Q. spirants became stops after [r], [l]; [{rl}{ɸθxð}] > [{rl}{ptkd}]

Q. spirants became stops after [r], [l]; [{rl}{ɸθxð}] > [{rl}{ptkd}]

After liquids r, l many spirants that arose from either aspirates or voiced stops once again became stops. Tolkien described these phonetic developments in several place in the Outline of Phonology [OP2] from the 1950s. For aspirates > voiceless spirants > voiceless stops after liquids:

[Aspirates] after r and l. Spirantal forms (if developed) were soon restopped so that the normal phonetic products were rp, lp / rt, lt / rk, lk, falling in with voiceless stops. r and l were (as the nasals) generally unfavourable to the development of following spirants. Compare the development of the aspirates after nasals above, and of the voiced stops below.

The cases other than rth, lth (which could be produced by suffixion) were infrequent, since they can only normally be produced for kalta-stems of KALAT-bases, in which final aspirates (other than th) were rare and ph not evidenc[ed]; or from occasional ancient derivatives of KAT-bases with prefix and suppression of medial sundoma as RATH > arthā. This latter is [the] only source of rph, lph, as in base RAPH “seize, grab”, arp(h)o “seizer, thief” > arpo (OP2: PE19/89).

The word Q. arpo given above is the only example of this change involving ph, but lkh, rkh sound changes can be seen in examples like: ✶tarkhildī > Q. tarkildi (PE17/101); Val. Tulukhastāz [> *Tulkhast-] > Q. Tulkas (WJ/399). As noted above, the aspirates may have become voiceless stops directly without passing through a spirantal phase; the evidence is ambiguous. Also note that combinations like lf, rf, lh, rh do occasionally appear in Quenya compounds, but these may be late formations or reformations.

There is strong evidence, however, that rth > rt was not the normal phonetic development. Most of the examples show rth > rs instead, with the usual change of [θ] to [s]. See the entry on how [rs] became [ss] for a list of examples. This may be a remnant of ideas from the 1930s, when voiceless spirants survived after liquids (see below). The closest we come to rth > rt is Q. certa vs. S. certh, but this Quenya word was a loan word from Sindarin, and thus represents phonetic adaptation rather than phonetic evolution. Lack of examples makes it hard to tell how lth really developed in the 1950s and 60s.

As for voiced spirants > voiced stops after liquids:

After r, l. See above under ii (g), for a discussion of the processes of change here involved. It is probable that in AQ the voiced stops were at first opened to spirants after r, l; but that a reaction soon supervened, while ƀ, ð, ʒ were still at that stage, and identical in place of articulation with the original stops (as surviving in mb, nd, ñg(w)), causing some at least of these spirants to be re-stopped (OP2: PE19/93).

There were some dialectical complications with these developments, however. In particular, Tolkien said that “In V. rƀ, lƀ > rb, lb. In N. TQ rƀ, lƀ > rv, lv” and furthermore, he said that “The products of rg, lg; rgw, lgw are in (N.) TQ rr, ll (but rgē̆, lgē̆ > rye, lye); rw, lw; in Vanyarin rg, lg, rw, lw” (PE19/93). Thus it seems the full restopping only occurred in Vanyarin. The spirants ƀ, ʒ seems to remain in the Ñoldorin Quenya dialect, and afterwards [β] became [v] and [lɣ], [rɣ] became [ll], [rr]:

The TQ (Noldorin) forms, and especially the fact that even in PQ the product of rgw, lgw is rw, lw, point to the opening of g > ʒ, where it had not become d [gy > dy]. That the PQ spellings are by the Noldor represented as rg, lg, independently of the Vanyar, may be due to an artificial reconstruction, since the Sindarin-speaking Noldor had no spoken sound [ʒ], but were familiar with the consonant [g] (though not in the groups rg, lg). In view of PQ rw, lw, this is more likely than the re-opening of lg, rg > lʒ, rʒ in Noldorin dialect (whence later ll, rr) (OP2: PE19/93-4).

