AQ. voiced stops became spirants except after nasals; [{bdg}|{mnŋ}{bdg}] > [{βðɣ}|{mnŋ}{bdg}]

AQ. voiced stops became spirants except after nasals; [{bdg}|{mnŋ}{bdg}] > [{βðɣ}|{mnŋ}{bdg}]

In Ancient Quenya, any surviving medial voiced stops usually became voiced spirants, the most notable exception being those appearing after nasals. This sound change also excludes voiced stops that underwent other earlier changes, such as when voiced stops became nasals before nasals. Tolkien described the spirantalization of voice stops in numerous places (PE17/127, 135, 153; PE19/18, 23; PE22/44, 149). The most detailed descriptions appeared in the Outline of Phonetic Development [OP1] from the 1930s and the Outline of Phonology [OP2] from the 1950s:

The voiced stops b, d, g. These all became weakened, ceasing to be stops and becoming continuants or weak spirants. b became ƀ (bilabial v) ... d became l initially. Medially between vowels it would appear to have been slightly retracted and to have become a weak untrilled [r], distinct from original r ... g probably became [ʒ] but this stage was already past in early PQ (OP1: PE19/32).
The voiced stops. These all became weakened, ceasing to be stops and becoming (weak) spirants or continuants. b became bilabial ƀ ... d became l initially. Medially between vowels it appears to have been somewhat retracted, and to have become at first a weak untrilled r or đ-like sound distinct from original r. The two sounds have distinct letters in earlier Quenya spelling, which may be represented by r (original) and (derived from d). 7 = r, 6 = ř ... g became at first the open spirant ʒ, with weak friction (OP2: PE19/69-70).

The resulting spirantal sounds then underwent further developments:

The medial and initial developments of d were somewhat different. As noted above, initial [d] became [l], but the medial sound ultimately became [r]. Tolkien isn’t entirely clear on exactly how the d developed medially: he described the result as an “weak untrilled r or đ-like sound”. Thus, [d] might have become either [ð] or [ɹ] as in the English pronunciation of “r”, but more likely it passed through both on its way to becoming [r]. For simplicity and consistency with other voiced stop spirantalizations, the Eldamo data model represents this stage of its phonetic development as [d] > [ð], and its passage through [ɹ] is discussed in the entry on how intervocalic [ð] became [r]. This full [d] > [ð] > [ɹ] > [r] phonetic development was described by Tolkien in notes on the history of ar “and”, probably from the mid-1960s:

Ad went through four stages of development: (1) archaic before records ad (2) early weakening (3) retraction to , an untrilled spirantal r (as commonly heard in English “dry”), (4) assimilation to normal r (PE17/71).

The conditions under which stops were preserved rather than spirantalized evolved over time. In the 1930s, the voiced stops were preserved after both nasals and liquids: “Owing to the opening in Q. of all voiced stops (except after nasals and l, r) ... (OP1: PE19/40)”. In the 1950s, Tolkien reaffirmed that voice stops were preserved after nasals: “[Voiced stops] after nasals. In this position the stops remained as such, and mb, nd, ñg were among the most favoured combinations in Quenya (OP2: PE19/92).” However, in OP2 it seems they first became spirantal between a liquid and a vowel, and only afterwards did they (mostly) became stops again:

[Voiced stops] after r, l. See above under ii (g), for a discussion of the processes of change here involved. It is probable that in AQ the voiced stops were at first opened to spirants after r, l; but that a reaction soon supervened, while ƀ, ð, ʒ were still at that stage, and identical in place of articulation with the original stops (as surviving in mb, nd, ñg(w)), causing some at least of these spirants to be re-stopped.

The net result is that voiced stops only appear after nasals and liquids in modern spoken Quenya (Tarquesta), as it was conceived in both the 1930s and 1950s; it is just that in the 1950s the development after liquids was stops > spirants > back to stops. See the discussion of how spirants became stops after [r], [l] for more details. In both conceptual periods, voiced stops were also preserved in three-consonant clusters like lgy, rgy (PE19/40, 93); see below for discussion.

In the 1930s, spirantalization occurred before velars were dentalized before [j]:

[Initial] gy became a spirantal y, but this fell in, in PQ, with original y (OP1: PE19/34).
k, g were fronted to t, d before y. Owing to the opening in Q. of all voiced stops (except after nasals and l, r) gy > dy only occurred in ndy, ldy, rdy (< ñgy, lgy, rgy) (OP1: PE19/40).

As indicated by this note, voiced stops did survive in three-consonant clusters, so that such gy combinations were ultimately dentalized to dy; the same was true in the 1950s (PE19/83, 93). In OP2, however, spirantalization was different from the 1930s in that it occurred in two phases: medial stops became spirants before dentalization, but initial stops were spirantalized after dentalization:

The dentalization of k-series before (initial) y was early: it is also shared by Telerin. Thus gy > dy or đy ... Medial gy became ı̯y, which coalesced with preceding vowels or formed diphthongs: thus CE magyā > maiya, maia. This was because opening of the medial stops was much earlier than in case of the initials; so that gy already to ʒy > ı̯y before dentalization (OP1: PE19/75).

This splitting of spirantalization into two phases first appeared in revisions to OP2 (PE19/75 note #37) and almost certainly coincides with the introduction of the new initial cluster ly into Quenya (PE19/80 note #54). See the discussion on how [dj] became [lj] for more details.

Conceptual Development: In the Early Qenya of the 1910s and 1920s, medial voiced stops became voiced spirants with phonetic developments similar to Tolkien’s later ideas: b, d, g > ƀ, ð, ʒ > v, r, nil. Roots from the Qenya Lexicon used the marker Ř to indicate [r] that might have been originally derived from primitive medial D. This analysis is complicated by the fact that voiced spirants were also part of the phonetic inventory of Primitive Elvish in the earliest conceptual period, so that some of these Ř might represent primitive [ð] instead, which Tolkien sometimes specified in roots as Đ.

In this early period, the initial development of voiced stops was different from the sound changes in the 1930s and 50s. In the 1910s and 20s, initial voiced stops were unvoicedd to p, t, k, as in:

Tolkien probably revised these initial developments at the same time he introduced his new paradigm for Primitive Elvish in the 1930s. Among other things, he removed voiced spirants from its phonetic inventory.

Neo-Quenya: As discussed under the entry on how [dj] became [lj], I recommend ignoring Tolkien’s split in the 1950s of spirantalization into two phases and simply assume it occurred before the dentalization in all cases. This allows the preservation of a number of earlier words that show initial gy- > ʒy- > y-, as well as giving a more straightforward explanation for the use of the tengwar (anna with palatalization tehta) for y, since this combination originally represented ʒy. Furthermore, there is only one attested Quenya word that begins with ly: lye “(polite) you” which arose by analogy with -n(yë) rather than derivation from gy-. However, if you want to mirror Tolkien’s later conception of these phonetic developments, than earlier forms like ᴹQ. yello and ᴹQ. yerna that are derived from primitive gy- should be adjusted to begin with ly-.

