Q. [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v]; [ɸ|β] > [f|v]

Q. [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v]; [ɸ|β] > [f|v]

In Quenya the bilabial spirants ꝑ, ƀ [ɸ, β] (as derived from primitive ph, b) both became labio-dental f, v. These sound changes were mentioned in both the Outline of Phonetic Development [OP1] from the 1930s and the Outline of Phonology [OP2] from the 1950s:

ph: produced a bilabial spirant [ꝑ] ... Later or Tarquesta changes. ph > became the labio-dental f (OP1: PE19/30-31)
ph became a bilabial spirant [ꝑ]. Later where preserved this became labio-dental [f] (OP2: PE19/71).
b became ƀ (bilabial v). Later, where preserved, ƀ became labio-dental v (OP1: PE19/32).
b became bilabial ƀ. Later, where preserved, ƀ became labio-dental v (OP2: PE19/69).

Examples are numerous in all conceptual periods. In the Late Quenya of the 1950s and 60s, the same developments applied to ƀ derived from w (OP2: PE19/72), but in the 1930s w > v occurred after the shift of ꝑ, ƀ > f, v (OP1: PE19/33).

In OP1 the 1930s, Tolkien said that > f in Tarquesta [TQ]. Likewise in notes associated with the Shibboleth of Feanor from the last 1960s, Tolkien indicates the > f shift was fairly late, probably early in the TQ period but before þ > s, and that this sound change did not occur at all in the Vanyarin dialect:

It would appear that for reasons not now, of course, fully understood, the majority of the Ñoldor developed a distaste for the sound þ. This in Quenya was earlier, as it remained in Vanyarin, a dental spirant (made with the tongue-tip behind the back of the upper front teeth, which makes the passage to s easier). Similarly the labial spirant f was bilabial, and so remained in Vanyarin. The shift from dental and labial þ and f to interdental þ and labio-dental f occurred first in Telerin. The labio-dental f soon spread to Noldorin. Probably because it helped to make f and the voiceless w (transcribed hw) of Quenya more clearly distinguished (VT41/7).

In a footnote to the above quote Tolkien said:

The Ñoldor, before they made the change, accused the Vanyar of confusing the two sounds. In fact if left to unheeded change they would probably have merged in Quenya hw. Their near approach (by slackening the spirantal friction of f) before the separation of Vanyar and Noldor is seen in the development of phu- > *hwu- > hu-, as in Quenya huine “gloom”, unrelieved darkness (as a night without stars or moon), Telerin fuine of same sense, Sindarin fuin “night”. Later when the merging had been checked in Noldorin it was one of Feanor’s jests to declare that the Vanyar called his father Hwinwe and himself Hwëanaro (VT41/8 note #1).

Hat tip to Shihali for pointing out these two quotes to me. In OP2, Tolkien did not mention the preservation of bilabial f [ɸ] in Vanyarin, but he did say that hw > f in that dialect (PE19/75, 79, 88). This Vanyarin-only development is more plausible if f remained as bilabial , so Tolkien may have established the TQ timing of > f in OP2 or even in OP1.

Tolkien was less explicit on the timing of ƀ > v, but since lb was a common variant for lv in Ñoldorin pronunciation (LotR/1121) and lƀ, rƀ > lb, rb was universal in Vanyarin (PE19/93), it seems likely ƀ > v was a TQ change as well (though whether it was Ñoldorin-only is unclear).

Conceptual Development: Tolkien also described these sound changes for the Early Qenya of the 1910s and 1920s, except in the earliest conceptual stages bilabial spirants ꝑ, ƀ were part of Primitive Elvish (PE12/15, 20, 24).

References ✧ PE19/69, 71, 93; PM/402

Order (03000)

After 04300 AQ. [β], [ɣ] vocalized before voiced consonants
After 01300 [ɸu] became [hu]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ɸ] > [f] ✧ PE17/92 (ph > f); PE19/71 ([ꝑ] > f)
[β] > [v] ✧ PE19/69 (ƀ > v); PE19/72 (ƀ > v; initially or between vowels); PE19/93 (rƀ, lƀ > rv, lv); PM/402 (b > v)

