AQ. voiced stops became spirants except after nasals; [{bdg}|{mnŋ}{bdg}] > [{βðɣ}|{mnŋ}{bdg}]

AQ. voiced stops became spirants except after nasals; [{bdg}|{mnŋ}{bdg}] > [{βðɣ}|{mnŋ}{bdg}]
@@@ in Middle Period spirantalization occurred before palatalized velars dentalized, so that gy- > ʒy- > y-, but in the Late Period Tolkien said that this was true only medially, and that initially the spirantalization was later, so that gy- > dy- > ly-. This gave another way for ly- to enter Quenya once Tolkien abandoned primitive palatalized dentals. However, we have no clear examples of this development

References ✧ PE17/127, 135, 153; PE19/69-70, 74-75, 79, 92-93; PE22/149

Order (01700)

After 00900 initial [ɣ] became [h]
After 01100 initial [d] became [l]
After 01200 [dj] became [lj]
After 01300 combinations of voiced stops were unvoiced
After 01400 [z] plus voiced stop became unvoiced
After 01600 voiced stops became nasals before nasals
Before 01800 initial [ɣ] before [l], [r] sometimes became a vowel
Before 01900 [β], [ɣ] vocalized before voiced consonants
Before 02200 second short vowel of same quality lost galadā > ʒalaðā > ʒalðā > Q. alda PE17/135
Before 03300 spirants after [r], [l] became stops
Before 03800 velars were dentalized before [j]
Before 04100 [z] and [ð] assimilated to following [r], [l]

Related

Phonetic Rule Elements

[b] > [β] ✧ PE17/153 (b > v; initial); PE18/105 (b > v); PE19/69 (b > ƀ); PE19/90 (b > ƀ); PE19/93 (b > ƀ); PE19/94 (b > ƀ)
[mb] > [mb]
[d] > [ð] ✧ PE19/69 (d > đ; medially between vowels)
[nd] > [nd]
[g] > [ɣ] ✧ PE17/153 (g > ʒ; initial); PE19/70 (g > ʒ); PE19/70 (g > ʒ); PE19/75 (gy > ʒy; medial); PE19/75 (gw > ʒw; initially); PE19/79 (gr > ʒr; initially); PE19/79 (gl > ʒl; initially); PE19/83 (gy > ʒy)
[ŋg] > [ŋg]