References ✧ PE17/71, 127, 135, 153; PE19/69-70, 74-75, 79, 92-93; PE22/149

Order (02800)

After 00300 second short vowel of same quality lost glawarē > glaurē > ʒlaurē > Q. laurē PE19/79
After 00400 later [j], [w] became [i], [u] before consonants glawarē > glaurē > ʒlaurē > Q. laurē PE19/79
After 01200 initial [ɣ] became [h]
After 01300 combinations of voiced stops were unvoiced
After 01400 [z] plus voiced stop became unvoiced
After 02300 voiced stops became nasals before nasals
After 02600 [dj] became [lj]
After 02700 initial [d] became [l]
Before 02900 velars were dentalized before [j]
Before 03000 initial [ɣ] before [l], [r] sometimes became a vowel
Before 04200 [β], [ɣ] vocalized before voiced consonants
Before 04500 [z] and [ð] assimilated to following [r], [l]
Before 00700 Q. spirants became stops after [r], [l]

Related

Phonetic Rule Elements

[b] > [β] ✧ PE17/153 (b > v; initial); PE18/105 (b > v); PE19/69 (b > ƀ); PE19/90 (b > ƀ); PE19/93 (b > ƀ); PE19/94 (b > ƀ)
[mb] > [mb]
[d] > [ð] ✧ PE19/69 (d > đ; medially between vowels)
[nd] > [nd]
[g] > [ɣ] ✧ PE17/153 (g > ʒ; initial); PE19/70 (g > ʒ); PE19/70 (g > ʒ); PE19/75 (gy > ʒy; medial); PE19/75 (gw > ʒw; initially); PE19/79 (gr > ʒr; initially); PE19/79 (gl > ʒl; initially); PE19/83 (gy > ʒy)
[ŋg] > [ŋg]

