > mā ɣ > ø mag > Q. ✧ VT47/18
maɣi > mai ɣ > ø MAGA > Q. mai ✧ PE22/148
maɣite > maite ɣ > ø magiti- > Q. Maiti- ✧ VT41/10
ŋaltārīɣel > ŋaltāriel ɣ > ø ñgal(a)tā-rig-el- > Q. Ñaltariel ✧ PE17/60
ɣondo > ondo ɣ > ø gond(o) > Q. ondo ✧ Let/410
ɣondo > ondo ɣ > ø gon-d > Q. ondo ✧ RC/347
ɣrauko > rauko ɣ > ø grauk- > Q. rauko ✧ WJ/415
rīɣā > rīā ɣ > ø rīgā > Q. ría ✧ PM/347
riɣe > rie ɣ > ø RIG > Q. rië ✧ PE17/182
riɣel > riel ɣ > ø rig- > Q. riel ✧ SA/kal
riɣelle > rielle ɣ > ø RIG > Q. riellë ✧ PM/347
ɣroa > roa ɣ > ø grawa > Q. roa ✧ VT47/35
r̥ūɣa > r̥ūa ɣ > ø S-RŪGU > Q. hrúa ✧ PE17/170
r̥uɣo > r̥uo ɣ > ø srugu > Q. hruo ✧ PE17/115
uɣu- > ū- ɣ > ø UG > Q. ú ✧ PE22/160
uɣu- > ū- ɣ > ø ū̆gu/gū > Q. ū- ✧ VT49/29
uɣi > ui ɣ > ø ū̆gu/gū > Q. ui ✧ VT49/29
uɣilme > uilme ɣ > ø ugilme > Q. uilme ✧ VT49/29
ɣur- > ur- ɣ > ø GUR > Q. ur(u) ✧ PE17/154
ɣurda > urda ɣ > ø GUR > Q. urda ✧ PE17/154
ɣwa- > wa- ɣ > ø gwo > Q. wa- ✧ PE19/106
ɣwaina > waina ɣ > ø GWAY > waina > Q. vaina ✧ PE17/154
ɣwalda > walda ɣ > ø walna > Q. walda ✧ PE17/154
ɣwalja- > walja- ɣ > ø GWAL > Q. walya ✧ PE17/154
ɣwalme > walme ɣ > ø GWAL > Q. walme ✧ PE17/154
ɣwalme > walme ɣ > ø WAL > Q. walme ✧ PE17/189
ɣwalta- > walta- ɣ > ø GWAL > Q. walta ✧ PE17/154
ɣwanja > wanja ɣ > ø GWAN > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/154
ɣwanja > wanja ɣ > ø GWAN > Q. †wana ✧ PE17/165
-weɣ > -we ɣ > ø weg- > Q. -we ✧ PE17/190
-weɣ > -we ɣ > ø wegū̆/wego > -wē > Q. ✧ PE17/190
-wēɣ > -wē ɣ > ø -wēg(o) > > Q. -we ✧ PE21/81
ɣwende > wende ɣ > ø WEN-ED > Q. wendē ✧ PE17/191
ɣwende > wende ɣ > ø GWEN > Q. wendē ✧ PE17/191
ɣwende > wende ɣ > ø wen > Q. wen ✧ SA/wen
ɣwende > wende ɣ > ø wen(ed) > Q. wende ✧ VT47/42
ɣwenjā > wenjā ɣ > ø gwenyā > Q. wenya ✧ PE17/191
ɣwer- > wer- ɣ > ø WER > Q. were- ✧ PE17/33
ɣwine > wine ɣ > ø wĭnĭ > Q. wine ✧ VT47/26
ɣwirne > wirne ɣ > ø WIS > Q. wirne ✧ PE17/191
ɣwo- > wo- ɣ > ø gwo > Q. o- ✧ PE19/106
ɣwolassiē > wolassiē ɣ > ø gwa-lassa/gwa-lassiē > Q. olassiē ✧ Let/282
βeɣō > βeo ɣ > ø wegō(n) > weo > Q. vëo ✧ PE17/189