As indicated by this note, the likeliest scenario in the Ñoldorin dialect is lg > > ll rather than lg > > lg > > ll (and likewise for rg). Thus in the Ñoldorin Quenya dialect, restopping of voiced spirants only occurred for lð, rð > ld, rd. The clearest example of this is:

Even in Vanyarin, lgw, rgw > lʒw, rʒw > lw, rw before restopping, making it likely this was a more ancient sound change; see the entry on how [lɣw], [rɣw] became [lw], [rw]. The notes above seem to indicate the spirantal combinations lʒ, rʒ otherwise survived into PQ. See the enty on how [lɣ], [rɣ] became [ll], [rr] for a discussion on the possible timing of these later sound changes.

Conceptual Development: There is similar stopping of spirants after liquids in Tolkien’s earliest conception of Qenya from the 1910s and 1920s, but these early phonetic rules are complicated by the fact that voiceless and voiced spirants were part of the phonetic inventory of Primitive Elvish in the 1910s and 1920s. Thus, the spirants + liquid combinations did not exclusively arise from the development of aspirates or voiced stops in these combinations (as they were from the 1930s forward), but were instead often part of words in the Primitive Elvish language of the 1910s and 1920s.

Tolkien described these sound changes in the Qenyaqetsa written in the 1910s. In this conceptual period, it seems that voiceless spirants were first voiced after liquids, and that these together with original voiced spirants all became stops, so that (for example) lþ, rþ > lð, rð > ld, rd (PE12/19, 24). The relative order of these changes can confirmed by the fact that combinations like lt, rt remained unchanged. There is no evidence in the 1910s and 1920 that ld > > ld; it seems likelier that in the earliest conception stages that voiced stops did not become spirants after liquids.

This was also true in the Outline of Phonetic Development [OP1] from the 1930s, where Tolkien said:

Owing to the opening in Q. of all voiced stops (except after nasals and l, r) ... (OP1: PE19/40).
After l, r. In PQ the stops remained: ld, rd, lg, rg, lb, rb. lgw, rgw became lw, rw already in early PQ (OP1: PE19/46).

Some of the changes seen in the Ñoldorin dialect of the 1950s, Tolkien instead ascribed to the Lindarin dialect [pre-Vanyarin] in the 1930s:

In Lindarin ld, rd, lb still remained; but rb > rv; while lg, rg > lʒ, rʒ > ll, rr; but lgē̆, rgē̆ > lye, rye (OP1: PE19/46).

Because voiced stops did not become spirants after liquids in the 1930s, this must have been limited to the Lindarin dialect. However, lgw, rgw > lw, rw in all dialects in the 1930s (as they did also in the 1950s), hinting that some spirantalization happened in at least that combination.

In the first draft of OP2 in the 1950s, Tolkien still attributed some of these sound changes to only the Vanyarin dialect:

In V. rƀ, lƀ > rv, lv. In TQ. > rv, but > lb, with restopping (PE19/93 note #18).

The corrections to the final version of the Vanyarin/Ñoldorin dialectical developmentsin OP2 were made in green ball point, making them fairly late revisions from around 1970 (PE19/17). Phonetic notes from the late 1950s or early 1960s indicate occasional lv > lb restopping in Exihilic Quenya (EQ):

In Q. {both lb and lw > lw: both in EQ > lb} lb and lw existed, then both became lv. Consider[ed] correct but lv often to lb, which is sufficiently common to be allowed as a correct variant. Thus distinct from Vanyar ancient lb from lv but lw from l + w (PE17/129).

There are no attested Quenya words with rv, but there are lv/lb variations throughout the 1950s and 60s, such as: Q. olba “branch” (PM/341) vs. Q. olva “growing things with roots in the earth” (S/45); Q. alve “elm” with variant albe (PE17/146, PE17/153). Tolkien even mentioned that lb was a common Elvish pronunciation of lv in The Lord of the Rings Appendix E:

For lv, not for lw, many speakers, especially Elves, used lb: this was written with 27+6 [jw], since lmb could not occur (LotR/1121).

In the case aspirates after liquids, the normal development in OP1 of the 1930s was to voiceless spirants without restopping:

rph, rth, rkh > rf, rþ, rh, in the latter h being in PQ a strong spirant: the Lindarin development of rh, lh to long voiceless ř, ľ being seldom intruded into TQ pronunciation and never by Noldor. lph, lth, lkh > lf, lþ, lh. Note ls, rs developed in TQ from PQ lþ, rþ remain as such, with strong voiceless s (OP1: PE19/44).