Phonetic Rule Examples

abā > aβā b > β ABA > Q. avá ✧ PE17/143
āba > āβa b > β AB > Q. āva ✧ PE22/151
aba- > aβa- b > β aba- > Q. ava- ✧ PE22/163
aba- > aβa- b > β ABA > Q. ava- ✧ VT49/13
aba- > aβa- b > β aba- > Q. ava- ✧ WJ/370
aba > aβa b > β ABA > Q. ava ✧ PE17/143
aba > aβa b > β ABA > Q. ava- ✧ WJ/370
aban > aβan b > β ABA > Q. avan ✧ PE22/162
aban > aβan b > β ABA > Q. avan ✧ PE22/164
abanwa > aβanwa b > β ABA > Q. avanwa ✧ PE17/143
abar > aβar b > β ABA > Q. avar ✧ PE17/143
ɣalalbe > ɣalalβe b > β GAL-AB > Q. alalbe ✧ PE17/153
ɣalba > ɣalβa b > β GAL-AB > Q. alba ✧ PE17/153
ɣalbe > ɣalβe b > β ALAB > albe > Q. alve ✧ PE17/146
ɣalbe > ɣalβe b > β ALAB > Q. albe ✧ PE17/153
karubān > karuβān b > β kar|ubā|ni > Q. caruvan(ye) ✧ PE22/167
kab- > kaβ- b > β KAB > Q. *cav- ✧ VT47/21
kjawubā > kjawuβā b > β kyăwŭbā > Q. tyauva ✧ PE22/152
kub- > kuβ- b > β KUB > Q. #kuv- ✧ PE22/155
kub- > kuβ- b > β KUB > Q. #cúv ✧ PE22/155
kubo > kuβo b > β KUB > Q. #kuvo ✧ PE22/155
labā > laβā b > β labā́ > Q. lava ✧ PE22/152
labuvā > laβuvā b > β laƀuvā > Q. †lavuva ✧ PE22/152
lūbā > lūβā b > β LUB > Q. lúva ✧ PE17/122
lūbā > lūβā b > β dūbā > Q. lúva ✧ PE17/168
matubānjē > matuβānjē b > β mat-ubā-ni/njē > Q. matuvanye ✧ PE22/132
nābā > nāβā b > β nābā > Q. #Náva ✧ WJ/389
ndabe > ndaβe b > β ndab > Q. nave ✧ VT42/34
ndabin > ndaβin b > β NDAB > Q. năvin ✧ PE22/154
ndabo > ndaβo b > β NDAB > Q. Návo ✧ PE22/154
ndabuba > ndaβuβa b > β NDAB > Q. nauva ✧ PE22/151
ndeb- > ndeβ- b > β ‽√NDEB > Q. nev- ✧ PE17/167
r̥āba > r̥āβa b > β S-RAB > Q. hráva ✧ PE17/78
rāba > rāβa b > β RAB > Q. rāva ✧ PE17/78
r̥āban > r̥āβan b > β srāban > Q. hrăvan ✧ PE17/78
r̥ōba > r̥ōβa b > β S)ROB > Q. hrōva ✧ PE17/99
sab- > saβ- b > β SAB > Q. savin ✧ PE22/158
sab- > saβ- b > β SAB > Q. savin ✧ VT49/27
sībe > sīβe b > β SIB > Q. síve ✧ VT44/35
-ubā > -uβā b > β -ubā > Q. uva ✧ PE22/131
ubie > uβie b > β UB > Q. úvie ✧ PE22/132
-bā > -βā b > β ᴹ✶-bā > ᴹQ. -vā̆- ✧ PE22/97
bā > βā b > β > Q. Va! ✧ PE17/143
bā > βā b > β > Q. ✧ PE17/145
bā > βā b > β BA > Q. ✧ PE22/162
bā > βā b > β BA > Q. ✧ WJ/371
bai > βai b > β vai > Q. ve ✧ VT49/32
wāja- > βājā b > β > Q. váya ✧ PE17/33
bākwet- > βākwet- b > β bá-kwet > Q. vāquet- ✧ PE22/167
bala > βala b > β BAL > Q. Vala ✧ PE17/48
bala > βala b > β bal- > Q. val- ✧ SA/val
balanja > βalanja b > β Balaniā > Q. Valanya ✧ Let/427
balar > βalar b > β BAL > Q. Valar ✧ PE17/48
balinōrē > βalinōrē b > β Bali(a)nōrē > Q. Valinórë ✧ PE17/26
balinōrē > βalinōrē b > β Valinōrē > Q. Valinóre ✧ WJ/413
bāna > βāna b > β ɃAN > Q. Vána ✧ PE17/149
bāna > βāna b > β BAN > Q. Vána ✧ PE17/150
bane > βane b > β BAN > Q. vane ✧ PE17/56
banima > βanima b > β ɃAN > Q. vanima ✧ PE17/149
banima > βanima b > β BAN > Q. vanima ✧ PE17/150
banima > βanima b > β BAN > Q. vanima ✧ PE17/165
banja > βanja b > β BAN > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/56
banja > βanja b > β ɃAN > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/149
banja > βanja b > β BAN > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/150
banja > βanja b > β banya > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/165
banjar > βanjar b > β Banyai > Q. Vanyar ✧ PM/402
baranda > βaranda b > β BARAD > Q. varanda ✧ PE17/23
bardā > βardā b > β baradā > Q. Varda ✧ PE17/22
bardā > βardā b > β BARAD > Q. Varda ✧ PE17/23
barne > βarne b > β barani > Q. *varnë ✧ PE21/81
wāwā > βāβā b > β wā-wā > Q. váva ✧ PE17/33
wāwā > βāβā b > β wā-wā > Q. váva ✧ PE17/34
bē > βē b > β > Q. ve ✧ VT49/32
berī > βerī b > β verī > Q. veri ✧ VT49/45
berja- > βerja- b > β BER > Q. verya ✧ VT49/45
berta- > βerta- b > β BER > Q. verta ✧ VT49/45
berū > βerū b > β verū > Q. veru ✧ VT49/45
ad > að d > ð ad(a) > az > Q. ar ✧ PE17/41
ad > að d > ð ad > Q. ar ✧ PE17/41
ad > að d > ð ad(a) > Q. ar ✧ PE17/41
ad > að d > ð ad > Q. ar ✧ PE17/70
ad > að d > ð ad(ă)/ad > Q. ar ✧ PE17/71
ad > að d > ð ad > > > Q. ar ✧ PE17/71
ad > að d > ð ada > Q. ar ✧ PE17/102
ad > að d > ð ADA > Q. ar ✧ PE17/145
ad- > að- d > ð ad(ă)/ad > Q. ar- ✧ PE17/71
ad > að d > ð ADA > Q. ar ✧ PE17/145
auda > auða d > ð AW > auda > Q. aura ✧ PE22/151
audel > auðel d > ð aw(a)delo > Q. Aurel ✧ WJ/363
awād > awāð d > ð AWA > Q. öar ✧ WJ/364
awād > awāð d > ð awā-da > Q. öar ✧ WJ/366
awādel > awāðel d > ð awādelo > Q. Oärel ✧ WJ/363
glada- > glaða- d > ð g-lada- > Q. lala- ✧ PM/359
ɣaldā > ɣalðā d > ð galadā > ʒalaðā > ʒalðā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/135
īde > īðe d > ð ID > Q. #ír- ✧ PE17/112
īdē > īðē d > ð ᴹ✶īdē > ᴹQ. íre ✧ Ety/ID
īdima > īðima d > ð ID > Q. írima ✧ PE17/112
jod- > joð- d > ð YOD > Q. yor- ✧ PE17/43
kazād > kazāð d > ð Kh. khazād > Q. †kazār ✧ PE17/45
kazād > kazāð d > ð Kh. Khazād > Q. Kasar ✧ WJ/388
-lde > -lðe d > ð de > Q. -lde ✧ VT49/51
ledembass > leðembass d > ð led(e)mbasse > Q. lerembas ✧ PE17/52
māxanaskad > māxanaskað d > ð Val. māχananaškād > Q. Máhanaxar ✧ WJ/401
nide > niðe d > ð NID > Q. níre ✧ PE22/165
nidin > niðin d > ð NID > Q. nirin ✧ PE22/165
nidin > niðin d > ð NID > Q. nirin ✧ VT41/17
sidā > siðā d > ð sidā̆ > Q. sira ✧ VT49/18
tad > tað d > ð tad > Q. tar ✧ PE19/104
xādo > xāðo d > ð khādo > hāzo > Q. hāro ✧ PE22/148
xauda > xauða d > ð KHAWAD > hauza > Q. haura ✧ PE19/91
xauda > xauða d > ð KHAW > Q. haura ✧ PE19/92
agwalda > aɣwalda g > ɣ WAL > Q. awalda ✧ PE17/189
denweg > denweɣ g > ɣ Denwego > Q. Lenwe ✧ WJ/412
gaikā > ɣaikā g > ɣ gayakā > Q. aika ✧ PM/363
gaira > ɣaira g > ɣ GAYA > Q. aira ✧ PM/363
gaira > ɣaira g > ɣ gaı̯ră > Q. †aire ✧ PE17/27
gaire > ɣaire g > ɣ GAYA > Q. airë ✧ PM/363
gājā > ɣājā g > ɣ gāyā > Q. áya ✧ PM/363
gajar > ɣajar g > ɣ GAY(AR) > Q. ëar ✧ PE17/27
gajar > ɣajar g > ɣ Gayar- > Q. Eär ✧ PM/363
gajār > ɣajār g > ɣ gayār > Q. ëar ✧ WJ/400