ᴹQ. [ɣ] from [g] vanished; [ɣ] > [ø]

References ✧ PE19/32, 35, 46, 63; PE22/44

Order ()

Before [ae], [ao] generally became [ē], [ō]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ɣ] > [ø] ✧ PE19/38 (ʒw > w); PE19/51 (ʒw > w); PE19/38 (gy > y); PE19/38 (ʒ > ø; initial); PE19/51 (ʒy > y); PE19/51 (lgw > lw); PE19/51 (rgw > rw)

Phonetic Rule Examples

ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
ɣaldā > aldā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶galadā > ᴹQ. Alda ✧ SD/302
ɣampa > ampa ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAP > ᴹQ. ampa ✧ Ety/GAP
ɣarda > arda ɣ > ø ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arda ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
ɣia > ia ɣ > ø ᴹ✶geı̯ā > ᴹQ. ia ✧ Ety/GEY
lāɣ > lā ɣ > ø ᴹ√LAƷ > ᴹQ. ✧ EtyAC/LAƷ
maɣā > mā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶magā > ᴹQ. ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ
ɣolwā > olwā ɣ > ø ᴹ✶golbā > ᴹQ. olwa ✧ Ety/GÓLOB
ɣondo > ondo ɣ > ø ᴹ√GÓNOD/GONDO > ᴹQ. ondo ✧ Ety/GOND
ɣondolindē > ondolindē ɣ > ø Gondō̆-lindē > Q. Ondolinde ✧ PE17/133
ɣondōm > ondōm ɣ > ø ᴹ✶góndōm > góndōr > ᴹQ. ondor ✧ PE21/58
ɣondōm > ondōm ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gondōm > ʒondō̆n > ᴹQ. ondor ✧ PE21/63
ɣondōt > ondōt ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gondōt > ʒondō̆t > ᴹQ. ondot ✧ PE19/52
ɣoromē > oromē ɣ > ø ᴹ✶Górōmē > ᴹQ. Orōme ✧ EtyAC/GÓROM
rīɣē > rīē ɣ > ø ᴹ✶rīgē > ᴹQ. ríe ✧ Ety/RIG
ɣū- > ū- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gū̆- > ᴹQ. ū- ✧ Ety/GŪ
ɣū- > ū- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶ugu/gū > ᴹQ. ú- ✧ Ety/UGU
ɣwa- > wa- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gwo- > ᴹQ. ✧ PE19/53
-weɣ > -we ɣ > ø ᴹ✶-wego > weg > ᴹQ. -we ✧ Ety/WEG
ɣwende > wende ɣ > ø ᴹ√WEN(ED) > ᴹQ. wende ✧ Ety/GWEN
ɣwende > wende ɣ > ø ᴹ√WENED > wende > ᴹQ. vende ✧ Ety/WEN
ɣwenja > wenja ɣ > ø ᴹ√GWEN > ᴹQ. wenya ✧ Ety/GWEN
ɣwinja > winja ɣ > ø ᴹ√GWIN > ᴹQ. winya ✧ EtyAC/GWIN
ɣwo- > wo- ɣ > ø ᴹ✶gwo- > ᴹQ. o-´ ✧ PE19/53
βeɣō > βeo ɣ > ø ᴹ✶wegō > ᴹQ. †veo ✧ Ety/WEG

ᴱQ. [ɣ] otherwise vanished; [ɣ] > [ø]

References ✧ PE12/18, 24

Order (02500)

After voiced stops became spirants after vowels
After 02100 intervocalic voiceless spirants became voiced

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ɣ] > [ø] ✧ PE12/16 (ɣ > -; medial); PE12/17 (h > ø); PE12/18 (ɣ > ø)