This can be seen, for example, in ᴹ√NOROTH [> *norþa] > ᴹQ. norsa “giant” rather than **norta (Ety/NOROTH). The same lack of restopping can be partly seen in the original draft of OP2:

r/l + aspirates: rf, {} rh, lf, lh (OP2: PE19/81) [with deleted per note #64].

Later in the original draft Tolkien wrote:

In the case of the aspirates after r, l spirantal forms were only fully developed or maintained in PQ in the sequence rph > rf. The normal products of the other groups were rt, rk; lp, lt, lk, with loss of aspiration, or more strictly with its reduction so that the aspirates and voiceless stops (which were lightly aspirated in Quenya initially and after r, l, m, n) coalesced (OP2: PE19/89 note #101).

Thus it seems in the 1950s Tolkien first decided that þ was restopped after liquids, and then decided that restopping was the general pattern with only rf surviving. Around 1970 he made further revisions in green ball point, first adding lf to the list of combinations that survived, then deciding that rf, lf only surviving in the Vanyarin dialect, before rejecting this as well and settling on the rule of universal restopping of voiceless spirants after liquids as described above, rewriting the entire section in green pen (OP2: PE19/89 note #101).

To summarize the conceptual developments of spirants after r, l:

There was a gradually conceptual shift between the OP1 scenario of the 1930s and the final OP2 scenario of 1970, with various combinations moving incrementally between the two scenarios. Actually examples show rth > rs up through the 1960s, so the stopping of the voiceless dental spirant after liquids may never have been formally adopted.

References ✧ PE19/81-82, 89-90, 93

Order (00700)

After 01900 AQ. aspirates became voiceless spirants
After 02900 AQ. voiced stops became spirants except after nasals
Before 01100 [ɣ] from [g] vanished
Before 03600 [d] vanished between [n], [r], [l] and [j]
Before Van. [β], [ɣ] after [r], [l] usually became stops


Phonetic Rule Elements

[lɸ] > [lp] ✧ PE19/89 (*[lɸ] > lp)
[rɸ] > [rp] ✧ PE19/89 (*[rɸ] > rp)
[lθ] > [lt] ✧ PE19/89 (*[lθ] > lt)
[rθ] > [rt] ✧ PE19/89 (*[rθ] > rt)
[lx] > [lk] ✧ PE19/89 (*[lx] > lk)
[rx] > [rk] ✧ PE19/89 (*[rx] > rk)
[lð] > [ld] ✧ PE19/82 ( > ld)
[rð] > [rd] ✧ PE19/82 ( > rd)

Phonetic Rule Examples

tulxast > tulkast lx > lk Val. Tulukhastāz > Q. Tulkas ✧ WJ/399
ɣalðā > ɣaldā lð > ld galadā > ʒalaðā > ʒalðā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/135
-lðe > -lde lð > ld de > Q. -lde ✧ VT49/51
tarxildī > tarkildī rx > rk tarkhildī > Q. tarkildi ✧ PE17/101
arɸō > arpō rɸ > rp arp(h)ō > Q. arpo ✧ PE19/89
cerþa > certa rθ > rt S. certh > Q. certa ✧ WJ/396

ᴹQ. spirants became stops after [r], [l]; [{rl}{ðβ}] > [{rl}{dw}]

@@@ voiceless spirants remained unchanged in this period: norsa “giant”, ilfirin, but norta, norto

References ✧ PE19/31, 44

Order (00700)

After 02000 ᴹAQ. aspirates became voiceless spirants
After 03000 ᴹAQ. voiced stops became spirants except after nasals and liquids
Before 01000 [ɣ] from [g] vanished
Before 03600 [d] vanished between [n], [r], [l] and [j]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[lð] > [ld]
[rð] > [rd]
[lβ] > [lw]

Phonetic Rule Examples

melðo > meldo lð > ld ᴹ√MEL > ᴹQ. meldo ✧ EtyAC/MEL
ɣolβā > ɣolwā lβ > lw ᴹ✶golbā > ᴹQ. olwa ✧ Ety/GÓLOB

ᴱQ. voiced spirants becames stops after liquids, nasals and [z]; [{lrmnŋz}{βððʲɣɣʷ}] > [{lrmnŋz}{bddʲggʷ}]

@@@ but Elben >> Elwen

References ✧ PE12/19, 24

Order ()