gala- > ɣala- g > ɣ ᴹ✶galā > ᴹQ. ’alā- ✧ PE22/98
gala- > ɣala- g > ɣ ᴹ✶galā́ > ᴹQ. ala- ✧ PE22/106
galalbe > ɣalalbe g > ɣ GAL-AB > Q. alalbe ✧ PE17/153
galalme > ɣalalme g > ɣ GAL > Q. alalme ✧ PE17/153
galan > ɣalan g > ɣ galan > Q. alan ✧ PE22/164
galba > ɣalba g > ɣ GAL-AB > Q. alba ✧ PE17/153
galbe > ɣalbe g > ɣ ALAB > albe > Q. alve ✧ PE17/146
galbe > ɣalbe g > ɣ ALAB > Q. albe ✧ PE17/153
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ galadā > Q. alda ✧ Let/426
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/25
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/50
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/63
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ galadā > ʒalaðā > ʒalðā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/135
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ galadā́ > Q. alda ✧ PE17/153
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/153
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ GAL > Q. alda ✧ PE22/160
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ AQ. ʒalda > Q. alda ✧ VT39/7
galdanil > ɣaldanil g > ɣ Gala(da)ndil > Q. Aldanil ✧ PE21/83
galdarembinā > ɣaldarembinā g > ɣ galad(a)rembinā > Q. aldarembina ✧ PE17/127
galmā > ɣalmā g > ɣ galmā > Q. alma ✧ PE17/153
galta- > ɣalta- g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL² > ᴹQ. alta- ✧ EtyAC/GAL²
galtā > ɣaltā g > ɣ galatā > Q. alta ✧ PE17/50
galtārīgell > ɣaltārīɣell g > ɣ galatā-rigellē̆ > Q. altáriel ✧ PE17/50
galtarīgelle > ɣaltarīɣelle g > ɣ galata-rīg-elle > Q. Altariellë ✧ MR/182
galtārīgelle > ɣaltārīɣelle g > ɣ alatā-rigellē̆ > Q. Altariel(le) ✧ PE17/50
ɣaltārīɣelle > ɣaltārīɣelle g > ɣ alatā-rigellē̆ > Q. altáriel ✧ PE17/50
gampa > ɣampa g > ɣ gampa > Q. ampa ✧ VT47/20
gardā > ɣardā g > ɣ gardā > Q. arda ✧ WJ/402
ŋille > ɣille g > ɣ GIL > Q. ille ✧ PE17/22
glaða- > ɣlaða- g > ɣ g-lada- > Q. lala- ✧ PM/359
glaurē > ɣlaurē g > ɣ glawarē > glaurē > ʒlaurē > AQ. alaurē ✧ PE19/79
glaurē > ɣlaurē g > ɣ glawarē > glaurē > ʒlaurē > Q. laurē ✧ PE19/79
glaure > ɣlaure g > ɣ glawarĭ > Q. laure ✧ PE21/81
glaure > ɣlaure g > ɣ glaware > Q. laure ✧ VT41/10
glaurē > ɣlaurē g > ɣ ᴹ√GLAW(-R) > ᴹQ. laure ✧ Ety/GLAW(-R)
glosse > ɣlosse g > ɣ (G)LOS > Q. lossë ✧ VT42/18
gondo > ɣondo g > ɣ gond(o) > Q. ondo ✧ Let/410
gondo > ɣondo g > ɣ gon-d > Q. ondo ✧ RC/347
grauko > ɣrauko g > ɣ grauk- > Q. rauko ✧ WJ/415
grauko > ɣrauko g > ɣ grauk- > Q. arauko ✧ WJ/415
grawa > ɣrawa g > ɣ grawa > Q. roa ✧ VT47/35
gur- > ɣur- g > ɣ GUR > Q. ur(u) ✧ PE17/154
gurda > ɣurda g > ɣ GUR > Q. urda ✧ PE17/154
gwa- > ɣwa- g > ɣ gwo > Q. wa- ✧ PE19/106
gwaina > ɣwaina g > ɣ GWAY > waina > Q. vaina ✧ PE17/154
gwalja- > ɣwalja- g > ɣ GWAL > Q. walya ✧ PE17/154
gwalme > ɣwalme g > ɣ GWAL > Q. walme ✧ PE17/154
gwalme > ɣwalme g > ɣ WAL > Q. walme ✧ PE17/189
gwalna > ɣwalna g > ɣ walna > Q. walda ✧ PE17/154
gwalta- > ɣwalta- g > ɣ GWAL > Q. walta ✧ PE17/154
gwanja > ɣwanja g > ɣ GWAN > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/154
gwanja > ɣwanja g > ɣ GWAN > Q. †wana ✧ PE17/165
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ WEN-ED > Q. wendē ✧ PE17/191
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ GWEN > Q. wendē ✧ PE17/191
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ wen > Q. wen ✧ SA/wen
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ wen(ed) > Q. wende ✧ VT47/42
gwenjā > ɣwenjā g > ɣ gwenyā > Q. wenya ✧ PE17/191
gwer- > ɣwer- g > ɣ WER > Q. were- ✧ PE17/33
gwine > ɣwine g > ɣ wĭnĭ > Q. wine ✧ VT47/26
gwirne > ɣwirne g > ɣ WIS > Q. wirne ✧ PE17/191
gwo- > ɣwo- g > ɣ gwo > Q. o- ✧ PE19/106
gwolassiē > ɣwolassiē g > ɣ gwa-lassa/gwa-lassiē > Q. olassiē ✧ Let/282
kaltārīgell > kaltārīɣell g > ɣ kalatā-rigellē̆ > Q. kaltáriel ✧ PE17/50
kaltārīgelle > kaltārīɣelle g > ɣ Kalatā-rigelle > Q. Kaltáriel(le) ✧ PE17/50
l̥oga > l̥oɣa g > ɣ sloga > Q. hloä ✧ VT42/9
maga > maɣa g > ɣ MAG > Q. ✧ PE17/161
māga > māɣa g > ɣ mag > Q. ✧ VT47/18
magi > maɣi g > ɣ MAGA > Q. mai ✧ PE22/148
magite > maɣite g > ɣ magiti- > Q. Maiti- ✧ VT41/10
magjā > maɣjā g > ɣ magyā > Q. maiya ✧ PE19/75
magjā > maɣjā g > ɣ magyā > maı̯ya > Q. maia ✧ PE19/94
magje > maɣje g > ɣ MAG > Q. †maie ✧ PE17/162
magje > maɣje g > ɣ MAG > Q. mai ✧ VT47/6
magle > maɣle g > ɣ MAGA > Q. mále ✧ PE17/162
magra > maɣra g > ɣ magra > Q. māra ✧ PE17/16
magra > maɣra g > ɣ MAGA > Q. mára ✧ PE17/162
magra > maɣra g > ɣ MAG > Q. mára ✧ PE17/172
ndagwē > ndaɣwē g > ɣ ndagwē > ndau̯we > nau̯we > Q. naue ✧ PE19/94
ŋgaltārīgel > ŋgaltārīɣel g > ɣ ñgal(a)tā-rig-el- > Q. Ñaltariel ✧ PE17/60
rīgā > rīɣā g > ɣ rīgā > Q. ría ✧ PM/347
rige > riɣe g > ɣ RIG > Q. rië ✧ PE17/182
rigel > riɣel g > ɣ rig- > Q. riel ✧ SA/kal
rigelle > riɣelle g > ɣ RIG > Q. riellë ✧ PM/347
r̥ūɣa > r̥ūga g > ɣ S-RŪGU > Q. hrúa ✧ PE17/170
r̥ugo > r̥uɣo g > ɣ srugu > Q. hruo ✧ PE17/115
sagrā > saɣrā g > ɣ sagrā > Q. sára ✧ PE19/95
sogrā > soɣlā g > ɣ soglā > Q. sóla ✧ PE19/95
tagra > taɣra g > ɣ TAG/Tā- > Q. tāra ✧ PE17/186
tagra > taɣra g > ɣ tagra > Q. tāra ✧ PE17/186
tegē > teɣē g > ɣ tegē > Q. tie ✧ PE19/71
telgūmā > telɣūmā g > ɣ Val. delgūmā > Q. telluma ✧ WJ/399
θeglō > θeɣlō g > ɣ steglō > thélo > þélo > Q. sélo ✧ PE19/95
ugi > uɣi g > ɣ ū̆gu/gū > Q. ui ✧ VT49/29
ugilme > uɣilme g > ɣ ugilme > Q. uilme ✧ VT49/29
ugra > uɣra g > ɣ UG > Q. úra ✧ VT43/24
ugrā > uɣrā g > ɣ ugrā > Q. úra ✧ PE22/160
ugu- > uɣu- g > ɣ UG > Q. ú ✧ PE22/160
ugu- > uɣu- g > ɣ ū̆gu/gū > Q. ū- ✧ VT49/29
-weg > -weɣ g > ɣ weg- > Q. -we ✧ PE17/190
-weg > -weɣ g > ɣ wegū̆/wego > -wē > Q. ✧ PE17/190
-wēg > -wēɣ g > ɣ -wēg(o) > > Q. -we ✧ PE21/81
wegō > weɣō g > ɣ wegō(n) > weo > Q. vëo ✧ PE17/189
ɸelgā > ɸelɣā g > ɣ phelgā > Q. felya ✧ PE17/118