Phonetic Rule Examples

ɸā > fā ɸ > f phāy > Q. ✧ PE19/104
ɸā > fā ɸ > f phā > Q. ✧ VT47/35
ɸai > fai ɸ > f PHĀ > Q. fai ✧ PE22/147
ɸaila > faila ɸ > f PHAYA > Q. faila ✧ PM/352
ɸalasse > falasse ɸ > f PHAL > Q. falasse ✧ PE17/62
ɸalma > falma ɸ > f PHAL > Q. falma ✧ PE17/62
ɸalma > falma ɸ > f PHAL > Q. falma ✧ PE17/73
ɸana > fana ɸ > f FAN > Q. fana ✧ PE17/26
ɸana > fana ɸ > f phanā > Q. fana ✧ PE17/173
ɸana > fana ɸ > f phanā > Q. fana ✧ PE17/174
ɸana > fana ɸ > f Fana- > Q. fana ✧ RGEO/66
ɸanar > fanar ɸ > f PHAN > Q. fanar ✧ PE17/179
ɸanja > fanja ɸ > f FAN > Q. fanya ✧ PE17/26
ɸanja > fanja ɸ > f FAN > Q. fanya ✧ PE17/26
ɸanja > fanja ɸ > f SPAN > Q. fanya ✧ PE17/36
ɸanja > fanja ɸ > f PHAN > Q. fanya ✧ PE17/173
ɸanja > fanja ɸ > f phanyā > Q. fanya ✧ PE17/175
ɸanja > fanja ɸ > f Fana- > Q. fanya ✧ RGEO/66
ɸanta- > fanta- ɸ > f phantā- > Q. fanta- ✧ PE17/174
ɸanta- > fanta- ɸ > f phan- > Q. fanta- ✧ VT43/22
ɸanwa > fanwa ɸ > f fanma > Q. fanwa ✧ PE17/176
ɸanwa > fanwa ɸ > f fan-mā > Q. fanwa ✧ PE17/180
ɸarale > farale ɸ > f phár-alē > Q. farále ✧ PE22/138
ɸarale > farale ɸ > f phár-alē > Q. fărăle ✧ PE22/138
ɸarne > farne ɸ > f pharan- > Q. ‽fărnĭ ✧ PE17/83
ɸarne > farne ɸ > f pharne > Q. ‽farnë ✧ PE17/83
ɸea > fea ɸ > f phăya > Q. fëa ✧ MR/349
ɸea > fea ɸ > f phăya > Q. fëa ✧ MR/470
ɸea > fea ɸ > f fáyā > Q. fëa ✧ PE17/124
ɸea > fea ɸ > f phayā > făyā > Q. fea ✧ PE19/104
ɸea > fea ɸ > f PHAYA > Q. fëa ✧ PM/352
ɸea > fea ɸ > f phayā > Q. fea ✧ VT41/14
ɸeanāro > feanāro ɸ > f phaya-nāro > Q. Fëanáro ✧ PE17/39
ɸelextā > felextā ɸ > f PHELEK > Q. felehta ✧ PE17/118
ɸelja > felja ɸ > f phelgā > Q. felya ✧ PE17/118
ɸelka > felka ɸ > f PHELEK > Q. felca ✧ PE17/118
ɸelko > felko ɸ > f PHELEK > Q. felco ✧ PE17/118
ɸelme > felme ɸ > f phel- > Q. felme ✧ VT41/19
ɸenna > fenna ɸ > f PHEN > Q. fenna ✧ PE17/181
ɸērima > fērima ɸ > f PHERE > Q. férima ✧ PE17/181
ɸerja- > ferja- ɸ > f PHERE > Q. ferya- ✧ PE17/181
ɸiliŋke > filiŋke ɸ > f philik > Q. filinke ✧ PE21/72
ɸimbe > fimbe ɸ > f PHIM > Q. fimbi- ✧ PE17/23
ɸinda > finda ɸ > f PHIN > Q. finda ✧ PM/340
ɸinda > finda ɸ > f PHĬN > Q. finda ✧ PE17/181
ɸinde > finde ɸ > f SPIN-ID > Q. findë ✧ PE17/119
ɸinde > finde ɸ > f PHIN > Q. findë ✧ PM/340
ɸindele > findele ɸ > f espin-delē > Q. phindele ✧ PE17/17
ɸindele > findele ɸ > f spindilā > Q. findile ✧ PE17/17
ɸine > fine ɸ > f SPIN- > Q. phin- ✧ PE17/17
ɸine > fine ɸ > f SPIN- > Q. fine ✧ PE17/17
ɸine > fine ɸ > f PHIN > Q. finë ✧ PM/340
ɸine > fine ɸ > f PHINĪ > Q. fínë ✧ PE17/119
ɸinja > finja ɸ > f PHIN- > Q. finya ✧ PE17/17
ɸinja- > finja- ɸ > f PHĬN > Q. finya- ✧ PE17/181
ɸiŋka > fiŋka ɸ > f PHINĪ > Q. finca ✧ PE17/119
ɸiŋka > fiŋka ɸ > f finik/fink > Q. finca ✧ PE17/17
ɸinta- > finta- ɸ > f PHIN- > Q. finta- ✧ PE17/17
ɸinta- > finta- ɸ > f PHINĪ > Q. finta- ✧ PE17/119
ɸintaler > fintaler ɸ > f PHINĪ > Q. fintaler ✧ PE17/119
ɸinwa > finwa ɸ > f PHINĪ > Q. finwa ✧ PE17/119
ɸinwa > finwa ɸ > f PHĬN > Q. finwa ✧ PE17/181
ɸīrimar > fīrimar ɸ > f PHIRI > Q. Fírimar ✧ WJ/387
ɸirja > firja ɸ > f PHIRI > Q. Firyar ✧ WJ/387
ɸō > fō ɸ > f PHŌ/Ū > Q. ✧ PE17/181
ɸoa > foa ɸ > f PHAW > Q. foa ✧ PE17/181
ɸoa > foa ɸ > f fawa > Q. foa ✧ VT47/35
ɸoalōke > foalōke ɸ > f phawalōkō > Q. foalóke ✧ PE17/181
raɸe > rafe ɸ > f raphe > Q. rafe ✧ PE19/89
alβe > alve β > v ALAB > albe > Q. alve ✧ PE17/146
atjāβie > atjāvie β > v akyāwiē > Q. atyā́vie ✧ PE22/152
auβie > auvie β > v AW > Q. auvie ✧ PE22/151
aβā > avā β > v ABA > Q. avá ✧ PE17/143
āβa > āva β > v AB > Q. āva ✧ PE22/151
aβa- > ava- β > v aba- > Q. ava- ✧ PE22/163
aβa- > ava- β > v ABA > Q. ava- ✧ VT49/13
aβa- > ava- β > v aba- > Q. ava- ✧ WJ/370
aβa > ava β > v ABA > Q. ava ✧ PE17/143
aβa > ava β > v ABA > Q. ava- ✧ WJ/370
aβan > avan β > v ABA > Q. avan ✧ PE22/162
aβan > avan β > v ABA > Q. avan ✧ PE22/164
aβanwa > avanwa β > v ABA > Q. avanwa ✧ PE17/143
aβar > avar β > v ABA > Q. avar ✧ PE17/143
karuβan > karuvan β > v kar|ubā|ni > Q. caruvan(ye) ✧ PE22/167
kaβ- > kav- β > v KAB > Q. *cav- ✧ VT47/21
kēβa > kēva β > v kēwa > Q. kéva ✧ VT48/7
kēβa > kēva β > v kēwā > Q. kēva ✧ VT48/8
kuβ- > kuv- β > v KUB > Q. #kuv- ✧ PE22/155
kuβ- > kuv- β > v KUB > Q. #cúv ✧ PE22/155
kuβo > kuvo β > v KUB > Q. #kuvo ✧ PE22/155
laβa > lava β > v labā́ > Q. lava ✧ PE22/152
lāβar > lāvar β > v LAWAR > Q. lávar ✧ PE17/159
laβuva > lavuva β > v laƀuvā > Q. †lavuva ✧ PE22/152
lūβa > lūva β > v LUB > Q. lúva ✧ PE17/122
lūβa > lūva β > v dūbā > Q. lúva ✧ PE17/168
matuβanje > matuvanje β > v mat-ubā-ni/njē > Q. matuvanye ✧ PE22/132
miruβōre > miruvōre β > v miru̯(a)-wōrĭ > Q. miruvórë ✧ PE17/38
miruβōze > miruvōze β > v Val. mirubhōze > Q. miruvórë ✧ PE17/38