Phonetic Rule Examples

aɣa > ā ɣ > ø ᴱ√‘AHA > ᴱQ. â ✧ QL/29
daɣa > dā ɣ > ø ᴱ✶dagā́ > ᴱQ. tá- ✧ PE13/161
daɣa > dā ɣ > ø ᴱ✶da’a > > ᴱQ. ✧ PE13/142
daɣorme > daorme ɣ > ø ᴱ√TAHA > tahorme > taorme > ᴱQ. torme ✧ QL/87
foɣa > foa ɣ > ø ᴱ√foχo > ᴱQ. foa ✧ GL/36
foɣa > foa ɣ > ø ᴱ√FOƷO > ᴱQ. foa ✧ QL/38
foɣina > foina ɣ > ø ᴱ√FOƷO > ᴱQ. foina ✧ QL/38
gʷeɣie > gʷeie ɣ > ø ᴱ✶gu̯eg- > ᴱQ. wie ✧ GL/44
koɣua > kouo ɣ > ø ᴱ√KOHO > koχuo > ᴱQ. kuo ✧ QL/47
laɣa > lā ɣ > ø ᴱ√LAHA > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/50
leɣa > lea ɣ > ø ᴱ✶leχa > ᴱQ. lea ✧ GL/53
luɣin > luin ɣ > ø ᴱ√LUHU > ᴱQ. luin ✧ QL/56
meɣar > mear ɣ > ø ᴱ√MEHE > ᴱQ. mear ✧ QL/60
naɣūa > naūa ɣ > ø ᴱ✶naχū́a > naū́a > náuwa > ᴱQ. nauva ✧ PE12/10
neɣier > neier ɣ > ø ᴱ√NEHE > neχier > neier > ᴱQ. nier ✧ QL/65
nēɣitte > nēitte ɣ > ø ᴱ✶nēgittĕ > ᴱQ. neite ✧ GL/60
neɣōn > neōn ɣ > ø ᴱ✶negōn > ᴱQ. nion ✧ GL/60
nʲeɣie > nʲeie ɣ > ø ᴱ✶nı̯eχie > ᴱQ. nie ✧ GL/60
nʲeɣie > nʲeie ɣ > ø ᴱ✶nyeχie > ᴱQ. nie ✧ QL/68
oɣar > oar ɣ > ø ᴱ√’O’O > ᴱQ. oar ✧ QL/70
oɣaris > oaris ɣ > ø ᴱ√’O’O > ᴱQ. oaris ✧ QL/70
ɣolwe > olwe ɣ > ø ᴱ✶ʒolwé: > ᴱQ. olwe ✧ PE13/145
ɣolweja > olweja ɣ > ø ᴱ✶ʒolwéya > ᴱQ. olwea ✧ PE13/145
ouɣe > oue ɣ > ø ᴱ✶ou̯χe > ᴱQ. ue ✧ QL/71
ouɣe > oue ɣ > ø ᴱ√OWO > ᴱQ. UE ✧ QL/97
paɣīan > paīan ɣ > ø ᴱ✶pah͡y-īand > păχī́ănd > pắ(h)īăn(d) > ᴱQ. paiyan ✧ PE12/8
ruɣe > rue ɣ > ø ᴱ√RU’U > ᴱQ. rue ✧ QL/80
ruɣin > ruin ɣ > ø ᴱ√RU’U > ᴱQ. ruin ✧ QL/80
taɣime > taime ɣ > ø ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. Taime ✧ QL/88
teɣa > tea ɣ > ø ᴱ√TEHE > ᴱQ. tea ✧ QL/90
teɣie > teie ɣ > ø ᴱ✶teχiḗ > tēye > tĕ́hie > ᴱQ. tī̆e ✧ PE12/8
ɣuŋwe > uŋwe ɣ > ø ᴱ√GUŊU > ᴱQ. ungwe ✧ QL/98
urɣirda > urirda ɣ > ø ᴱ✶ur’-irda > ᴱQ. ulird(e)a ✧ PE13/144
βaɣa > βā ɣ > ø ᴱ√VAHA > ᴱQ. vā² ✧ QL/99