Phonetic Rule Examples

abā > aβā b > β ABA > Q. avá ✧ PE17/143
āba > āβa b > β AB > Q. āva ✧ PE22/151
aba- > aβa- b > β aba- > Q. ava- ✧ PE22/163
aba- > aβa- b > β ABA > Q. ava- ✧ VT49/13
aba- > aβa- b > β aba- > Q. ava- ✧ WJ/370
aba > aβa b > β ABA > Q. ava ✧ PE17/143
aba > aβa b > β ABA > Q. ava- ✧ WJ/370
aban > aβan b > β ABA > Q. avan ✧ PE22/162
aban > aβan b > β ABA > Q. avan ✧ PE22/164
abanwa > aβanwa b > β ABA > Q. avanwa ✧ PE17/143
abar > aβar b > β ABA > Q. avar ✧ PE17/143
ɣalalbe > ɣalalβe b > β GAL-AB > Q. alalbe ✧ PE17/153
ɣalba > ɣalβa b > β GAL-AB > Q. alba ✧ PE17/153
ɣalbe > ɣalβe b > β ALAB > albe > Q. alve ✧ PE17/146
ɣalbe > ɣalβe b > β ALAB > Q. albe ✧ PE17/153
karubān > karuβān b > β kar|ubā|ni > Q. caruvan(ye) ✧ PE22/167
kab- > kaβ- b > β KAB > Q. *cav- ✧ VT47/21
kjawubā > kjawuβā b > β kyăwŭbā > Q. tyauva ✧ PE22/152
kub- > kuβ- b > β KUB > Q. #kuv- ✧ PE22/155
kub- > kuβ- b > β KUB > Q. #cúv ✧ PE22/155
kubo > kuβo b > β KUB > Q. #kuvo ✧ PE22/155
labā > laβā b > β labā́ > Q. lava ✧ PE22/152
labuvā > laβuvā b > β laƀuvā > Q. †lavuva ✧ PE22/152
lūbā > lūβā b > β LUB > Q. lúva ✧ PE17/122
lūbā > lūβā b > β dūbā > Q. lúva ✧ PE17/168
matubānjē > matuβānjē b > β mat-ubā-ni/njē > Q. matuvanye ✧ PE22/132
nābā > nāβā b > β nābā > Q. #Náva ✧ WJ/389
ndabe > ndaβe b > β ndab > Q. nave ✧ VT42/34
ndabin > ndaβin b > β NDAB > Q. năvin ✧ PE22/154
ndabo > ndaβo b > β NDAB > Q. Návo ✧ PE22/154
ndabuva > ndaβuva b > β NDAB > Q. nauva ✧ PE22/151
ndeb- > ndeβ- b > β ‽√NDEB > Q. nev- ✧ PE17/167
rāba > rāβa b > β RAB > Q. rāva ✧ PE17/78
sab- > saβ- b > β SAB > Q. savin ✧ PE22/158
sab- > saβ- b > β SAB > Q. savin ✧ VT49/27
sībe > sīβe b > β SIB > Q. síve ✧ VT44/35
srāba > srāβa b > β S-RAB > Q. hráva ✧ PE17/78
srāban > srāβan b > β srāban > Q. hrăvan ✧ PE17/78
srōba > srōβa b > β S)ROB > Q. hrōva ✧ PE17/99
-ubā > -uβā b > β -ubā > Q. uva ✧ PE22/131
ubie > uβie b > β UB > Q. úvie ✧ PE22/132
-bā > -βā b > β ᴹ✶-bā > ᴹQ. -vā̆- ✧ PE22/97
bā > βā b > β > Q. Va! ✧ PE17/143
bā > βā b > β > Q. ✧ PE17/145
bā > βā b > β BA > Q. ✧ PE22/162
bā > βā b > β BA > Q. ✧ WJ/371
bai > βai b > β vai > Q. ve ✧ VT49/32
bākwet- > βākwet- b > β bá-kwet > Q. vāquet- ✧ PE22/167
bala > βala b > β BAL > Q. Vala ✧ PE17/48
bala > βala b > β bal- > Q. val- ✧ SA/val
balanja > βalanja b > β Balaniā > Q. Valanya ✧ Let/427
balar > βalar b > β BAL > Q. Valar ✧ PE17/48
balinōrē > βalinōrē b > β Bali(a)nōrē > Q. Valinórë ✧ PE17/26
balinōrē > βalinōrē b > β Valinōrē > Q. Valinóre ✧ WJ/413
bāna > βāna b > β ɃAN > Q. Vána ✧ PE17/149
bāna > βāna b > β BAN > Q. Vána ✧ PE17/150
banā > βanā b > β ᴹ✶bánā > ᴹQ. Vana ✧ Ety/BAN
bane > βane b > β BAN > Q. vane ✧ PE17/56
banima > βanima b > β ɃAN > Q. vanima ✧ PE17/149
banima > βanima b > β BAN > Q. vanima ✧ PE17/150
banima > βanima b > β BAN > Q. vanima ✧ PE17/165
banja > βanja b > β BAN > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/56
banja > βanja b > β ɃAN > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/149
banja > βanja b > β BAN > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/150
banja > βanja b > β banya > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/165
banjar > βanjar b > β Banyai > Q. Vanyar ✧ PM/402
baradā > βaradā b > β baradā > Q. Varda ✧ PE17/22
baradā > βaradā b > β BARAD > Q. Varda ✧ PE17/23