nauβa > nauva β > v NDAB > Q. nauva ✧ PE22/151
nāβa > nāva β > v nābā > Q. #Náva ✧ WJ/389
naβe > nave β > v ndab > Q. nave ✧ VT42/34
naβin > navin β > v NDAB > Q. năvin ✧ PE22/154
naβo > navo β > v NDAB > Q. Návo ✧ PE22/154
neβ- > nev- β > v ‽√NDEB > Q. nev- ✧ PE17/167
r̥āβa > r̥āva β > v S-RAB > Q. hráva ✧ PE17/78
rāβa > rāva β > v RAB > Q. rāva ✧ PE17/78
r̥āβan > r̥āvan β > v srāban > Q. hrăvan ✧ PE17/78
r̥āβe > r̥āve β > v srāwe > Q. hrávë ✧ MR/350
r̥ōβa > r̥ōva β > v S)ROB > Q. hrōva ✧ PE17/99
ruiβe > ruive β > v RUYU > Q. ruive ✧ PE17/183
saβ- > sav- β > v SAB > Q. savin ✧ PE22/158
saβ- > sav- β > v SAB > Q. savin ✧ VT49/27
sīβe > sīve β > v SIB > Q. síve ✧ VT44/35
tāβa > tāva β > v TAW > Q. tāva ✧ PE17/115
tjauβa > tjauva β > v kyăwŭbā > Q. tyauva ✧ PE22/152
tjāβa > tjāva β > v kjāwā > Q. tyáva ✧ PE22/152
tjaβe > tjave β > v kyawĭ > tyawe > Q. tyave ✧ PE22/152
tjaβin > tjavin β > v kyawine > tyawin > Q. tyavin ✧ PE22/152
-uβa > -uva β > v -ubā > Q. uva ✧ PE22/131
uβie > uvie β > v UB > Q. úvie ✧ PE22/132
-βa > -va β > v ᴹ✶-bā > ᴹQ. -vā̆- ✧ PE22/97
-βa > -va β > v -u̯a > Q. -va ✧ PE17/59
-βa > -va β > v -vā > Q. -va ✧ WJ/407
βa > va β > v awa > Q. va- ✧ VT49/24
βa > va β > v > Q. Va! ✧ PE17/143
βā > va β > v > Q. ✧ PE17/145
βa > va β > v BA > Q. ✧ PE22/162
βa > va β > v BA > Q. ✧ WJ/371
βaile > vaile β > v waiwe > Q. vaiwe ✧ PE17/33
βaile > vaile β > v waile > Q. vaile ✧ PE17/189
βaire > vaire β > v WIRI > Q. Vaire ✧ PE17/191
βaire > vaire β > v WIR > Q. Vaire ✧ VT39/10
βaire > vaire β > v WAYA > Q. vaire ✧ PE17/34
βaiwe > vaiwe β > v waiwa(y) > Q. vaiwe ✧ PE17/189
βājā > vāja- β > v > Q. váya ✧ PE17/33
βāja > vāja β > v WAYA > Q. váya ✧ PE17/33
βāja > vāja β > v WAYA > Q. waya ✧ PE17/34
βākwet- > vākwet- β > v bá-kwet > Q. vāquet- ✧ PE22/167
βala > vala β > v BAL > Q. Vala ✧ PE17/48
βala > vala β > v bal- > Q. val- ✧ SA/val
βalanja > valanja β > v Balaniā > Q. Valanya ✧ Let/427
βalar > valar β > v BAL > Q. Valar ✧ PE17/48
βalinōre > valinōre β > v Bali(a)nōrē > Q. Valinórë ✧ PE17/26
βalinōre > valinōre β > v Valinōrē > Q. Valinóre ✧ WJ/413
βāna > vāna β > v ɃAN > Q. Vána ✧ PE17/149
βāna > vāna β > v BAN > Q. Vána ✧ PE17/150
βāna > vāna β > v WAN > Q. Vána ✧ WJ/383
βāne > vāne β > v wāne > Q. vāne ✧ PE17/63
βane > vane β > v BAN > Q. vane ✧ PE17/56
βaŋgwe > vaŋgwe β > v wagme > Q. vangwe ✧ PE17/34
βanima > vanima β > v ɃAN > Q. vanima ✧ PE17/149
βanima > vanima β > v BAN > Q. vanima ✧ PE17/150
βanima > vanima β > v BAN > Q. vanima ✧ PE17/165
βanja > vanja β > v BAN > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/56
βanja > vanja β > v ɃAN > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/149
βanja > vanja β > v BAN > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/150
βanja > vanja β > v wanya > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/150
βanja > vanja β > v wana > Q. văna ✧ PE17/150
βanja > vanja β > v banya > Q. vanya ✧ PE17/165
βanjar > vanjar β > v Banyai > Q. Vanyar ✧ PM/402
βanjar > vanjar β > v wanjā > Q. Vanyar ✧ WJ/380
βanjar > vanjar β > v wanjā > Q. Vanyar ✧ WJ/383
βaranda > varanda β > v BARAD > Q. varanda ✧ PE17/23
βarda > varda β > v baradā > Q. Varda ✧ PE17/22
βarda > varda β > v BARAD > Q. Varda ✧ PE17/23
βarne > varne β > v barani > Q. *varnë ✧ PE21/81
βaθar > vaθar β > v Wathar > waþar > Q. vasar ✧ VT42/9
βaθar > vaθar β > v waþar > Q. vasar ✧ VT42/10
βaθarja- > vaθarja- β > v waþar > Q. vasarya- ✧ VT42/10
βāβa > vāva β > v wā-wā > Q. váva ✧ PE17/33
βāβa > vāva β > v wā-wā > Q. váva ✧ PE17/34
βē > vē β > v > Q. vē̆ ✧ VT49/10
βē > vē β > v > Q. ve ✧ VT49/32
βe > ve β > v vai > Q. ve ✧ VT49/32
βē > vē β > v wē̆ > Q. vē̆ ✧ PE17/130
βea > vea β > v WAYA > Q. vëa ✧ PE17/189
βea > vea β > v WEKE > Q. vëa ✧ PE17/190
βekka > vekka β > v WE’E > we’kā > vekka > Q. vecca ✧ PE17/190
βeo > veo β > v wegō(n) > weo > Q. vëo ✧ PE17/189
βēra > vēra β > v EWE > wéra > Q. véra ✧ PM/340
βēre > vēre β > v WER > Q. Vérë ✧ PE17/33
βeri > veri β > v verī > Q. veri ✧ VT49/45
βerja- > verja- β > v BER > Q. verya ✧ VT49/45
βerta- > verta- β > v BER > Q. verta ✧ VT49/45
βeru > veru β > v verū > Q. veru ✧ VT49/45
βexte > vexte β > v weg-tē > Q. vehte ✧ PE17/189
βexte > vexte β > v WE’E > we’te > wehte > Q. vehte ✧ PE17/190
βi > vi β > v wi > Q. vi ✧ PE17/130
βīne > vīne β > v WIN > Q. vínë ✧ PE17/191
βinja > vinja β > v WIN > Q. vinya ✧ PE17/191
βinja > vinja β > v win > Q. vinya ✧ VT47/26
βirie > virie β > v ᴹ√WIR/WĪ/WIRI > ᴹQ. vírie ✧ EtyAC/WIR
βista- > vista- β > v WIS > Q. vista- ✧ PE17/189
βista- > vista- β > v WIS > Q. vista ✧ PE17/191
βiste > viste β > v WIS > Q. #wiste ✧ PE17/189
βizja- > vizja- β > v WIS > Q. virya- ✧ PE17/189
βizja- > vizja- β > v WIS > Q. virya ✧ PE17/191

