Q. intervocalic [ð] became [r]; [Vð{Vw}] > [Vr{Vw}]

Q. intervocalic [ð] became [r]; [Vð{Vw}] > [Vr{Vw}]

As noted in the entry on how voiced stops became spirants in Quenya, medial d usually became “a weak untrilled r or đ-like sound”. This lexicon denotes this sound as [ð] for consistency with other spirantalizations, but it eventually developed into a sound like [ɹ] (English untrilled “r”) which Tolkien denoted as ř. In the Ñoldorin dialect of Quenya, this ř sound ultimately became a normal trilled r [r], merging with primitive r and the r that developed from z. Tolkien described similar changes in both the Outline of Phonetic Development [OP1] from the 1930s and the Outline of Phonology [OP2] from the 1950s:

d ... medially between vowels it would appear to have been slightly retracted and to have become a weak untrilled [r], distinct from original r. The two sounds have distinct letters in early PQ spelling; but the distinction disappeared already in the classical period, a lightly trilled [r] being used for both (OP1: PE19/32).
d ... medially between vowels it appears to have been somewhat retracted, and to have become at first a weak untrilled r or đ-like sound distinct from original r. The two sounds have distinct letters in earlier Quenya spelling, which may be represented by r (original) and (derived from d). 7 = r, 6 = ř. In classical PQ spelling 8 (s) or k [z] was used for product of s, 6 for product of d, and 7 for original r (OP2: PE19/69-70).

In OP1, this phonetic development occurred in Parmaquesta [PQ] and was common to all dialects, and the same was true in the original draft of OP2 (PE19/70 note #9). But Tolkien revised this section in green ball point pen (used for revisions around 1970) so that the development to r was a Ñoldorin-only change, and the Vanyarin development was to z:

In the event this sound generally fell together with the z-product of (voiced) s. In Van[yarin] pronunciation both ř and z > z. In N[oldorin] ř and z > ř, and this later to r (same as original r). The spelling of both V. and N. (6) was thus normally used for products of medial d and s, and the special z-letter k both used. The N. (only) tended to use 6 for products of r (7), but this was considered incorrect by loremasters (OP2: PE19/70).

The full [d] > [ð] > [ɹ] > [r] phonetic development was described by Tolkien in notes on the history of ar “and”, probably from the mid-1960s:

Ad went through four stages of development: (1) archaic before records ad (2) early weakening (3) retraction to , an untrilled spirantal r (as commonly heard in English “dry”), (4) assimilation to normal r (PE17/71).

This phonetic development is also reflected in Tolkien’s description of the tengwar in The Lord of the Rings Appendix E:

Thus [tengwar] 21 [6] was often used for a weak (untrilled) r, originally occurring in Quenya and regarded in the system of that language as the weakest consonant of the tincotéma ... [Tengwar] 25 [7] (in origin a modification of 21) was used for “full” trilled r (LotR/1120-1).

In attested tengwar samples, 7 tended to be used for initial r and for r before vowels, whereas 6 was used for final r and for medial r before consonants, regardless of origin. In fact, the name of 6 (óre) was probably chosen because it had a medial r, as opposed to name of 7 (rómen) which had an initial r. The r in the word óre was not derived from d, so the name must have been coined after d > ð > r. The name óre makes more sense in the earlier OP1 scenario where this phonetic development occurred in PQ and may be a remnant of that idea, though in the Feanorian Alphabet documents from the 1940s the name of 6 was either rómen or rana, whereas 7 was ráma (PE22/22, 50).

In the 1950s, Tolkien mentioned that d > r before the semi-vowels y and w as well: “d became r, as between vowels, before y, w (OP2: PE19/94 note #123)”. This is reflected in examples from The Etymologies of the 1930s:

He modified this rule in green ball point in OP2 around 1970, so that medial dy > ly, as discussed in the entry on how [dj] became [lj]:

d became r, as between vowels, before w ... Phonetically dy > ly (owing to greater tensity[?] of d + y), cf. initial ly < dy or < gy (OP2: PE19/94).

The only example of medial dy > ly was written around the same time: ✶kwenedyā > Q. †quenelya, an archaic adjective with the same meaning as Quenderin (OP2: PE19/93 note #116).

In other combinations, d/ð was often modified, such as being unvoiced when combined with voiceless sounds or in combination with other stops, remaining a stop after nasals, or restopping after liquids. Thus d > ð > r primarily between vowels and before semivowels w and (sometimes) y.

Conceptual Development: In the 1910s these developments were complicated by the fact that đ [ð] was part of the phonetic inventory of Primitive Elvish. Nevertheless, Tolkien had medial d > r in Early Qenya (PE12/15-16), but in the 1910s it passed through z in the process: “đ > z > r everywhere, except ... [with exceptions similar those listed above] (PE12/24)”.