baranda > βaranda b > β BARAD > Q. varanda ✧ PE17/23
barane > βarane b > β barani > Q. *varnë ✧ PE21/81
bē > βē b > β > Q. ve ✧ VT49/32
berī > βerī b > β verī > Q. veri ✧ VT49/45
berja- > βerja- b > β BER > Q. verya ✧ VT49/45
berta- > βerta- b > β BER > Q. verta ✧ VT49/45
berū > βerū b > β verū > Q. veru ✧ VT49/45
ad > að d > ð ad(a) > az > Q. ar ✧ PE17/41
ad > að d > ð ad > Q. ar ✧ PE17/41
ad > að d > ð ad(a) > Q. ar ✧ PE17/41
ad > að d > ð ad > Q. ar ✧ PE17/70
ad > að d > ð ad(ă)/ad > Q. ar ✧ PE17/71
ad > að d > ð ad > > > Q. ar ✧ PE17/71
ad > að d > ð ada > Q. ar ✧ PE17/102
ad > að d > ð ADA > Q. ar ✧ PE17/145
ad- > að- d > ð ad(ă)/ad > Q. ar- ✧ PE17/71
ad > að d > ð ADA > Q. ar ✧ PE17/145
auda > auða d > ð AW > auda > Q. aura ✧ PE22/151
audel > auðel d > ð aw(a)delo > Q. Aurel ✧ WJ/363
awād > awāð d > ð AWA > Q. öar ✧ WJ/364
awād > awāð d > ð awā-da > Q. öar ✧ WJ/366
awādel > awāðel d > ð awādelo > Q. Oärel ✧ WJ/363
glada- > glaða- d > ð g-lada- > Q. lala- ✧ PM/359
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð galadā > Q. alda ✧ Let/426
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/25
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/50
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/63
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð galadā > ʒalaðā > ʒalðā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/135
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð galadā́ > Q. alda ✧ PE17/153
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/153
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð GAL > Q. alda ✧ PE22/160
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð AQ. ʒalda > Q. alda ✧ VT39/7
īde > īðe d > ð ID > Q. #ír- ✧ PE17/112
īdē > īðē d > ð ᴹ✶īdē > ᴹQ. íre ✧ Ety/ID
īdima > īðima d > ð ID > Q. írima ✧ PE17/112
jod- > joð- d > ð YOD > Q. yor- ✧ PE17/43
kazād > kazāð d > ð Kh. khazād > Q. †kazār ✧ PE17/45
kazād > kazāð d > ð Kh. Khazād > Q. Kasar ✧ WJ/388
kʰādo > kʰāðo d > ð khādo > hāzo > Q. hāro ✧ PE22/148
kʰauda > kʰauða d > ð KHAWAD > hauza > Q. haura ✧ PE19/91
kʰauda > kʰauða d > ð KHAW > Q. haura ✧ PE19/92
-lde > -lðe d > ð de > Q. -lde ✧ VT49/51
ledembass > leðembass d > ð led(e)mbasse > Q. lerembas ✧ PE17/52
māxanaskad > māxanaskað d > ð Val. māχananaškād > Q. Máhanaxar ✧ WJ/401
nelede > neleðe d > ð nelede > Q. nelde ✧ VT47/10
nelede > neleðe d > ð (e)nel-ed > Q. nelde ✧ VT47/11
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ngolodō > Q. Ñoldor ✧ MR/350
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ngolodō > Q. noldo ✧ MR/350
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ngolodõ > Q. Noldo ✧ MR/470
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ñgolodō > Q. ñoldo ✧ PE17/153
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ñgolodō > Q. ñoldo ✧ PE19/76
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð Ñgolodō > Q. Noldo ✧ PM/360
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ngol- > Q. Noldor ✧ SA/gûl
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ñgolodō > Q. Ñoldo ✧ WJ/364
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ñgolodō > Q. Ñoldor ✧ WJ/380
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ñgolodō > Q. Ñoldo ✧ WJ/383
nide > niðe d > ð NID > Q. níre ✧ PE22/165