ᴹQ. [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v]; [ɸ|β] > [f|v]

References ✧ PE19/31-32

Order (03000)

After 04400 ᴹAQ. [β], [ɣ] vocalized before voiced consonants
After 02900 [ɸu] became [hu]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ɸ] > [f] ✧ PE19/50 (ph > f); PE19/50 (phy > fy); PE19/51 (lph > lf); PE19/51 (rph > rf)
[β] > [v]

Phonetic Rule Examples

eɸ- > ef- ɸ > f ᴹ√EPH- > ᴹQ. EPH- ✧ PE22/127
ɸaika > faika ɸ > f ᴹ√SPAY > ᴹQ. faika ✧ Ety/SPAY
ɸaina- > faina- ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAY > ᴹQ. faina- ✧ Ety/PHAY
ɸaire > faire ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAY > ᴹQ. faire ✧ Ety/PHAY
ɸaire > faire ɸ > f ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. faire ✧ Ety/PHIR
ɸalasse > falasse ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > ᴹQ. falasse ✧ Ety/PHAL
ɸalle > falle ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > ᴹQ. falle ✧ Ety/PHAL
ɸalma > falma ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > ᴹQ. falma ✧ Ety/PHAL
ɸalmarin > falmarin ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > ᴹQ. falmarin ✧ Ety/PHAL
ɸāna > fāna ɸ > f ᴹ√SPAN > ᴹQ. fána ✧ Ety/SPAN
ɸaŋga > faŋga ɸ > f ᴹ✶spangā > ᴹQ. fanga ✧ Ety/SPÁNAG
ɸanja > fanja ɸ > f ᴹ√SPAN > ᴹQ. fanya ✧ Ety/SPAN
ɸantur > fantur ɸ > f ᴹ✶Spanturo > ᴹQ. Fantur ✧ Ety/SPAN
ɸāra > fāra ɸ > f ᴹ√SPAR² > ᴹQ. fára ✧ EtyAC/SPAR²
ɸara- > fara- ɸ > f ᴹ✶sparā > ᴹQ. fara- ✧ PE22/113
ɸarea > farea ɸ > f ᴹ✶farāyā́ > fárăyā > ᴹQ. farea ✧ PE22/111
ɸarea > farea ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. farea ✧ Ety/PHAR
ɸarea > farea ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. fā̆rea ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
ɸaren > faren ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. faren ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
ɸarja- > farja- ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. farya- ✧ Ety/PHAR
ɸarja- > farja- ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. farya- ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
ɸarma > farma ɸ > f ᴹ√SPAR² > ᴹQ. farma ✧ EtyAC/SPAR²
ɸarme > farme ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. fáre ✧ Ety/PHAR
ɸarme > farme ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. farme ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
ɸarne > farne ɸ > f ᴹ√PHARAN > ᴹQ. farne ✧ EtyAC/PHARAN
ɸasse > fasse ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAS > ᴹQ. fasse ✧ Ety/PHAS
ɸasta- > fasta- ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAS > ᴹQ. fasta- ✧ Ety/PHAS
ɸauka > fauka ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAU̯ > ᴹQ. fauka ✧ Ety/PHAU
ɸazne > fazne ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAS > ᴹQ. farne ✧ EtyAC/PHARAN
ɸazne > fazne ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAS > fazne > ᴹQ. farne ✧ EtyAC/PHAS
ɸeanāro > feanāro ɸ > f ᴹ✶Phay-anāro > ᴹQ. Feanáro ✧ Ety/PHAY
ɸelja > felja ɸ > f ᴹ√PHÉLEG > ᴹQ. felya ✧ Ety/PHÉLEG
ɸenda > fenda ɸ > f ᴹ√PHEN > ᴹQ. fenda ✧ Ety/PHEN
ɸeren > feren ɸ > f ᴹ✶phéren > ᴹQ. feren ✧ Ety/BERÉTH
ɸeren > feren ɸ > f ᴹ√PHÉREN > ᴹQ. feren ✧ Ety/PHER
ɸerna > ferna ɸ > f ᴹ√PHÉREN > ᴹQ. ferna ✧ Ety/PHER
ɸeuya- > feuya- ɸ > f ᴹ√PHEW > ᴹQ. feuya- ✧ Ety/PHEW
ɸiliŋke > filiŋke ɸ > f ᴹ✶philínkē > ᴹQ. filinke ✧ PE21/56
ɸilit > filit ɸ > f ᴹ√PHILIK > ᴹQ. filit ✧ Ety/PHILIK
ɸinde > finde ɸ > f ᴹ✶spindē > ᴹQ. finde ✧ Ety/SPIN
ɸine > fine ɸ > f ᴹ✶spinē > ᴹQ. fine ✧ Ety/SPIN
ɸion > fion ɸ > f ᴹ√PHI > ᴹQ. fion ✧ Ety/PHI
ɸire > fire ɸ > f ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. fire ✧ Ety/PHIR
ɸīrima > fīrima ɸ > f ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. fírima ✧ Ety/PHIR
ɸirin > firin ɸ > f ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. firin ✧ Ety/PHIR