As noted above, d > ð > r was a change in PQ in the 1930s, and remained so in the first draft of OP2 from the early 1950s. It is not clear exactly when Tolkien decided this was a Ñoldorin-only sound change in TQ, but he mentioned it in a discussion of omentielmo vs. omentielvo, so it must at least predate the publication of the second edition of The Lord of the Rings:

In this respect EQ [Exhilic Quenya] represented the recognition of sound-changes which had begun among the Noldor before the Exile and had already caused Noldorin Quenya to diverge from the language of the Vanyar. The principal of these were: 1. the change of both z (from s) and ř (from d) to r ... (PE17/129).

References ✧ PE17/129; PE19/69, 94; PE22/149

Order (03700)

After 01900 medial [ð], [z] dissimilated to [l], [s] after [r]
Before 03800 [z] became [r]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[VðV] > [VrV] ✧ PE19/69 (đ > ř; medially between vowels)
[Vðw] > [Vrw]
[Vðj] > [Vrj]

Phonetic Rule Examples

að- > ar- VðV > VrV ad(ă)/ad > Q. ar- ✧ PE17/71
auða > aura VðV > VrV AW > auda > Q. aura ✧ PE22/151
auðel > aurel VðV > VrV aw(a)delo > Q. Aurel ✧ WJ/363
hāðo > hāro VðV > VrV khādo > hāzo > Q. hāro ✧ PE22/148
hauða > haura VðV > VrV KHAWAD > hauza > Q. haura ✧ PE19/91
hauða > haura VðV > VrV KHAW > Q. haura ✧ PE19/92
īðe > īre VðV > VrV ID > Q. #ír- ✧ PE17/112
īðe > īre VðV > VrV ᴹ✶īdē > ᴹQ. íre ✧ Ety/ID
īðima > īrima VðV > VrV ID > Q. írima ✧ PE17/112
joð- > jor- VðV > VrV YOD > Q. yor- ✧ PE17/43
leðembas > lerembas VðV > VrV led(e)mbasse > Q. lerembas ✧ PE17/52
niðe > nire VðV > VrV NID > Q. níre ✧ PE22/165
niðin > nirin VðV > VrV NID > Q. nirin ✧ PE22/165
niðin > nirin VðV > VrV NID > Q. nirin ✧ VT41/17
oaðel > oarel VðV > VrV awādelo > Q. Oärel ✧ WJ/363
siða > sira VðV > VrV sidā̆ > Q. sira ✧ VT49/18

ᴹQ. intervocalic [ð] became [r]; [Vð{Vw}] > [Vr{Vw}]

Reference ✧ PE19/32

Order (01800)

After 01700 medial [ð] dissimilated to [l] after [r]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[VðV] > [VrV] ✧ PE19/51 (d > r)
[Vðw] > [Vrw]
[Vðj] > [Vrj]

Phonetic Rule Examples

hað- > had- VðV > VrV ᴹ√KHAD > ᴹQ. har- ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
sjað- > j̊ar- VðV > VrV ᴹ√SYAD > ᴹQ. hyar- ✧ PE19/45
sjaðe > j̊are VðV > VrV ᴹ√SYAD > ᴹQ. hyare ✧ PE22/102
sjaðin > j̊arin VðV > VrV ᴹ√SYAD > ᴹQ. hyarin ✧ Ety/SYAD
lāða > lāra VðV > VrV ᴹ✶lāda > ᴹQ. lára ✧ Ety/DAL
lāða > lāra VðV > VrV ᴹ√LAD > ᴹQ. lāra ✧ EtyAC/LAD
með- > mer- VðV > VrV ᴹ√MED > ᴹQ. mere ✧ PE22/102
reðin > rerin VðV > VrV ᴹ√RED > ᴹQ. rerin ✧ Ety/RED
seðe > sere VðV > VrV ᴹ√SED > ᴹQ. sere ✧ PE22/102
sēðe > sēre VðV > VrV ᴹ√SED > ᴹQ. sére ✧ Ety/SED
seðin > serin VðV > VrV ᴹ√SED > ᴹQ. serin ✧ Ety/SED
wað- > war- VðV > VrV ᴹ√WAD > ᴹQ. ware ✧ PE22/102
wēðē > wērē VðV > VrV ᴹ✶wǣdē > ᴹQ. vēre ✧ Ety/WED
maðja > marja Vðj > Vrj ᴹ√MAD > ᴹQ. marya ✧ Ety/MAD
maðja > marja Vðj > Vrj ᴹ√MAD > ᴹQ. marya ✧ EtyAC/MAD
niðwā > nirwā Vðw > Vrw ᴹ✶nidwō > ᴹQ. nirwa ✧ Ety/NID
niðwa > nirwa Vðw > Vrw ᴹ√NID² > ᴹQ. nirwa ✧ EtyAC/NID²
niðwe > nirwe Vðw > Vrw ᴹ√NID² > ᴹQ. nirwe ✧ EtyAC/NID²

ᴱQ. [ð] became [z]; [ð] > [z]