After [s] became [z] before nasals and voiced spirants
After voiceless spirants voiced after liquids
Before [dʲ] became [j]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[lβ] > [lb] ✧ PE12/24 ( > lb)
[rβ] > [rb] ✧ PE12/24 ( > rb)
[mβ] > [mb] ✧ PE12/24 ( > mb)
[zβ] > [zb] ✧ PE12/24 ( > rb)
[lð] > [ld] ✧ PE12/19 ( > ld); PE12/24 ( > ld)
[rð] > [rd] ✧ PE12/19 ( > rd); PE12/24 ( > rd)
[nð] > [nd] ✧ PE12/24 ( > nd)
[zð] > [zd] ✧ PE12/24 ( > rd)
[lɣ] > [lg] ✧ PE12/24 ( > lg)
[rɣ] > [rg] ✧ PE12/24 ( > rg)
[ŋɣ] > [ŋg] ✧ PE12/24 (ŋɣ > ng)
[zɣ] > [zg] ✧ PE12/24 ( > rg)
[lβ] > [lw]
[ŋɣʷ] > [ŋgʷ]

Phonetic Rule Examples

kʷalðe- > kʷalde- lð > ld ᴱ√QḶŘḶ > ᴱQ. qalde ✧ QL/78
kʷilð- > kʷild- lð > ld ᴱ√QḶŘḶ > ᴱQ. qildi- ✧ QL/78
kʷilðe > kʷilde lð > ld ᴱ√QḶŘḶ > ᴱQ. qilde ✧ QL/78
malð- > mald- lð > ld ᴱ√MLŘL > ᴱQ. mald- ✧ QL/62
malða > malda lð > ld ᴱ√MLŘL > ᴱQ. malda ✧ QL/62
malðe- > malde- lð > ld ᴱ√MLŘL > ᴱQ. malde ✧ QL/62
malðe- > malde- lð > ld ᴱ√MLŘL > ᴱQ. malde ✧ QL/62
milð- > mild- lð > ld ᴱ√MLŘL > ᴱQ. mild- ✧ QL/62
nalð > nald lð > ld ᴱ√nḷřḷ > ᴱQ. nal ✧ QL/66
nalða > nalda lð > ld ᴱ√nḷřḷ > ᴱQ. nalda ✧ QL/66
nalðle > naldle lð > ld ᴱ✶nḷdle > ᴱQ. nalle ✧ QL/66
θilða > θilda lð > ld ᴱ√ÞḶÐḶ > ᴱQ. silda ✧ QL/84
vilð- > vild- lð > ld ᴱ√VḶŘḶ > ᴱQ. vildin ✧ QL/102
vilð > vild lð > ld ᴱ√VḶŘḶ > ᴱQ. vil(d) ✧ QL/102
xilðe > xilde lð > ld ᴱ✶χilþē > ᴱQ. hilde ✧ GL/49
lɣu > lgu lɣ > lg ᴱ✶liquids + x͡w + ū̯̆ > ᴱQ. lgu ✧ PE12/18
elβen > elwen lβ > lw ᴱ√LEFE > ᴱQ. Elwen ✧ QL/35
elβen > elwen lβ > lw ‽ᴱ√LEFE > ᴱQ. elwen ✧ QL/52
amβe- > ambe- mβ > mb ᴱ√AVA > ᴱQ. ambe ✧ QL/33
amβus > ambus mβ > mb ᴹ✶amƀus- > ᴹQ. ambor ✧ PE21/33
famβa > famba mβ > mb ᴱ√FABA > ᴱQ. famba ✧ QL/36
famβo > fambo mβ > mb ᴱ√FABA > ᴱQ. fambo ✧ QL/37
gʷemβe > gʷembe mβ > mb ᴱ√GWEVE > ᴱQ. ’wembe ✧ QL/103
gʷemβil > gʷembil mβ > mb ᴱ√GWEVE > ᴱQ. ’wembil ✧ QL/103
kamβo > kambo mβ > mb ᴱ√KAVA > ᴱQ. kambo ✧ QL/45
lamβe > lambe mβ > mb ᴱ√LAVA > ᴱQ. lambe ✧ QL/52
lumβo > lumbo mβ > mb ᴱ√LUVU > ᴱQ. lumbo ✧ QL/57
ramβe > rambe mβ > mb ᴱ√RAVA > ᴱQ. rambe² ✧ QL/79
temβe- > tembe- mβ > mb ᴱ√TEFE > ᴱQ. tembe ✧ QL/90
alanða > alanda nð > nd ᴱ√lařa > ᴱQ. alanda ✧ QL/34