ɸirja > firja ɸ > f ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. firya ✧ Ety/PHIR
ɸorja > forja ɸ > f ᴹ√PHOR > ᴹQ. forya ✧ Ety/PHOR
ɸorte > forte ɸ > f ᴹ✶phoroti > ᴹQ. forte ✧ Ety/PHOR
raɸe > rafe ɸ > f ᴹ√RAPH > raphe > ᴹQ. rafe ✧ PE22/102
aβante > avante β > v ᴹ✶abtā > ᴹQ. avante ✧ PE19/45
aβar > avar β > v ᴹ✶ábārō̆ > ᴹQ. Avar/Avaro ✧ Ety/AB
jāβe > jāve β > v ᴹ√YAB > ᴹQ. yáve ✧ Ety/YAB
kauβa > kauva β > v ᴹ√KAV- > kavuva > ᴹQ. kauva ✧ PE22/105
kuβ- > kuv- β > v ᴹ√KUB > ᴹQ. kuve ✧ PE22/102
laiβe > laive β > v ᴹ✶laibē > ᴹQ. laive ✧ Ety/LIB²
laβ- > lav- β > v ᴹ√DAB > ᴹQ. lav- ✧ Ety/DAB
laβe > lave β > v ᴹ√LAB > ᴹQ. lave ✧ PE22/102
laβin > lavin β > v ᴹ√LAB > ᴹQ. lavin ✧ Ety/LAB
nakuβan > nakuvan β > v ᴹ✶ndăkŭbā̆nyē > ᴹQ. nakuvan ✧ PE21/65
rāβa > rāva β > v ᴹ✶rāba > ᴹQ. ráva ✧ Ety/RAB
rāβa > rāva β > v ᴹ√RAB² > ᴹQ. ráva ✧ Ety/RAMBĀ
sāβa > sāva β > v ᴹ√SAB > ᴹQ. sáva ✧ Ety/SAB
suβ- > suv- β > v ᴹ√SUB > ᴹQ. sumbe ✧ PE22/127
taβar > tavar β > v ᴹ✶tawar > ᴹQ. tavar ✧ Ety/TÁWAR
taβaril > tavaril β > v ᴹ✶táwārē̆ > ᴹQ. tavaril ✧ Ety/TÁWAR
taβaro > tavaro β > v ᴹ✶táwārō̆ > ᴹQ. tavaro/tavaron ✧ Ety/TÁWAR
tjaβe > tjave β > v ᴹ√KYAB > ᴹQ. tyave ✧ PE22/102
tjaβin > tjavin β > v ᴹ√KYAB > ᴹQ. tyavin ✧ Ety/KYAB
-uβa > -uva β > v ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. -uva ✧ VT48/32
ūβe > ūve β > v ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. úve ✧ Ety/UB
uβie > uvie β > v ᴹ√UB > ᴹQ. úvie ✧ VT48/32
βala > vala β > v ᴹ✶bálā > ᴹQ. Vala ✧ Ety/BAL
βali > vali β > v ᴹ✶bal-ī́ > ᴹQ. †Vali ✧ Ety/BAL
βalindor > valindor β > v ᴹ✶balī́-ndō̆re > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ Ety/BAL
βalindor > valindor β > v ᴹ✶Bắlī + ndṓrḗ > Bálīndṑrē > Bálĭndṑrĕ > Balindor > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ PE19/59
βalinor > valinor β > v ᴹ✶Balī-nṓrē̆ > Bali-nṓr(e) > ᴹQ. Valinor ✧ PE18/56
βalja > valja β > v ᴹ√BAL > ᴹQ. valya ✧ Ety/BAL
βana > vana β > v ᴹ✶bánā > ᴹQ. Vana ✧ Ety/BAN
βanda > vanda β > v ᴹ✶banda > ᴹQ. vanda ✧ EtyAC/BAD²
βanima > vanima β > v ᴹ√BAN > ᴹQ. vanima ✧ Ety/BAN
βanja > vanja β > v ᴹ✶bányā > ᴹQ. vanya ✧ Ety/BAN
βanta > vanta β > v ᴹ√BAT > ᴹQ. vanta ✧ Ety/BAT
βanta- > vanta- β > v ᴹ√BAT > ᴹQ. vanta- ✧ Ety/BAT
βanwa > vanwa β > v ABA/BA > Q. vanwa ✧ PE17/16
βanwa > vanwa β > v bā̆nwa > Q. vanwa ✧ PE22/137
βanwa > vanwa β > v ᴹ√BĀ/BANA > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/97
βanwa > vanwa β > v ᴹ√vā- > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/106
βanwa > vanwa β > v ᴹ√BA > ᴹQ. vanwa ✧ PE22/112
βarda > varda β > v ᴹ✶barádā > ᴹQ. Varda ✧ Ety/BARÁD
βarda > varda β > v ᴹ✶baradā > ᴹQ. Varda ✧ Ety/BARATH
βarile > varile β > v ᴹ√BAR > ᴹQ. varile ✧ EtyAC/BAR
βarja- > varja- β > v ᴹ✶baryā́- > ᴹQ. varya- ✧ Ety/BAR
βarna > varna β > v ᴹ✶barnā́ > ᴹQ. varna ✧ Ety/BAR
βarne > varne β > v ᴹ√BAR > ᴹQ. varne ✧ Ety/BAR
βarne > varne β > v ᴹ√BARÁN > ᴹQ. varne ✧ Ety/BARÁN
βenno > venno β > v ᴹ✶besnō > ᴹQ. venno ✧ Ety/BES
βerie > verie β > v ᴹ√BER > ᴹQ. verie ✧ Ety/BER
βerja > verja β > v ᴹ√BER > ᴹQ. verya ✧ Ety/BER
βerja- > verja- β > v ᴹ✶bérya- > ᴹQ. verya- ✧ Ety/BER
βerka > verka β > v ᴹ✶berékā > ᴹQ. verka ✧ Ety/BERÉK
βesse > vesse β > v ᴹ✶bessē > ᴹQ. vesse ✧ Ety/BES
βesta- > vesta- β > v ᴹ√BES > ᴹQ. vesta- ✧ Ety/BES
βesta- > vesta- β > v ᴹ√BES > ᴹQ. vesta- ✧ Ety/WED
βesta > vesta β > v ᴹ✶bestā > ᴹQ. vesta ✧ Ety/BES
βesta > vesta β > v ᴹ√BES > ᴹQ. vesta ✧ Ety/WED
βezu > vezu β > v ᴹ✶besū > ᴹQ. veru ✧ Ety/BES
βōre > vōre β > v ᴹ√BOR > ᴹQ. vóre ✧ EtyAC/BOR
βōrea > vōrea β > v ᴹ√BOR > ᴹQ. vórëa ✧ EtyAC/BOR
βōrima > vōrima β > v ᴹ√BOR > ᴹQ. vórima ✧ Ety/BOR
βoro > voro β > v ᴹ√BOR > ᴹQ. voro ✧ Ety/BOR
βoronwa > voronwa β > v ᴹ√BORÓN > ᴹQ. voronwa ✧ Ety/BORÓN
βoronwie > voronwie β > v ᴹ√BORÓN > ᴹQ. voronwie ✧ Ety/BORÓN

ᴱQ. [ɸ] usually became [f]; [ɸ|ɸɣʷ|ɸðʲ|ɸu] > [f|f|j̊|βu]

@@@ voiced spirants unvoiced?