ᴹAQ. voiced stops became spirants except after nasals and liquids; [{bdg}|{mnŋ}{bdg}] > [{βðɣ}|{mnŋ}{bdg}]

References ✧ PE19/32, 34, 40, 46; PE22/44

Order (02900)

After 00300 second short vowel of same quality lost
After 00400 later [j], [w] became [i], [u] before consonants
After 01200 initial [ɣ] became [h]
After 01300 combinations of voiced stops were unvoiced
After 01400 [z] plus voiced stop became unvoiced
After 02400 voiced stops became nasals before nasals
After 02700 initial [dj] became [j]
After 02800 initial [d] became [l]
Before 03000 velars were dentalized before [j]
Before 03100 initial [ɣ] before [l], [r] sometimes became a vowel
Before 04300 [β], [ɣ] vocalized before voiced consonants
Before 04600 [z] and [ð] assimilated to following [r], [l]
Before 00700 ᴹQ. spirants became stops after [r], [l]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[b] > [β] ✧ PE19/38 (b > v); PE19/50 (b > v)
[mb] > [mb]
[d] > [ð]
[nd] > [nd]
[g] > [ɣ] ✧ PE19/51 (gy > ʒy); PE19/51 (gw > ʒw); PE19/38 (gl > l; initial); PE19/38 (gr > r; initial); PE19/38 (gw > w); PE19/38 (g > ø)
[ŋg] > [ŋg]