anðe > ande nð > nd ᴱ√NÐN > > ᴱQ. ande ✧ QL/31
bonðo > bondo nð > nd ᴱ√BOÐO > ᴱQ. pondo ✧ QL/75
finðḷ > findḷ nð > nd ᴱ√FIŘI > ᴱQ. findl ✧ QL/38
gʷenða > gʷenda nð > nd ᴱ√GWEÐE > ᴱQ. ’wenda ✧ QL/103
gʷinða > gʷinda nð > nd ᴱ√GWIÐI > ᴱQ. ’winda ✧ QL/103
inðo > indo nð > nd ᴱ√IŘI > ᴱQ. indo ✧ QL/43
janða > janda nð > nd ᴱ√YAÐA > ᴱQ. yanda ✧ QL/105
kanða- > kanda- nð > nd ᴱ√KṆŘṆ > ᴱQ. kanda- ✧ QL/47
kanðōra > kandōra nð > nd ᴱ√KṆŘṆ > ᴱQ. kandōra ✧ PME/47
kanðōra > kandōra nð > nd ᴱ√KṆŘṆ > ᴱQ. kandōra ✧ QL/47
kanðwa > kandwa nð > nd ᴱ√KṆŘṆ > ᴱQ. kanwa ✧ QL/47
kinða > kinda nð > nd ᴱ√KIŘI > ᴱQ. kinda ✧ QL/47
kunða > kunda nð > nd ᴱ√KUŘU > ᴱQ. kunda ✧ QL/49
kʷinðḷ > kʷindḷ nð > nd ᴱ√QIŘI > ᴱQ. qindl ✧ QL/77
kʷonða > kʷonda nð > nd ᴱ√QOŘO > ᴱQ. qonda ✧ QL/78
lanða > landa nð > nd ᴱ√LAŘA > ᴱQ. landa ✧ QL/51
linð > lind nð > nd ᴱ√LIŘI > ᴱQ. lin ✧ PME/54
linð > lind nð > nd ᴱ√LIŘI > ᴱQ. lin¹ ✧ QL/54
linðe- > linde- nð > nd ᴱ√LIŘI > ᴱQ. linde ✧ QL/54
lonð > lond nð > nd ᴱ√LOŘO > ᴱQ. lon ✧ QL/56
lonða- > londa- nð > nd ᴱ√LOŘO > ᴱQ. londa- ✧ QL/56
manða- > manda- nð > nd ᴱ√NGWAÐA > ᴱQ. manda- ✧ QL/60
manðor > mandor nð > nd ᴱ√mᵇṇřṇ > ᴱQ. mandor ✧ PME/58
manðost > mandost nð > nd ᴱ√Mᵇ(A)NÐ(A)N > ᴱQ. Mandos ✧ QL/58
manðu > mandu nð > nd ᴱ√Mᵇ(A)NÐ(A)N > ᴱQ. -MANDU ✧ QL/58
nanð > nand nð > nd ᴱ√NAŘA > ᴱQ. nan ✧ QL/64
nenð > nend nð > nd ᴱ√NEŘE > ᴱQ. nen ✧ QL/66
nenðo > nendo nð > nd ᴱ√NEŘE > ᴱQ. nendo ✧ QL/66
nʲanða > nʲanda nð > nd ᴱ√NYAŘA > ᴱQ. nyanda ✧ QL/68
ranða > randa nð > nd ᴱ√RAŘA > ᴱQ. randa ✧ QL/79
renða > renda nð > nd ᴱ√reðe > ᴱQ. renda ✧ QL/79
renði > rendi nð > nd ᴱ√reðe > ᴱQ. rendi ✧ QL/79
sinði > sindi nð > nd ᴱ√SIŘI > ᴱQ. sindi ✧ QL/84
sonða > sonda nð > nd ᴱ√SOŘO > ᴱQ. sonda ✧ QL/85
sonða > sonda nð > nd ᴱ√SOŘO > ᴱQ. sonda ✧ QL/86
tanða > tanda nð > nd ᴱ√TAÐA > ᴱQ. tanda ✧ QL/87
tinða > tinda nð > nd ᴱ√TIŘI > ᴱQ. tinda ✧ QL/93
tinðe > tinde nð > nd ᴱ√TIŘI > ᴱQ. tinde ✧ QL/93
tunða- > tunda- nð > nd ᴱ√TUŘU > ᴱQ. tunda- ✧ QL/96
tunðo > tundo nð > nd ᴱ√TUŘU > ᴱQ. tundo ✧ QL/96
θʲanða > θʲanda nð > nd ᴱ√HYAŘA > ᴱQ. hyanda ✧ QL/41
θʲanða- > θʲanda- nð > nd ᴱ√χ̑ṇđ > ᴱQ. hyanda- ✧ GL/48