References ✧ PE12/20

Order (01400)

After voiceless spirants became stops before stops, [s] or [z]
Before geminate voiceless spirants reduced
Before [β] vanished before [u]
Before 02000 intervocalic voiceless spirants became voiced

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ɸ] > [f] ✧ PE12/16 ( > f); PE12/21 (ꝑꝑ > ff)
[ɸɣʷ] > [f] ✧ PE12/20 (fw̑ > f)
[ɸðʲ] > [j̊] ✧ PE12/20 (fy̑ > hy)
[ɸu] > [βu] ✧ PE12/20 ( > ƀ; before ū̆)

Phonetic Rule Examples

aɸalta- > afalta- ɸ > f ᴱ√FALA > ᴱQ. avalta ✧ QL/34
aɸesta > afesta ɸ > f ᴱ√AFA > ᴱQ. avesta ✧ QL/29
ɸajka > fajka ɸ > f ᴱ√FAYA > ᴱQ. faika ✧ QL/37
ɸajno > fajno ɸ > f ᴱ√FAYA > ᴱQ. faino ✧ QL/37
ɸajnu- > fajnu- ɸ > f ᴱ√FAYA > ᴱQ. fainu- ✧ LT1A/Dor Faidwen
ɸajre > fajre ɸ > f ᴱ√FAYA > ᴱQ. faire ✧ QL/37
ɸalass > falass ɸ > f ᴱ√FALA > ᴱQ. falas ✧ QL/37
ɸalin > falin ɸ > f ᴱ√FALA > ᴱQ. falin ✧ QL/37
ɸalka > falka ɸ > f ᴱ√FALA > ᴱQ. falka ✧ QL/37
ɸalmar > falmar ɸ > f ᴱ√FALA > ᴱQ. falmar ✧ QL/37
ɸalmo > falmo ɸ > f ᴱ√FALA > ᴱQ. falmo ✧ QL/37
ɸamβa > famβa ɸ > f ᴱ√FABA > ᴱQ. famba ✧ QL/36
ɸaβka > famβa ɸ > f ᴱ√FABA > ᴱQ. fauka ✧ QL/37
ɸamβo > famβo ɸ > f ᴱ√FABA > ᴱQ. fambo ✧ QL/37
ɸandelu > fandelu ɸ > f ᴱ√FṆÐṆ > ᴱQ. fandelu ✧ QL/38
ɸando > fando ɸ > f ᴱ√FṆÐṆ > ᴱQ. fando ✧ QL/38
ɸandos > fandos ɸ > f ᴱ√FṆÐṆ > ᴱQ. fandor ✧ QL/38
ɸandoss > fandoss ɸ > f ᴱ√FṆÐṆ > ᴱQ. fandos ✧ QL/38
ɸanōre > fanōre ɸ > f ᴱ√FANA > ᴱQ. fanōre ✧ QL/37
ɸansa > fansa ɸ > f ᴱ√FANA > ᴱQ. fansa ✧ QL/37
ɸanta- > fanta- ɸ > f ᴱ√FANA > ᴱQ. fanta- ✧ QL/37
ɸantḷ > fantḷ ɸ > f ᴱ√FANA > ᴱQ. fantl ✧ QL/37
ɸanwe > fanwe ɸ > f ᴱ√FANA > ᴱQ. fanwe ✧ QL/37
ɸawsta > fawsta ɸ > f ᴱ√FAWA > ᴱQ. fausta ✧ QL/37
ɸawsta- > fawsta- ɸ > f ᴱ√FAWA > ᴱQ. fausta- ✧ QL/37
ɸelu > felu ɸ > f ᴱ√FELE/FELU > ᴱQ. felu ✧ QL/38
ɸeŋg > feŋg ɸ > f ᴱ√FEŊE > ᴱQ. fen ✧ QL/38
ɸeŋg- > feŋg- ɸ > f ᴱ√FEŊE > ᴱQ. fengin ✧ QL/38
ɸeŋkʷa > feŋkʷa ɸ > f ᴱ√FEŊE > ᴱQ. fenqa ✧ QL/38
ɸiðin > fiðin ɸ > f ᴱ√FIŘI > ᴱQ. firin ✧ QL/38
ɸilkʷe > filkʷe ɸ > f ᴱ√FILI > ᴱQ. filqe ✧ QL/38
ɸilma > filma ɸ > f ᴱ√FILI > ᴱQ. filma ✧ QL/38
ɸilwa > filwa ɸ > f ᴱ√FILI > ᴱQ. filwa ✧ QL/38
ɸinðḷ > finðḷ ɸ > f ᴱ√FIŘI > ᴱQ. findl ✧ QL/38
ɸiŋgil > fiŋgil ɸ > f ᴱ√FIŊI > ᴱQ. fingil ✧ QL/38
ɸiŋgʷa > fiŋgʷa ɸ > f ᴱ√FIŊI > ᴱQ. fingwa ✧ QL/38
ɸinie > finie ɸ > f ᴱ√FINI > ᴱQ. finië ✧ LT1A/Finwë
ɸint > fint ɸ > f ᴱ√FINI > ᴱQ. fint ✧ QL/38
ɸinwa > finwa ɸ > f ᴱ√FINI > ᴱQ. finwa ✧ QL/38
ɸoɣa > foɣa ɸ > f ᴱ√FOƷO > ᴱQ. foa ✧ QL/38
ɸoɣina > foɣina ɸ > f ᴱ√FOƷO > ᴱQ. foina ✧ QL/38
ɸoɣle > foɣle ɸ > f ᴱ√FOƷO > ᴱQ. fôle ✧ QL/38
ɸoxa > foxa ɸ > f ᴱ√foχo > ᴱQ. foa ✧ GL/36
ɸum- > fum- ɸ > f ᴱ√FUMU > ᴱQ. fum- ✧ QL/39
ɸūme > fūme ɸ > f ᴱ√FUMU > ᴱQ. fūme ✧ QL/39
ɸurin > furin ɸ > f ᴱ√FURU > ᴱQ. furin ✧ QL/39
ɸuru > furu ɸ > f ᴱ√FURU > ᴱQ. furu ✧ LT2A/Gar Thurion
nuɸu- > nufu- ɸ > f ᴱ√NUFU > ᴱQ. nuvu- ✧ QL/68
teɸe- > tefe- ɸ > f ᴱ√TEFE > ᴱQ. teve- ✧ QL/90
teɸie > tefie ɸ > f ᴱ√TEFE > ᴱQ. tēvie ✧ QL/90
teɸin > tefin ɸ > f ᴱ√TEFE > ᴱQ. tevin ✧ QL/90
ulɸ- > ulf- ɸ > f ᴱ✶ > ᴱQ. ul- ✧ QL/97