nidin > niðin d > ð NID > Q. nirin ✧ PE22/165
nidin > niðin d > ð NID > Q. nirin ✧ VT41/17
sidā > siðā d > ð sidā̆ > Q. sira ✧ VT49/18
tad > tað d > ð tad > Q. tar ✧ PE19/104
agwalda > aɣwalda g > ɣ WAL > Q. awalda ✧ PE17/189
denweg > denweɣ g > ɣ Denwego > Q. Lenwe ✧ WJ/412
gaira > ɣaira g > ɣ GAYA > Q. aira ✧ PM/363
gaira > ɣaira g > ɣ gaı̯ră > Q. †aire ✧ PE17/27
gaire > ɣaire g > ɣ GAYA > Q. airë ✧ PM/363
gājā > ɣājā g > ɣ gāyā > Q. áya ✧ PM/363
gájakā > ɣájakā g > ɣ gayakā > Q. aika ✧ PM/363
gajar > ɣajar g > ɣ GAY(AR) > Q. ëar ✧ PE17/27
gajar > ɣajar g > ɣ Gayar- > Q. Eär ✧ PM/363
gajār > ɣajār g > ɣ gayār > Q. ëar ✧ WJ/400
gal- > ɣal- g > ɣ ᴹ√GALA > ᴹQ. ’al ✧ Ety/GALA
gala- > ɣala- g > ɣ ᴹ✶galā > ᴹQ. ’alā- ✧ PE22/98
gala- > ɣala- g > ɣ ᴹ✶galā́ > ᴹQ. ala- ✧ PE22/106
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ galadā > Q. alda ✧ Let/426
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/25
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/50
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/63
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ galadā > ʒalaðā > ʒalðā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/135
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ galadā́ > Q. alda ✧ PE17/153
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/153
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ GAL > Q. alda ✧ PE22/160
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ AQ. ʒalda > Q. alda ✧ VT39/7
galadanil > ɣaladanil g > ɣ Gala(da)ndil > Q. Aldanil ✧ PE21/83
galadarembinā > ɣaladarembinā g > ɣ galad(a)rembinā > Q. aldarembina ✧ PE17/127
galalbe > ɣalalbe g > ɣ GAL-AB > Q. alalbe ✧ PE17/153
galalme > ɣalalme g > ɣ GAL > Q. alalme ✧ PE17/153
galan > ɣalan g > ɣ galan > Q. alan ✧ PE22/164
ɣalatārīgell > ɣalatārīgell g > ɣ galatā-rigellē̆ > Q. altáriel ✧ PE17/50
galatarīgelle > ɣalatarīgelle g > ɣ galata-rīg-elle > Q. Altariellë ✧ MR/182
galatārīgelle > ɣalatārīgelle g > ɣ alatā-rigellē̆ > Q. Altariel(le) ✧ PE17/50
galatārīgelle > ɣalatārīgelle g > ɣ alatā-rigellē̆ > Q. altáriel ✧ PE17/50
ɣalatārīgell > ɣalatārīɣell g > ɣ galatā-rigellē̆ > Q. altáriel ✧ PE17/50
ɣalatarīgelle > ɣalatarīɣelle g > ɣ galata-rīg-elle > Q. Altariellë ✧ MR/182
ɣalatārīgelle > ɣalatārīɣelle g > ɣ alatā-rigellē̆ > Q. Altariel(le) ✧ PE17/50
ɣalatārīgelle > ɣalatārīɣelle g > ɣ alatā-rigellē̆ > Q. altáriel ✧ PE17/50
galba > ɣalba g > ɣ GAL-AB > Q. alba ✧ PE17/153
galbe > ɣalbe g > ɣ ALAB > albe > Q. alve ✧ PE17/146
galbe > ɣalbe g > ɣ ALAB > Q. albe ✧ PE17/153
galmā > ɣalmā g > ɣ galmā > Q. alma ✧ PE17/153
galta- > ɣalta- g > ɣ ᴹ√GAL² > ᴹQ. alta- ✧ EtyAC/GAL²
gampa > ɣampa g > ɣ gampa > Q. ampa ✧ VT47/20
gardā > ɣardā g > ɣ gardā > Q. arda ✧ WJ/402
ŋille > ɣille g > ɣ GIL > Q. ille ✧ PE17/22
glaða- > ɣlaða- g > ɣ g-lada- > Q. lala- ✧ PM/359
glaurē > ɣlaurē g > ɣ glawarē > glaurē > ʒlaurē > AQ. alaurē ✧ PE19/79
glaurē > ɣlaurē g > ɣ ᴹ√GLAW(-R) > ᴹQ. laure ✧ Ety/GLAW(-R)
glawrē > ɣlawrē g > ɣ glawarē > glaurē > ʒlaurē > Q. laurē ✧ PE19/79
glawre > ɣlawre g > ɣ glawarĭ > Q. laure ✧ PE21/81
glawre > ɣlawre g > ɣ glaware > Q. laure ✧ VT41/10
glosse > ɣlosse g > ɣ (G)LOS > Q. lossë ✧ VT42/18
gondo > ɣondo g > ɣ gond(o) > Q. ondo ✧ Let/410
gondo > ɣondo g > ɣ gon-d > Q. ondo ✧ RC/347
grauko > ɣrauko g > ɣ grauk- > Q. rauko ✧ WJ/415