Phonetic Rule Examples

abante > aβante b > β ᴹ✶abtā > ᴹQ. avante ✧ PE19/45
abār > aβār b > β ᴹ✶ábārō̆ > ᴹQ. Avar/Avaro ✧ Ety/AB
ɣolbā > ɣolβā b > β ᴹ✶golbā > ᴹQ. olwa ✧ Ety/GÓLOB
jābe > jāβe b > β ᴹ√YAB > ᴹQ. yáve ✧ Ety/YAB
kabubā > kaβuβā b > β ᴹ√KAV- > kavuva > ᴹQ. kauva ✧ PE22/105
kjabe > kjaβe b > β ᴹ√KYAB > ᴹQ. tyave ✧ PE22/102
kjabin > kjaβin b > β ᴹ√KYAB > ᴹQ. tyavin ✧ Ety/KYAB
kub- > kuβ- b > β ᴹ√KUB > ᴹQ. kuve ✧ PE22/102
laibē > laiβē b > β ᴹ✶laibē > ᴹQ. laive ✧ Ety/LIB²
lab- > laβ- b > β ᴹ√DAB > ᴹQ. lav- ✧ Ety/DAB
labe > laβe b > β ᴹ√LAB > ᴹQ. lave ✧ PE22/102
labin > laβin b > β ᴹ√LAB > ᴹQ. lavin ✧ Ety/LAB
ndakuban > ndakuβan b > β ᴹ✶ndăkŭbā̆nyē > ᴹQ. nakuvan ✧ PE21/65
rāba > rāβa b > β ᴹ✶rāba > ᴹQ. ráva ✧ Ety/RAB
rāba > rāβa b > β ᴹ√RAB² > ᴹQ. ráva ✧ Ety/RAMBĀ
sāba > sāβa b > β ᴹ√SAB > ᴹQ. sáva ✧ Ety/SAB
sub- > suβ- b > β ᴹ√SUB > ᴹQ. sumbe ✧ PE22/127
tawar > taβar b > β ᴹ✶tawar > ᴹQ. tavar ✧ Ety/TÁWAR
tawaril > taβaril b > β ᴹ✶táwārē̆ > ᴹQ. tavaril ✧ Ety/TÁWAR
tawaro > taβaro b > β ᴹ✶táwārō̆ > ᴹQ. tavaro/tavaron ✧ Ety/TÁWAR
-uba > -uβa b > β ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. -uva ✧ VT48/32
ūbe > ūβe b > β ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. úve ✧ Ety/UB
ubie > uβie b > β ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. úvie ✧ VT48/32
balā > βalā b > β ᴹ✶bálā > ᴹQ. Vala ✧ Ety/BAL
balī > βalī b > β ᴹ✶bal-ī́ > ᴹQ. †Vali ✧ Ety/BAL
βalīndōr > βalīndōr b > β ᴹ✶balī́-ndō̆re > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ Ety/BAL
βalīndōr > βalīndōr b > β ᴹ✶Bắlī + ndṓrḗ > Bálīndṑrē > Bálĭndṑrĕ > Balindor > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ PE19/59
βalīnōr > βalīnōr b > β ᴹ✶Balī-nṓrē̆ > Bali-nṓr(e) > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ PE18/56
balja > βalja b > β ᴹ√BAL > ᴹQ. valya ✧ Ety/BAL
banā > βanā b > β ᴹ✶bánā > ᴹQ. Vana ✧ Ety/BAN
banda > βanda b > β ᴹ✶banda > ᴹQ. vanda ✧ EtyAC/BAD²
banima > βanima b > β ᴹ√BAN > ᴹQ. vanima ✧ Ety/BAN
banjā > βanjā b > β ᴹ✶bányā > ᴹQ. vanya ✧ Ety/BAN
banta > βanta b > β ᴹ√BAT > ᴹQ. vanta ✧ Ety/BAT
banta- > βanta- b > β ᴹ√BAT > ᴹQ. vanta- ✧ Ety/BAT
banwa > βanwa b > β ABA/BA > Q. vanwa ✧ PE17/16
banwa > βanwa b > β bā̆nwa > Q. vanwa ✧ PE22/137
banwa > βanwa b > β ᴹ√BĀ/BANA > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/97
banwa > βanwa b > β ᴹ√vā- > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/106
banwa > βanwa b > β ᴹ√BA > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/112
bardā > βardā b > β ᴹ✶barádā > ᴹQ. Varda ✧ Ety/BARÁD
bardā > βardā b > β ᴹ✶baradā > ᴹQ. Varda ✧ Ety/BARATH
barile > βarile b > β ᴹ√BAR > ᴹQ. varile ✧ EtyAC/BAR
barja- > βarja- b > β ᴹ✶baryā́- > ᴹQ. varya- ✧ Ety/BAR
barnā > βarnā b > β ᴹ✶barnā́ > ᴹQ. varna ✧ Ety/BAR
barne > βarne b > β ᴹ√BAR > ᴹQ. varne ✧ Ety/BAR
barne > βarne b > β ᴹ√BARÁN > ᴹQ. varne ✧ Ety/BARÁN
berie > βerie b > β ᴹ√BER > ᴹQ. verie ✧ Ety/BER
berja > βerja b > β ᴹ√BER > ᴹQ. verya ✧ Ety/BER
berja- > βerja- b > β ᴹ✶bérya- > ᴹQ. verya- ✧ Ety/BER
berkā > βerkā b > β ᴹ✶berékā > ᴹQ. verka ✧ Ety/BERÉK
besnō > βesnō b > β ᴹ✶besnō > ᴹQ. venno ✧ Ety/BES
bessē > βessē b > β ᴹ✶bessē > ᴹQ. vesse ✧ Ety/BES
besta- > βesta- b > β ᴹ√BES > ᴹQ. vesta- ✧ Ety/BES
besta- > βesta- b > β ᴹ√BES > ᴹQ. vesta- ✧ Ety/WED
bestā > βestā b > β ᴹ✶bestā > ᴹQ. vesta ✧ Ety/BES
bestā > βestā b > β ᴹ√BES > ᴹQ. vesta ✧ Ety/WED
besū > βesū b > β ᴹ✶besū > ᴹQ. veru ✧ Ety/BES
bōre > βōre b > β ᴹ√BOR > ᴹQ. vóre ✧ EtyAC/BOR
bōrea > βōrea b > β ᴹ√BOR > ᴹQ. vórëa ✧ EtyAC/BOR
bōrima > βōrima b > β ᴹ√BOR > ᴹQ. vórima ✧ Ety/BOR
boro > βoro b > β ᴹ√BOR > ᴹQ. voro ✧ Ety/BOR
boronwa > βoronwa b > β ᴹ√BORÓN > ᴹQ. voronwa ✧ Ety/BORÓN
boronwie > βoronwie b > β ᴹ√BORÓN > ᴹQ. voronwie ✧ Ety/BORÓN
gwad- > gwað- d > ð ᴹ√WAD > ᴹQ. ware ✧ PE22/102
lāda > lāða d > ð ᴹ✶lāda > ᴹQ. lára ✧ Ety/DAL
lāda > lāða d > ð ᴹ√LAD > ᴹQ. lāra ✧ EtyAC/LAD
madja > maðja d > ð ᴹ√MAD > ᴹQ. marya ✧ Ety/MAD
madja > maðja d > ð ᴹ√MAD > ᴹQ. marya ✧ EtyAC/MAD
manad > manað d > ð ᴹ√MANAD > ᴹQ. manar ✧ Ety/MANAD
med- > með- d > ð ᴹ√MED > ᴹQ. mere ✧ PE22/102
meldo > melðo d > ð ᴹ√MEL > ᴹQ. meldo ✧ EtyAC/MEL
mid > mið d > ð ᴹ√MI > ᴹQ. mir ✧ Ety/MI
nidwā > niðwā d > ð ᴹ✶nidwō > ᴹQ. nirwa ✧ Ety/NID
nidwa > niðwa d > ð ᴹ√NID² > ᴹQ. nirwa ✧ EtyAC/NID²
nidwe > niðwe d > ð ᴹ√NID² > ᴹQ. nirwe ✧ EtyAC/NID²
njadrō > njaðrō d > ð ᴹ✶nyadrō > ᴹQ. nyarro ✧ Ety/NYAD
palad > palað d > ð ᴹ√PAL > ᴹQ. palar ✧ EtyAC/PAL
redin > reðin d > ð ᴹ√RED > ᴹQ. rerin ✧ Ety/RED
sede > seðe d > ð ᴹ√SED > ᴹQ. sere ✧ PE22/102
sēde > sēðe d > ð ᴹ√SED > ᴹQ. sére ✧ Ety/SED
sedin > seðin d > ð ᴹ√SED > ᴹQ. serin ✧ Ety/SED
j̊ad- > sjað- d > ð ᴹ√SYAD > ᴹQ. hyar- ✧ PE19/45
j̊ade > sjaðe d > ð ᴹ√SYAD > ᴹQ. hyare ✧ PE22/102
j̊adin > sjaðin d > ð ᴹ√SYAD > ᴹQ. hyarin ✧ Ety/SYAD
tad > tað d > ð ᴹ✶tad > ᴹQ. tar ✧ Ety/TA
tad > tað d > ð ᴹ✶tad > ᴹQ. tar ✧ PE19/52
tad > tað d > ð ᴹ✶tā̆d > ᴹQ. tar ✧ PE21/58
wǣdē > wǣðē d > ð ᴹ✶wǣdē > ᴹQ. vēre ✧ Ety/WED
xad- > xað- d > ð ᴹ√KHAD > ᴹQ. har- ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
ga > ɣa g > ɣ ᴹ✶ga > ᴹQ. a ✧ PE22/94
gaira > ɣaira g > ɣ ᴹ√GAY > ᴹQ. aira ✧ Ety/GAY
gaista- > ɣaista- g > ɣ ᴹ✶gais- > ᴹQ. aista- ✧ Ety/GÁYAS
gal- > ɣal- g > ɣ ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. ’al ✧ Ety/GALA
gal- > ɣal- g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. al- ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
gala > ɣala g > ɣ ᴹ√GALÁN > ᴹQ. ala ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹
galan > ɣalan g > ɣ ᴹ√GALÁN > ᴹQ. alan ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹
galas > ɣalas g > ɣ ᴹ√GALÁS > alasa > ᴹQ. alar ✧ EtyAC/GALÁS
galas > ɣalas g > ɣ ᴹ√GALAS > ᴹQ. alar ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
galasse > ɣalasse g > ɣ ᴹ√GALÁS > ᴹQ. alasse ✧ Ety/GALÁS
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
galdā > ɣaldā g > ɣ ᴹ✶galadā > ᴹQ. Alda ✧ SD/302
galja > ɣalja g > ɣ ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. alya ✧ Ety/GALA
galja > ɣalja g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. alya ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
galla > ɣalla g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. ala/alla ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
galma > ɣalma g > ɣ ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. alma ✧ Ety/GALA