ᴱQ. [β] became [v]; [β] > [v]

Reference ✧ PE12/24 ✧ phonetics

Phonetic Rule Elements

[β] > [v] ✧ PE12/16 (ƀ > v (w); medial); PE12/24 (ƀ > v)

Phonetic Rule Examples

aβ- > av- β > v ᴱ√AVA > ᴱQ. avin ✧ QL/33
aβande > avande β > v ᴱ√AVA > ᴱQ. avande ✧ QL/33
aβanwa > avanwa β > v ᴱ√AVA > ᴱQ. avanwa ✧ QL/33
balaβa- > balava- β > v ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palava- ✧ QL/71
balāβa- > balāva- β > v ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palāva ✧ QL/71
jaβ- > jav- β > v ᴱ√Ẏ̯AVA > ᴱQ. yavin ✧ QL/105
jāβa > jāva β > v ᴱ√Ẏ̯AVA > ᴱQ. yāva ✧ QL/105
kaβ- > kav- β > v ᴱ√KAVA > ᴱQ. kava- ✧ QL/45
koiβa > koiβa β > v ᴱ√KOI̯-VI > ᴱQ. koiva ✧ GL/29
koiβa > koiβa β > v ᴱ√KOẎO > ᴱQ. koiva ✧ QL/48
kʷīβa > kʷīva β > v ᴱ√QIV > ᴱQ. Qîva ✧ GL/29
laβ- > lav- β > v ᴱ√LAVA > ᴱQ. lava- ✧ QL/52
laβeard > laveard β > v ᴱ√LAVA > ᴱQ. lāvear ✧ QL/52
nāβe > nāve β > v ᴱ√NAVA > ᴱQ. nāve ✧ QL/64
naβillo > navillo β > v ᴱ√NAVA > ᴱQ. navillo ✧ QL/65
rāβi > rāvi β > v ᴱ√RAVA > ᴱQ. Râvi ✧ QL/79
raβin > ravin β > v ᴱ√RAVA > ᴱQ. ravin ✧ QL/79
siβilda > sivilda β > v ᴱ√SIVI > ᴱQ. sivilda ✧ QL/84
soβallu- > sovallu- β > v ᴱ√SOVO > ᴱQ. sovallu- ✧ QL/86
soβalna- > sovalna- β > v ᴱ√SOVO > ᴱQ. sovalna- ✧ QL/86
soβo- > sovo- β > v ᴱ√SOVO > ᴱQ. sovo- ✧ QL/86
suīβa > suīva β > v ᴱ√SUH͡YU > ᴱQ. suiva ✧ QL/86
taβar > tavar β > v ᴱ√TAVA > ᴱQ. tavar ✧ QL/90
taβas > tavas β > v ᴱ√TAVA > ᴱQ. tavas ✧ QL/90
tuβu- > tuvu- β > v ᴱ√TUVU > ᴱQ. tuvu- ✧ QL/96
tʲastʲaβa- > tʲastʲava- β > v ᴱ√TYASA > tyastyava > ᴱQ. tyastava- ✧ QL/49
tʲaβa- > tʲava- β > v #ᴱ√tyav- > ᴱQ. tyav- ✧ GL/24
tʲaβa- > tʲava- β > v ᴱ√TYAVA > ᴱQ. tyava- ✧ QL/49
ūβ- > ūv- β > v ᴱ√UVU > ᴱQ. ūv- ✧ QL/98
ūβa > ūva β > v ᴱ√Ū¹ > ᴱQ. ūva ✧ QL/96
βā > vā β > v ᴱ√VAHA > ᴱQ. vā² ✧ QL/99
βaðʲ > vaðʲ β > v ᴱ√VAẎA > ᴱQ. Vai ✧ QL/100
βaðʲle > vaðʲle β > v ᴱ√VAẎA > ᴱQ. vaile ✧ QL/100
βaðʲma > vaðʲma β > v ᴱ√VAẎA > ᴱQ. vaima ✧ QL/100
βaðʲne > vaðʲne β > v ᴱ√VAẎA > ᴱQ. vaine ✧ QL/100
βaðʲta- > vaðʲta- β > v ᴱ√VAẎA > ᴱQ. vaita- ✧ QL/100
βaðʲtʲa > vaðʲtʲa β > v ᴱ√VAẎA > ᴱQ. Vaitya ✧ QL/100
βajma > vajma β > v ᴱ√VAYA > ᴱQ. vaima ✧ LT1A/Vai
βajna > vajna β > v ᴱ√VAYA > ᴱQ. vaina ✧ LT1A/Vai
βakse > vakse β > v ᴱ√VAKA > ᴱQ. vakse ✧ QL/99
βakt > vakt β > v ᴱ√VAKA > ᴱQ. vakt- ✧ QL/99
βalar > valar β > v ᴱ√VALA > ᴱQ. Valar ✧ QL/99
βald > vald β > v ᴱ√VALA > ᴱQ. vald- ✧ QL/99
βalim > valim β > v ᴱ√VALA > ᴱQ. valin ✧ QL/99
βalis > valis β > v ᴱ√VALA > ᴱQ. Valis ✧ QL/99
βalon > valon β > v ᴱ√VALA > ᴱQ. Valon ✧ QL/99
βand > vand β > v ᴱ√VAHA > ᴱQ. vand- ✧ QL/99
βande > vande β > v ᴱ√VAHA > ᴱQ. vande ✧ QL/99
βande > vande β > v ᴱ√VANA > ᴱQ. vande ✧ QL/99
βane > vane β > v ᴱ√VANA > ᴱQ. vane ✧ QL/99
βaŋko > vaŋko β > v ᴱ√VAKA > ᴱQ. vanko ✧ QL/99
βanwa > vanwa β > v ᴱ√VAHA > ᴱQ. vanwa ✧ QL/99
βar > var β > v ᴱ√VARA > ᴱQ. var ✧ QL/100
βāra > vāra β > v ᴱ√VARA > ᴱQ. vāra ✧ QL/100