winðele > windele nð > nd ᴱ√GWIÐI > ᴱQ. ’windele ✧ QL/103
ɸanðelu > ɸandelu nð > nd ᴱ√FṆÐṆ > ᴱQ. fandelu ✧ QL/38
ɸanðo > ɸando nð > nd ᴱ√FṆÐṆ > ᴱQ. fando ✧ QL/38
ɸanðos > ɸandos nð > nd ᴱ√FṆÐṆ > ᴱQ. fandor ✧ QL/38
ɸanðoss > ɸandoss nð > nd ᴱ√FṆÐṆ > ᴱQ. fandos ✧ QL/38
arða > arða rð > rd ᴱ√ƷARA > ᴱQ. arda ✧ QL/32
karða- > karda- rð > rd ᴱ√gṛþ- > ᴱQ. karda ✧ GL/42
korða > korda rð > rd ᴱ√KOŘO¹ > ᴱQ. korda ✧ QL/48
korðon > kordon rð > rd ᴱ√KOŘO¹ > ᴱQ. kordon ✧ QL/48
kurðu > kurdu rð > rd ᴱ√qṛđ > ᴱQ. kurdu ✧ GL/28
kʷarða > kʷarda rð > rd ᴱ√QṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. qarda ✧ QL/78
kʷarðka > kʷardka rð > rd ᴱ√QṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. qarka ✧ QL/78
marð > mard rð > rd ᴱ√MṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. mar ✧ QL/63
marð- > mard- rð > rd ᴱ√MṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. mard- ✧ QL/63
marðma > mardma rð > rd ᴱ√MṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. marma ✧ QL/63
narð > nard rð > rd ᴱ√NṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. nar ✧ QL/68
narða- > narda- rð > rd ᴱ√NṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. narda- ✧ QL/68
narði > nardi rð > rd ᴱ√NṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. Nardi ✧ QL/68
narðile > nardile rð > rd ᴱ√NṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. nardile ✧ QL/68
narðwe > nardwe rð > rd ᴱ√NṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. narwe ✧ QL/68
nʲarð > nʲard rð > rd ᴱ√NYAŘA > ᴱQ. nyar ✧ QL/68
urðu > urdu rð > rd ᴱ✶gu̯rþū́ > ᴱQ. urdu ✧ GL/43
urðu > urdu rð > rd ᴱ√GWṚÐR > ᴱQ. urdu ✧ QL/104
varð- > vard- rð > rd ᴱ√VṚDṚ > ᴱQ. vard- ✧ QL/102
varða > varda rð > rd ᴱ✶vṝđa > ᴱQ. Varda ✧ QL/102
varðni > vardni rð > rd ᴱ✶vṛ̆đní > ᴱQ. varni ✧ QL/102
warða > warda rð > rd ᴱ✶gu̯r̄́þa > ᴱQ. warda ✧ GL/44
warða > warda rð > rd ᴱ√GWṚÐR > ᴱQ. warda ✧ QL/104
warða- > warda- rð > rd ᴱ√GWṚÐR > ᴱQ. ’wardin ✧ QL/104
rɣu > rgu rɣ > rg ᴱ✶liquids + x͡w + ū̯̆ > ᴱQ. rgu ✧ PE12/18
mizðe > mizde zð > zd ᴱ✶mẓđē > ᴱQ. mirde ✧ PE12/14
ruŋɣwa > ruŋgwa ŋɣ > ŋg ᴱ√RU’U > ᴱQ. ‽rungwa ✧ QL/80
piŋɣʷa > piŋgʷa ŋɣʷ > ŋgʷ ᴱ√PIẆI > ᴱQ. pingwa ✧ QL/74