grawa > ɣrawa g > ɣ grawa > Q. roa ✧ VT47/35
gur- > ɣur- g > ɣ GUR > Q. ur(u) ✧ PE17/154
gurda > ɣurda g > ɣ GUR > Q. urda ✧ PE17/154
gwa- > ɣwa- g > ɣ gwo > Q. wa- ✧ PE19/106
gwaina > ɣwaina g > ɣ GWAY > waina > Q. vaina ✧ PE17/154
gwalja- > ɣwalja- g > ɣ GWAL > Q. walya ✧ PE17/154
gwalme > ɣwalme g > ɣ GWAL > Q. walme ✧ PE17/154
gwalme > ɣwalme g > ɣ WAL > Q. walme ✧ PE17/189
gwalna > ɣwalna g > ɣ walna > Q. walda ✧ PE17/154
gwalta- > ɣwalta- g > ɣ GWAL > Q. walta ✧ PE17/154
gwanja > ɣwanja g > ɣ GWAN > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/154
gwanja > ɣwanja g > ɣ GWAN > Q. †wana ✧ PE17/165
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ WEN-ED > Q. wendē ✧ PE17/191
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ GWEN > Q. wendē ✧ PE17/191
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ wen > Q. wen ✧ SA/wen
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ wen(ed) > Q. wende ✧ VT47/42
gwenjā > ɣwenjā g > ɣ gwenyā > Q. wenya ✧ PE17/191
gwer- > ɣwer- g > ɣ WER > Q. were- ✧ PE17/33
gwine > ɣwine g > ɣ wĭnĭ > Q. wine ✧ VT47/26
gwirne > ɣwirne g > ɣ WIS > Q. wirne ✧ PE17/191
gwo- > ɣwo- g > ɣ gwo > Q. o- ✧ PE19/106
gwolassiē > ɣwolassiē g > ɣ gwa-lassa/gwa-lassiē > Q. olassiē ✧ Let/282
kalatārīgell > kalatārīɣell g > ɣ kalatā-rigellē̆ > Q. kaltáriel ✧ PE17/50
kalatārīgelle > kalatārīɣelle g > ɣ Kalatā-rigelle > Q. Kaltáriel(le) ✧ PE17/50
maga > maɣa g > ɣ MAG > Q. ✧ PE17/161
māga > māɣa g > ɣ mag > Q. ✧ VT47/18
magi > maɣi g > ɣ MAGA > Q. mai ✧ PE22/148
magite > maɣite g > ɣ magiti- > Q. Maiti- ✧ VT41/10
magjā > maɣjā g > ɣ magyā > Q. maiya ✧ PE19/75
magjā > maɣjā g > ɣ magyā > maı̯ya > Q. maia ✧ PE19/94
magje > maɣje g > ɣ MAG > Q. †maie ✧ PE17/162
magje > maɣje g > ɣ MAG > Q. mai ✧ VT47/6
magle > maɣle g > ɣ MAGA > Q. mále ✧ PE17/162
magra > maɣra g > ɣ magra > Q. māra ✧ PE17/16
magra > maɣra g > ɣ MAGA > Q. mára ✧ PE17/162
magra > maɣra g > ɣ MAG > Q. mára ✧ PE17/172
ndagwē > ndaɣwē g > ɣ ndagwē > ndau̯we > nau̯we > Q. naue ✧ PE19/94
ŋgalatārīgel > ŋgalatārīɣel g > ɣ ñgal(a)tā-rig-el- > Q. Ñaltariel ✧ PE17/60
pʰelgā > pʰelɣā g > ɣ phelgā > Q. felya ✧ PE17/118
rīgā > rīɣā g > ɣ rīgā > Q. ría ✧ PM/347
rige > riɣe g > ɣ RIG > Q. rië ✧ PE17/182
rigel > riɣel g > ɣ rig- > Q. riel ✧ SA/kal
rigelle > riɣelle g > ɣ RIG > Q. riellë ✧ PM/347
sagrā > saɣrā g > ɣ sagrā > Q. sára ✧ PE19/95
sloga > sloɣa g > ɣ sloga > Q. hloä ✧ VT42/9
sogrā > soɣlā g > ɣ soglā > Q. sóla ✧ PE19/95
srūga > srūɣa g > ɣ S-RŪGU > Q. hrúa ✧ PE17/170
srugo > sruɣo g > ɣ srugu > Q. hruo ✧ PE17/115
steglō > steɣlō g > ɣ steglō > thélo > þélo > Q. sélo ✧ PE19/95
tagra > taɣra g > ɣ TAG/Tā- > Q. tāra ✧ PE17/186
tagra > taɣra g > ɣ tagra > Q. tāra ✧ PE17/186
tegē > teɣē g > ɣ tegē > Q. tie ✧ PE19/71
telgūmā > telɣūmā g > ɣ Val. delgūmā > Q. telluma ✧ WJ/399
ugi > uɣi g > ɣ ū̆gu/gū > Q. ui ✧ VT49/29
ugilme > uɣilme g > ɣ ugilme > Q. uilme ✧ VT49/29
ugra > uɣra g > ɣ UG > Q. úra ✧ VT43/24
ugrā > uɣrā g > ɣ ugrā > Q. úra ✧ PE22/160
ugu- > uɣu- g > ɣ UG > Q. ú ✧ PE22/160
ugu- > uɣu- g > ɣ ū̆gu/gū > Q. ū- ✧ VT49/29
-weg > -weɣ g > ɣ weg- > Q. -we ✧ PE17/190
-weg > -weɣ g > ɣ wegū̆/wego > -wē > Q. ✧ PE17/190
-wēg > -wēɣ g > ɣ -wēg(o) > > Q. -we ✧ PE21/81
wegō > weɣō g > ɣ wegō(n) > weo > Q. vëo ✧ PE17/189