galma > ɣalma g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL² > ᴹQ. alma ✧ EtyAC/GAL²
galma > ɣalma g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. alma ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
galmare > ɣalmare g > ɣ ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. almare ✧ Ety/GALA
galmare > ɣalmare g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. almare ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
galwa > ɣalwa g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL > ᴹQ. alwa ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
gampa > ɣampa g > ɣ ᴹ√GAP > ᴹQ. ampa ✧ Ety/GAP
garda > ɣarda g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arda ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
garja- > ɣarja- g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arya- ✧ EtyAC/GAR
garjon > ɣarjon g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. aryon ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
garjon > ɣarjon g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. aryo/aryon ✧ EtyAC/GAR
garma > ɣarma g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arma ✧ EtyAC/GAR
garmar > ɣarmar g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. armar ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
garta > ɣarta g > ɣ ᴹ√GARAT > ᴹQ. arta ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GARAT
garwa > ɣarwa g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arwa ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
garwa > ɣarwa g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arwa ✧ EtyAC/GAR
-garwa > -ɣarwa g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. -arwa ✧ EtyAC/GAR
garwe > ɣarwe g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arwe ✧ EtyAC/GAR
gassā > ɣassā g > ɣ ᴹ✶gassā > ᴹQ. assa ✧ Ety/GAS
gatsa > ɣatsa g > ɣ ᴹ√GAT > ᴹQ. atsa ✧ Ety/GAT
gaule > ɣaule g > ɣ ᴹ√GAWA > ᴹQ. aule ✧ Ety/GAWA
gauta- > ɣauta- g > ɣ ᴹ√GAWA > ᴹQ. auta- ✧ Ety/GAWA
geigolosse > ɣeiɣolosse g > ɣ ᴹ✶Geı̯golosse > ᴹQ. Iolosse ✧ Ety/GEY
geira > ɣeira g > ɣ ᴹ√GEY > ᴹQ. íra ✧ Ety/GEY
geire > ɣeire g > ɣ ᴹ√GEY > ᴹQ. íre ✧ Ety/GEY
geja > ɣeja g > ɣ ᴹ✶geı̯ā > ᴹQ. ia ✧ Ety/GEY
geŋgwā > ɣeŋgwā g > ɣ ᴹ✶GENG-WĀ > ᴹQ. engwa ✧ Ety/GENG-WĀ
gilma > ɣilma g > ɣ ᴹ√GIL > ᴹQ. Ilma ✧ Ety/GIL
gilmen > ɣilmen g > ɣ ᴹ√GIL > ᴹQ. ilmen ✧ Ety/WIL
gjello > ɣjello g > ɣ ᴹ√GYEL > ᴹQ. yello ✧ Ety/GYEL
gjerja- > ɣjerja- g > ɣ ᴹ√GYER > ᴹQ. yerya ✧ Ety/GYER
gjernā > ɣjernā g > ɣ ᴹ✶gyernā > ᴹQ. yerna ✧ Ety/GYER
glin- > ɣlin- g > ɣ ᴹ√GLIN > ᴹQ. lin- ✧ Ety/GLIN
glind > ɣlind g > ɣ ᴹ√GLINDI > ᴹQ. ilin ✧ Ety/GLINDI
glinde > ɣlinde g > ɣ ᴹ√GLIN > ᴹQ. linde ✧ Ety/GLIN
gliŋga- > ɣliŋga- g > ɣ ᴹ√GLING > ᴹQ. linga- ✧ Ety/GLING
gola- > ɣola- g > ɣ ᴹ✶golā > ᴹQ. ola- ✧ PE22/113
golbā > ɣolbā g > ɣ ᴹ✶golbā > ᴹQ. olwa ✧ Ety/GÓLOB
golosse > ɣolosse g > ɣ ᴹ√GOLÓS > ᴹQ. olosse ✧ Ety/GOLÓS
golosse > ɣolosse g > ɣ ᴹ√GOLÓS > ᴹQ. †olos/olosse ✧ Ety/GOLÓS
golosse > ɣolosse g > ɣ ᴹ√GOLÓS > ᴹQ. olosse ✧ Ety/LOT(H)
gondo > ɣondo g > ɣ ᴹ√GÓNOD/GONDO > ᴹQ. ondo ✧ Ety/GOND
gondolindē > ɣondolindē g > ɣ Gondō̆-lindē > Q. Ondolinde ✧ PE17/133
gondōm > ɣondōm g > ɣ ᴹ✶góndōm > góndōr > ᴹQ. ondor ✧ PE21/58
gondōm > ɣondōm g > ɣ ᴹ✶gondōm > ʒondō̆n > ᴹQ. ondor ✧ PE21/63
gondōt > ɣondōt g > ɣ ᴹ✶gondōt > ʒondō̆t > ᴹQ. ondot ✧ PE19/52
gorme > ɣorme g > ɣ ᴹ√GOR > ᴹQ. orme ✧ Ety/GOR
gorme > ɣorme g > ɣ ᴹ√GOR > ᴹQ. orme ✧ Ety/KHOR
gorna > ɣorna g > ɣ ᴹ√GOR > ᴹQ. orna ✧ Ety/GOR
gorōmē > ɣorōmē g > ɣ ᴹ✶Górōmē > ᴹQ. Orōme ✧ EtyAC/GÓROM
gosse > ɣosse g > ɣ ᴹ✶Goss > ᴹQ. Osse ✧ Ety/GOS
gosse > ɣosse g > ɣ ᴹ√GOS > ᴹQ. osse ✧ Ety/GOS
gū- > ɣū- g > ɣ ᴹ✶gū̆- > ᴹQ. ū- ✧ Ety/GŪ
gū- > ɣū- g > ɣ ᴹ✶ugu/gū > ᴹQ. ú- ✧ Ety/UGU
gwa- > ɣwa- g > ɣ ᴹ✶gwo- > ᴹQ. ✧ PE19/53
gwað- > ɣwað- g > ɣ ᴹ√WAD > ᴹQ. ware ✧ PE22/102
gwēn > ɣwēn g > ɣ ᴹ√GWEN > ᴹQ. wēn ✧ Ety/GWEN
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ ᴹ√WEN(ED) > ᴹQ. wende ✧ Ety/GWEN
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ ᴹ√WENED > wende > ᴹQ. vende ✧ Ety/WEN
gwenja > ɣwenja g > ɣ ᴹ√GWEN > ᴹQ. wenya ✧ Ety/GWEN
gwil- > ɣwil- g > ɣ ᴹ√WIL > ᴹQ. vilin ✧ Ety/WIL
gwil- > ɣwil- g > ɣ ᴹ√WIL > ᴹQ. wilin ✧ Ety/WIL
gwilmā > ɣwilmā g > ɣ ᴹ✶wilmā > ᴹQ. wilma ✧ Ety/WIL
gwilnā > ɣwilnā g > ɣ ᴹ✶wilnā > wilda > ᴹQ. vilda ✧ EtyAC/WIL
gwilwā > ɣwilwā g > ɣ ᴹ✶wilwā > wilwa > ᴹQ. vilwa ✧ Ety/WIL
gwinde > ɣwinde g > ɣ ᴹ√GWINDI > winde > ᴹQ. vinde ✧ EtyAC/GWINDI
ɣwiŋgē > ɣwiŋgē g > ɣ ᴹ✶wingē > ᴹQ. winge ✧ Ety/WIG
gwinja > ɣwinja g > ɣ ᴹ√GWIN > ᴹQ. winya ✧ EtyAC/GWIN
gwo- > ɣwo- g > ɣ ᴹ✶gwo- > ᴹQ. o-´ ✧ PE19/53
jagwē > jaɣwē g > ɣ ᴹ✶yagwē > ᴹQ. yáwe ✧ Ety/YAG
lagra > laɣra g > ɣ ᴹ√DAG > ᴹQ. lára ✧ EtyAC/DAG
lagwe > laɣwe g > ɣ ᴹ✶dagwe > ᴹQ. lau(w)e ✧ PE19/46
l̥igā > l̥iɣā g > ɣ ᴹ✶ligā > ᴹQ. lia ✧ Ety/SLIG
l̥igante > l̥iɣante g > ɣ ᴹ√SLIG > ᴹQ. liante ✧ Ety/SLIG
luge > luɣe g > ɣ ᴹ√LUG > ᴹQ. lue ✧ PE22/102
magā > maɣā g > ɣ ᴹ✶magā > ᴹQ. ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ
magjā > maɣjā g > ɣ ᴹ✶magyā > ᴹQ. mai(y)a ✧ PE19/46
magrā > maɣrā g > ɣ ᴹ✶magrā > ᴹQ. mára ✧ Ety/MAƷ|MAG
magra > maɣra g > ɣ ᴹ✶magra > ᴹQ. mára ✧ PE19/46
manwege > manweɣe g > ɣ ᴹ✶Manwege > ᴹQ. Manwe ✧ EtyAC/MAN
pege > peɣe g > ɣ ᴹ√PEG > ᴹQ. ✧ Ety/PEG
rīgē > rīɣē g > ɣ ᴹ✶rīgē > ᴹQ. ríe ✧ Ety/RIG
sagrā > saɣrā g > ɣ ᴹ✶sagrā > ᴹQ. sára ✧ Ety/SAG
sogrā > soɣlā g > ɣ ᴹ✶soglā > ᴹQ. sóla ✧ PE19/46
suglo > suɣlo g > ɣ ᴹ✶suglu > ᴹQ. súlo ✧ Ety/SUK
targā > tarɣā g > ɣ ᴹ✶targā > ᴹQ. tarya ✧ Ety/TÁRAG
tūgo > tūɣo g > ɣ ᴹ✶tūgu > ᴹQ. tuo ✧ Ety/TUG
θegrā > θeɣrā g > ɣ ᴹ✶stegrā > ᴹQ. thḗra ✧ PE19/46
ugin > uɣin g > ɣ ᴹ√UGU > ᴹQ. uin ✧ Ety/UGU
ulgundō > ulɣundō g > ɣ ᴹ✶ulgundō > ᴹQ. ulundo ✧ Ety/ÚLUG
-weg > -weɣ g > ɣ ᴹ✶-wego > weg > ᴹQ. -we ✧ Ety/WEG
wega > weɣa g > ɣ ᴹ√WEG > ᴹQ. vea ✧ Ety/WEG
wegē > weɣē g > ɣ ᴹ✶weʒē > ᴹQ. vie ✧ Ety/WEG
wegō > weɣō g > ɣ ᴹ✶wegō > ᴹQ. †veo ✧ Ety/WEG
xōgorē > xōɣorē g > ɣ ᴹ✶Khō-gorē > ᴹQ. Huore ✧ Ety/KHŌ-N
xugan > xuɣan g > ɣ ᴹ√KHUGAN > ᴹQ. huan ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
xugan > xuɣan g > ɣ ᴹ✶khugan > ᴹQ. huan ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
xugo > xuɣo g > ɣ ᴹ√KHUG > ᴹQ. huo ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
ɸelgā > ɸelɣā g > ɣ ᴹ√PHÉLEG > ᴹQ. felya ✧ Ety/PHÉLEG