βarja > varja β > v ᴱ√VARA > ᴱQ. varya ✧ QL/100
βarne > varne β > v ᴱ√VARA > ᴱQ. varne ✧ QL/100
βasa- > vasa- β > v ᴱ√VASA > ᴱQ. vasin ✧ QL/100
βaska > vaska β > v ᴱ√VASA > ᴱQ. vaska ✧ QL/100
βassale > vassale β > v ᴱ√VASA > ᴱQ. vassale ✧ QL/100
βasse > vasse β > v ᴱ√VASA > ᴱQ. vasse ✧ QL/100
βasta > vasta β > v ᴱ√VAHA > ᴱQ. vasta- ✧ QL/99
βasta- > vasta- β > v ᴱ√VASA > ᴱQ. vastan ✧ QL/100
βax > vax β > v ᴱ√VAHA > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/99
βaxko > vaxko β > v ᴱ✶baχa > ᴱQ. vakko ✧ GL/21
βaxnḷ > vaxnḷ β > v ᴱ√VAHA > ᴱQ. vandl ✧ LT1A/Qalvanda
βe > ve β > v ᴱ√ > ᴱQ. ve ✧ QL/101
βeði > veði β > v ᴱ√VEŘE > ᴱQ. †veri ✧ QL/101
βeðse > veðse β > v ᴱ√VEŘE > ᴱQ. †vesse ✧ QL/101
βeðta- > veðta- β > v ᴱ√VEŘE > ᴱQ. vesta- ✧ QL/101
βeðta > veðta β > v ᴱ√VEŘE > ᴱQ. vesta ✧ QL/101
βeðtin > veðtin β > v ᴱ√VEŘE > ᴱQ. vestin ✧ QL/101
βeðu > veðu β > v ᴱ√VEŘE > ᴱQ. veru ✧ QL/101
βelka > velka β > v ᴱ√melek/mbelek/belek > ᴱQ. velka ✧ GL/22
βelte > velte β > v ᴱ√VETE > ᴱQ. velte ✧ QL/101
βelunte > velunte β > v ᴱ√VELU > ᴱQ. velunte ✧ QL/100
βene > vene β > v ᴱ√VENE > venē- > ᴱQ. vene ✧ QL/100
βenie > venie β > v ᴱ√VENE > ᴱQ. venie ✧ QL/100
βeniel > veniel β > v ᴱ√VENE > ᴱQ. veniel ✧ QL/100
βenta > venta β > v ᴱ√VETE > ᴱQ. venta ✧ QL/101
βenta- > venta- β > v ᴱ√VENE > ᴱQ. venta- ✧ QL/100
βīke > vīke β > v ᴱ√ > ᴱQ. vīke ✧ QL/101
βiksa > viksa β > v ᴱ√VIKI > ᴱQ. viksa ✧ QL/101
βikte > vikte β > v ᴱ√VIKI > ᴱQ. vikte ✧ QL/101
βīle > vīle β > v ᴱ√VILI > ᴱQ. vīle ✧ QL/101
βilina > vilina β > v ᴱ√VILI > ᴱQ. vilina ✧ QL/101
βilna > vilna β > v ᴱ√VILI > ᴱQ. Vilya ✧ QL/101
βite > vite β > v ᴱ√VITI > ᴱQ. vite ✧ QL/101
βiti- > viti- β > v ᴱ√VITI > ᴱQ. vitsĭ- ✧ QL/101
βītʲi > vītʲi β > v ᴱ√VIT͡YI > ᴱQ. vīsi- ✧ QL/101
βḹda > vḹda β > v ᴱ√VḶŘḶ > ᴱQ. valda ✧ QL/102
βḷð- > vḷð- β > v ᴱ√VḶŘḶ > ᴱQ. vildin ✧ QL/102
βḷð > vḷð β > v ᴱ√VḶŘḶ > ᴱQ. vil(d) ✧ QL/102
βḷk- > vḷk- β > v ᴱ√VḶKḶ > ᴱQ. vilkin ✧ QL/101
βḹka > vḹka β > v ᴱ√VḶKḶ > ᴱQ. valka ✧ QL/101
βḹke > vḹke β > v ᴱ√VḶKḶ > ᴱQ. valke ✧ QL/101
βḹke- > vḹke- β > v ᴱ√VḶKḶ > ᴱQ. valke ✧ QL/101
βḷkin > vḷkin β > v ᴱ√VḶKḶ > ᴱQ. vilkin ✧ QL/101
βḷte > vḷte β > v ᴱ√VḶTḶ > ᴱQ. -vilte ✧ QL/102
βor > vor β > v ᴱ√VORO > ᴱQ. vor ✧ QL/102
βōre > vōre β > v ᴱ√VŌRI > ᴱQ. vōre ✧ QL/102
βorne > vorne β > v ᴱ√VORO > ᴱQ. vorne ✧ QL/102
βṛð- > vṛð- β > v ᴱ√VṚDṚ > ᴱQ. vard- ✧ QL/102
βṝða > vṝða β > v ᴱ✶vṝđa > ᴱQ. Varda ✧ QL/102
βṛðni > vṛðni β > v ᴱ✶vṛ̆đní > ᴱQ. varni ✧ QL/102
βṛka > vṛka β > v ᴱ√VṚKṚ > ᴱQ. varka ✧ QL/102
βṛka- > vṛka- β > v ᴱ√VṚKṚ > ᴱQ. varkin ✧ QL/102
βṛkʷa > vṛkʷa β > v ᴱ√VṚKṚ > ᴱQ. varqa ✧ QL/102
βṛta > vṛta β > v ᴱ√vṛt- > ᴱQ. varta ✧ QL/102
βṛtʲ > vṛtʲ β > v ᴱ√VṚT͡YṚ > ᴱQ. virt ✧ QL/102
βṝtʲa- > vṝtʲa- β > v ᴱ√VṚT͡YṚ > ᴱQ. vartye ✧ QL/102
βṝtʲane > vṝtʲane β > v ᴱ√VṚT͡YṚ > ᴱQ. vartyane ✧ QL/102
βṛtʲir > vṛtʲir β > v ᴱ√VṚT͡YṚ > ᴱQ. virtir ✧ QL/102
βṝtʲo > vṝtʲo β > v ᴱ√VṚT͡YṚ > ᴱQ. vartyo ✧ QL/102