ᴹAQ. voiced stops became spirants except after nasals and liquids; [{bdg}|{mnŋ}{bdg}] > [{βðɣ}|{mnŋ}{bdg}]

References ✧ PE19/32, 34, 40, 46; PE22/44

Order (01700)

After 01200 [dj] became [lj]
After 01600 voiced stops became nasals before nasals
Before 01800 initial [ɣ] before [l], [r] sometimes became a vowel
Before 01900 [β], [ɣ] vocalized before voiced consonants
Before 02200 second short vowel of same quality lost
Before 03300 spirants after [r], [l] became stops
Before 03800 velars were dentalized before [j]
Before 04100 [z] and [ð] assimilated to following [r], [l]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[b] > [β] ✧ PE19/38 (b > v); PE19/50 (b > v)
[mb] > [mb]
[d] > [ð]
[nd] > [nd]
[g] > [ɣ] ✧ PE19/51 (gy > ʒy); PE19/51 (gw > ʒw); PE19/38 (gl > l; initial); PE19/38 (gr > r; initial); PE19/38 (gw > w); PE19/38 (g > ø)
[ŋg] > [ŋg]

Phonetic Rule Examples

abār > aβār b > β ᴹ✶ábārō̆ > ᴹQ. Avar/Avaro ✧ Ety/AB
ɣolbā > ɣolβā b > β ᴹ✶golbā > ᴹQ. olwa ✧ Ety/GÓLOB
kjawe > kjaβe b > β ᴹ√KYAB > ᴹQ. tyave ✧ PE22/102
kjawin > kjaβin b > β ᴹ√KYAB > ᴹQ. tyavin ✧ Ety/KYAB
labe > laβe b > β ᴹ√LAB > ᴹQ. lave ✧ PE22/102
labin > laβin b > β ᴹ√LAB > ᴹQ. lavin ✧ Ety/LAB
ndakuban > ndakuβan b > β ᴹ✶ndăkŭbā̆nyē > ᴹQ. nakuvan ✧ PE21/65
rāba > rāβa b > β ᴹ✶rāba > ᴹQ. ráva ✧ Ety/RAB
rāba > rāβa b > β ᴹ√RAB² > ᴹQ. ráva ✧ Ety/RAMBĀ
sāba > sāβa b > β ᴹ√SAB > ᴹQ. sáva ✧ Ety/SAB
-uba > -uβa b > β ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. -uva ✧ VT48/32
ūbe > ūβe b > β ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. úve ✧ Ety/UB
ubie > uβie b > β ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. úvie ✧ VT48/32
balā > βalā b > β ᴹ✶bálā > ᴹQ. Vala ✧ Ety/BAL
balī > βalī b > β ᴹ✶bal-ī́ > ᴹQ. †Vali ✧ Ety/BAL
βalīndōr > βalīndōr b > β ᴹ✶balī́-ndō̆re > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ Ety/BAL
βalīndōr > βalīndōr b > β ᴹ✶Bắlī + ndṓrḗ > Bálīndṑrē > Bálĭndṑrĕ > Balindor > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ PE19/59
βalīnōr > βalīnōr b > β ᴹ✶Balī-nṓrē̆ > Bali-nṓr(e) > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ PE18/56
banda > βanda b > β ᴹ✶banda > ᴹQ. vanda ✧ EtyAC/BAD²
banima > βanima b > β ᴹ√BAN > ᴹQ. vanima ✧ Ety/BAN
banjā > βanjā b > β ᴹ✶bányā > ᴹQ. vanya ✧ Ety/BAN
banwa > βanwa b > β ABA/BA > Q. vanwa ✧ PE17/16
banwa > βanwa b > β bā̆nwa > Q. vanwa ✧ PE22/137
banwa > βanwa b > β ᴹ√BĀ/BANA > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/97
banwa > βanwa b > β ᴹ√vā- > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/106
banwa > βanwa b > β ᴹ√BA > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/112
baradā > βaradā b > β ᴹ✶barádā > ᴹQ. Varda ✧ Ety/BARÁD