ᴱQ. initial voiced stops were unvoiced; [{bdggʷ}-] > [{ptkkʷ}-]

Reference ✧ PE12/17

Order ()

After initial [gʷ] became [w]
After palatals became dentals before [i]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[b-] > [p-]
[d-] > [t-]
[g-] > [k-]
[gʷ-] > [kʷ-]

Phonetic Rule Examples

balava- > palava- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palava- ✧ QL/71
balāva- > palāva- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palāva ✧ QL/71
balis > palis b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palis ✧ QL/71
balo > palo b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palo ✧ QL/71
balta > palta b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palta ✧ QL/71
balwa- > palwa- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palwa- ✧ QL/71
bē > pē b- > p- ᴱ√ > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/72
bondo > pondo b- > p- ᴱ√BOÐO > ᴱQ. pondo ✧ QL/75
bonte > ponte b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. ponte ✧ QL/75
bosta > posta b- > p- ᴱ√BOÐO > ᴱQ. posta ✧ QL/75
bote > pote b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. pote ✧ QL/75
botsi > potsi b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. potsi ✧ QL/75
bulko > pulko b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulko ✧ QL/75
bulme > pulme b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulme ✧ QL/75
bulu- > pulu- b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulu- ✧ QL/75
bulwa > pulwa b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulwa ✧ QL/75
burja- > purja- b- > p- ᴱ✶búrı̯ā > ᴱQ. purya ✧ PE13/116
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ✶dagā́ > ᴱQ. tá- ✧ PE13/161
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/87
da > ta d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/87
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ✶da’a > > ᴱQ. ✧ PE13/142
dajorme > tajorme d- > t- ᴱ√TAʕA > ᴱQ. tayorme ✧ QL/87
dāra > tāra d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. tāra ✧ QL/87
daramb > taramb d- > t- ᴱ√TARAMA > ᴱQ. taran ✧ QL/89
dāri > tāri d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. tāri ✧ QL/87
darwa > tarwa d- > t- ᴱ✶dar’wa- > ᴱQ. tarwa ✧ PE13/161
dorme > torme d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > tahorme > taorme > ᴱQ. torme ✧ QL/87
gala- > kala- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kala- ✧ QL/44
gala > kala g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kala ✧ QL/44
galaine > kalaine g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalaine ✧ QL/44
gāle > kāle g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kále ✧ QL/44
galenda > kalenda g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalenda ✧ QL/44
galle > kalle g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalle ✧ QL/44
gallu- > kallu- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kal(l)u- ✧ QL/44
galma > kalma g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalma ✧ QL/44
galmarn > kalmarn g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalmar ✧ QL/44
galta- > kalta- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalta- ✧ QL/44
galwa > kalwa g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalwa ✧ QL/44
gargo > kargo g- > k- ᴱ✶grgu- > ᴱQ. karko ✧ PE13/144
garθa- > karθa- g- > k- ᴱ√gṛþ- > ᴱQ. karda ✧ GL/42
giw- > kiw- g- > k- ᴱ√giu̯i > ᴱQ. kiu̯ ✧ GL/39
gōpa > kōpa g- > k- ᴱ√KOPO > ᴱQ. kópa ✧ QL/47
gos > kos g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kos ✧ QL/48
gosar > kosar g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kosar ✧ QL/48
gosta- > kosta- g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kosta- ✧ QL/48
gwin > kwin g- > k- ᴱ√QIMI > ᴱQ. qin ✧ QL/77
gwinde > kwinde g- > k- ᴱ√QIMI > ᴱQ. (i) qinde ✧ QL/77
gʷen > kʷen gʷ- > kʷ- ᴱ✶Gwendi- > ᴱQ. Qen ✧ PE13/146

ᴱQ. voiced stops became spirants after vowels; [V{bddʲggʷ}] > [V{βððʲɣɣʷ}]

Order ()

Before [ð] became [z]
Before 02400 [ɣ] otherwise vanished

Phonetic Rule Elements

[Vb] > [Vβ] ✧ PE12/16 (b > v (w); medial)
[Vd] > [Vð] ✧ PE12/16 (d > z; medial)
[Vdʲ] > [Vðʲ] ✧ PE12/16 (d͡y > ; medial)
[Vg] > [Vɣ] ✧ PE12/16 (g > -; medial)
[Vgʷ] > [Vɣʷ] ✧ PE12/16 (g͡w > ; medial)

Phonetic Rule Examples

ambodt > amboðt Vd > Vð ᴱ✶a-mbod-t’ > ᴱQ. ambos ✧ PE13/139
fada > faða Vd > Vð ᴱ✶swada > ᴱQ. fara ✧ PE13/146
daga > daɣa Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶dagā́ > ᴱQ. tá- ✧ PE13/161
daɣā > daɣa Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶da’a > > ᴱQ. ✧ PE13/142
gʷegie > gʷeɣie Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶gu̯eg- > ᴱQ. wie ✧ GL/44
nēgitte > nēɣitte Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶nēgittĕ > ᴱQ. neite ✧ GL/60
negōn > neɣōn Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶negōn > ᴱQ. nion ✧ GL/60