baradā > βaradā b > β ᴹ✶baradā > ᴹQ. Varda ✧ Ety/BARATH
barane > βarane b > β ᴹ√BARÁN > ᴹQ. varne ✧ Ety/BARÁN
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
ɣaladā > ɣalaðā d > ð ᴹ✶galadā > ᴹQ. Alda ✧ SD/302
nelede > neleðe d > ð ᴹ√NÉL-ED > ᴹQ. nelde ✧ Ety/NEL
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > ᴹQ. noldo ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ᴹ√ŊGÓLODŌ > ŋoldo > ᴹQ. noldo ✧ PE18/40
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ᴹ✶ñgolodō > ᴹQ. ñoldo ✧ PE19/36
ŋgolodō > ŋgoloðō d > ð ᴹ✶ñgòlodṓ > ᴹQ. ñgoldṓ ✧ PE19/58
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
galadā > ɣaladā g > ɣ ᴹ✶galadā > ᴹQ. Alda ✧ SD/302
gampa > ɣampa g > ɣ ᴹ√GAP > ᴹQ. ampa ✧ Ety/GAP
garda > ɣarda g > ɣ ᴹ√GAR > ᴹQ. arda ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
geja > ɣeja g > ɣ ᴹ✶geı̯ā > ᴹQ. ia ✧ Ety/GEY
golbā > ɣolbā g > ɣ ᴹ✶golbā > ᴹQ. olwa ✧ Ety/GÓLOB
gondo > ɣondo g > ɣ ᴹ√GÓNOD/GONDO > ᴹQ. ondo ✧ Ety/GOND
gondolindē > ɣondolindē g > ɣ Gondō̆-lindē > Q. Ondolinde ✧ PE17/133
gondōm > ɣondōm g > ɣ ᴹ✶góndōm > góndōr > ᴹQ. ondor ✧ PE21/58
gondōm > ɣondōm g > ɣ ᴹ✶gondōm > ʒondō̆n > ᴹQ. ondor ✧ PE21/63
gondōt > ɣondōt g > ɣ ᴹ✶gondōt > ʒondō̆t > ᴹQ. ondot ✧ PE19/52
gorōmē > ɣorōmē g > ɣ ᴹ✶Górōmē > ᴹQ. Orōme ✧ EtyAC/GÓROM
gū- > ɣū- g > ɣ ᴹ✶gū̆- > ᴹQ. ū- ✧ Ety/GŪ
gū- > ɣū- g > ɣ ᴹ✶ugu/gū > ᴹQ. ú- ✧ Ety/UGU
gwa- > ɣwa- g > ɣ ᴹ✶gwo- > ᴹQ. ✧ PE19/53
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ ᴹ√WEN(ED) > ᴹQ. wende ✧ Ety/GWEN
gwende > ɣwende g > ɣ ᴹ√WENED > wende > ᴹQ. vende ✧ Ety/WEN
gwenja > ɣwenja g > ɣ ᴹ√GWEN > ᴹQ. wenya ✧ Ety/GWEN
gwinja > ɣwinja g > ɣ ᴹ√GWIN > ᴹQ. winya ✧ EtyAC/GWIN
gwo- > ɣwo- g > ɣ ᴹ✶gwo- > ᴹQ. o-´ ✧ PE19/53
lagwe > laɣwe g > ɣ ᴹ✶dagwe > ᴹQ. lau(w)e ✧ PE19/46
magā > maɣā g > ɣ ᴹ✶magā > ᴹQ. ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ
magjā > maɣjā g > ɣ ᴹ✶magyā > ᴹQ. mai(y)a ✧ PE19/46
magrā > maɣrā g > ɣ ᴹ✶magrā > ᴹQ. mára ✧ Ety/MAƷ|MAG
magra > maɣra g > ɣ ᴹ✶magra > ᴹQ. mára ✧ PE19/46
pʰelgā > pʰelɣā g > ɣ ᴹ√PHÉLEG > ᴹQ. felya ✧ Ety/PHÉLEG
rīgē > rīɣē g > ɣ ᴹ✶rīgē > ᴹQ. ríe ✧ Ety/RIG
sagrā > saɣrā g > ɣ ᴹ✶sagrā > ᴹQ. sára ✧ Ety/SAG
sogrā > soɣlā g > ɣ ᴹ✶soglā > ᴹQ. sóla ✧ PE19/46
stegrā > steɣrā g > ɣ ᴹ✶stegrā > ᴹQ. thḗra ✧ PE19/46
-weg > -weɣ g > ɣ ᴹ✶-wego > weg > ᴹQ. -we ✧ Ety/WEG
wegō > weɣō g > ɣ ᴹ✶wegō > ᴹQ. †veo ✧ Ety/WEG

ᴱQ. initial voiced stops became voiceless; [{bdggʷ}-] > [{ptkkʷ}-]

Reference ✧ PE12/17

Order ()

After initial [gʷ] became [w]
After palatals became dentals before [i]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[b-] > [p-]
[d-] > [t-]
[g-] > [k-]
[gʷ-] > [kʷ-]

Phonetic Rule Examples

balava- > palava- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palava- ✧ QL/71
balāva- > palāva- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palāva ✧ QL/71
balis > palis b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palis ✧ QL/71
balo > palo b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palo ✧ QL/71
balta > palta b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palta ✧ QL/71
balwa- > palwa- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palwa- ✧ QL/71
bē > pē b- > p- ᴱ√ > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/72
bondo > pondo b- > p- ᴱ√BOÐO > ᴱQ. pondo ✧ QL/75
bonte > ponte b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. ponte ✧ QL/75
bosta > posta b- > p- ᴱ√BOÐO > ᴱQ. posta ✧ QL/75
bote > pote b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. pote ✧ QL/75
botsi > potsi b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. potsi ✧ QL/75
bulko > pulko b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulko ✧ QL/75
bulme > pulme b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulme ✧ QL/75
bulu- > pulu- b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulu- ✧ QL/75
bulwa > pulwa b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulwa ✧ QL/75
burja- > purja- b- > p- ᴱ✶búrı̯ā > ᴱQ. purya ✧ PE13/116
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ✶dagā́ > ᴱQ. tá- ✧ PE13/161
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/87
da > ta d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/87
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ✶da’a > > ᴱQ. ✧ PE13/142
dajorme > tajorme d- > t- ᴱ√TAʕA > ᴱQ. tayorme ✧ QL/87
dāra > tāra d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. tāra ✧ QL/87
daramb > taramb d- > t- ᴱ√TARAMA > ᴱQ. taran ✧ QL/89
dāri > tāri d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. tāri ✧ QL/87
darwa > tarwa d- > t- ᴱ✶dar’wa- > ᴱQ. tarwa ✧ PE13/161
dorme > torme d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > tahorme > taorme > ᴱQ. torme ✧ QL/87
gala- > kala- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kala- ✧ QL/44
gala > kala g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kala ✧ QL/44
galaine > kalaine g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalaine ✧ QL/44
gāle > kāle g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kále ✧ QL/44
galenda > kalenda g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalenda ✧ QL/44
galle > kalle g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalle ✧ QL/44
gallu- > kallu- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kal(l)u- ✧ QL/44
galma > kalma g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalma ✧ QL/44
galmarn > kalmarn g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalmar ✧ QL/44
galta- > kalta- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalta- ✧ QL/44
galwa > kalwa g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalwa ✧ QL/44
gargo > kargo g- > k- ᴱ✶grgu- > ᴱQ. karko ✧ PE13/144
garθa- > karθa- g- > k- ᴱ√gṛþ- > ᴱQ. karda ✧ GL/42
giw- > kiw- g- > k- ᴱ√giu̯i > ᴱQ. kiu̯ ✧ GL/39
gōpa > kōpa g- > k- ᴱ√KOPO > ᴱQ. kópa ✧ QL/47
gos > kos g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kos ✧ QL/48
gosar > kosar g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kosar ✧ QL/48
gosta- > kosta- g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kosta- ✧ QL/48
gwin > kwin g- > k- ᴱ√QIMI > ᴱQ. qin ✧ QL/77
gwinde > kwinde g- > k- ᴱ√QIMI > ᴱQ. (i) qinde ✧ QL/77
gʷen > kʷen gʷ- > kʷ- ᴱ✶Gwendi- > ᴱQ. Qen ✧ PE13/146

ᴱQ. voiced stops became spirants after vowels; [V{bddʲggʷ}] > [V{βððʲɣɣʷ}]

Order ()

Before [ð] became [z]
Before 02500 [ɣ] otherwise vanished

Phonetic Rule Elements

[Vb] > [Vβ] ✧ PE12/16 (b > v (w); medial)
[Vd] > [Vð] ✧ PE12/16 (d > z; medial)
[Vdʲ] > [Vðʲ] ✧ PE12/16 (d͡y > ; medial)
[Vg] > [Vɣ] ✧ PE12/16 (g > -; medial)
[Vgʷ] > [Vɣʷ] ✧ PE12/16 (g͡w > ; medial)

Phonetic Rule Examples

ambodt > amboðt Vd > Vð ᴱ✶a-mbod-t’ > ᴱQ. ambos ✧ PE13/139
fada > faða Vd > Vð ᴱ✶swada > ᴱQ. fara ✧ PE13/146
daga > daɣa Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶dagā́ > ᴱQ. tá- ✧ PE13/161
daɣā > daɣa Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶da’a > > ᴱQ. ✧ PE13/142
gʷegie > gʷeɣie Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶gu̯eg- > ᴱQ. wie ✧ GL/44
nēgitte > nēɣitte Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶nēgittĕ > ᴱQ. neite ✧ GL/60
negōn > neɣōn Vg > Vɣ ᴱ✶negōn > ᴱQ. nion ✧ GL/60