References ✧ PE12/20, 24

Order ()

After final voiceless spirants were weakened and voiced
After voiced stops became spirants after vowels
Before [z] became [r]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ð] > [z] ✧ PE12/16 (đ > z; medial); PE12/20 (đ > z); PE12/24 (đ > z)

Phonetic Rule Examples

amboðt > ambozt ð > z ᴱ✶a-mbod-t’ > ᴱQ. ambos ✧ PE13/139
boðta > bozta ð > z ᴱ√BOÐO > ᴱQ. posta ✧ QL/75
dʲeðe > dʲeze ð > z ᴱ√DYEÐE > ᴱQ. ’yere ✧ QL/105
eðe- > ere- ð > z ᴱ√ERE/ESE > ᴱQ. ere- ✧ QL/36
eðu > eru ð > z ᴱ√ERE/ESE > ᴱQ. eru ✧ QL/36
eðuzmāni > ezuzmāni ð > z ᴱ✶eruᶻmāni > ᴱQ. Erumāni ✧ QL/36
faða > faza ð > z ᴱ✶swada > ᴱQ. fara ✧ PE13/146
fiðin > fizin ð > z ᴱ√FIŘI > ᴱQ. firin ✧ QL/38
hað > haz ð > z ᴱ√HAŘA > ᴱQ. har(e) ✧ QL/39
hað- > haz- ð > z ᴱ√HAŘA > ᴱQ. harin ✧ QL/39
ɣūðion > ɣūzion ð > z ᴱ√UŘU > ᴱQ. Ūrion ✧ QL/98
ɣuðja- > ɣuzja- ð > z ᴱ√UŘU > ᴱQ. urya- ✧ QL/98
ɣuðna > ɣuzna ð > z ᴱ√UŘU > ᴱQ. urna ✧ QL/98
ɣuðta- > ɣuzta- ð > z ᴱ√UŘU > ᴱQ. usta- ✧ QL/98
-ɣʷðand- > -ɣʷzand- ð > z ᴱ√ẆAÐA > ᴱQ. -urand- ✧ QL/102
iðin > izin ð > z ᴱ√IŘI > ᴱQ. irin ✧ QL/43
iðmin > izmin ð > z ᴱ√IŘI > ᴱQ. irmin ✧ QL/43
jaða > jaza ð > z ᴱ√YAÐA > ᴱQ. yara ✧ QL/105
kiðme > kizme ð > z ᴱ√KIŘI > ᴱQ. kirme ✧ QL/47
kʷiði- > kʷizi- ð > z ᴱ√QIŘI > ᴱQ. qiri- ✧ QL/77
kʷiðin > kʷizin ð > z ᴱ√QIŘI > ᴱQ. qirin ✧ QL/77
kʷiðme > kʷizme ð > z ᴱ√QIŘI > ᴱQ. ‽qirme ✧ QL/77
kʷoðin > kʷozin ð > z ᴱ√QOŘO > ᴱQ. qorin ✧ QL/78
kʷoðo- > kʷozo- ð > z ᴱ√QOŘO > ᴱQ. qoro- ✧ QL/78
kʷoðse > kʷozse ð > z ᴱ√QOŘO > ᴱQ. qosse ✧ QL/78
kʷoðta- > kʷozta- ð > z ᴱ√QOŘO > ᴱQ. qosta- ✧ QL/78
lað > laz ð > z ᴱ√LAŘA > ᴱQ. lar ✧ QL/51
laðma > lazma ð > z ᴱ√LAŘA > ᴱQ. larma ✧ QL/51
liði- > lizi- ð > z ᴱ√LIŘI > ᴱQ. liri- ✧ QL/54
liðilla > lizilla ð > z ᴱ√LIŘI > ᴱQ. lirilla ✧ QL/54
maðilla > mazilla ð > z ‽ᴱ√MARA > ᴱQ. marilla ✧ QL/59
ndoðn > ndozn ð > z ‽ᴱ√NOŘO > ᴱQ. nor ✧ QL/67
ndoðne > ndozne ð > z ‽ᴱ√NOŘO > ᴱQ. norne ✧ QL/67
neðs > nezs ð > z ᴱ√NEŘE > ᴱQ. †nes ✧ QL/66
ŋgʷeðil > ŋgʷezil ð > z ᴱ√ŋgu̯eđe > ᴱQ. meril ✧ GL/45
nʲaða- > nʲaza- ð > z ᴱ√NYAŘA > ᴱQ. NYAŘA ✧ QL/68
nʲaða > nʲaza ð > z ᴱ√NYAŘA > ᴱQ. nyara ✧ QL/68
ōðe > ōze ð > z ᴱ√OŘO > ᴱQ. ōre ✧ QL/70
ōðome > ōzome ð > z ᴱ√OŘO > ᴱQ. Orome ✧ QL/71
ōðonte > ōzonte ð > z ᴱ√OŘO > ᴱQ. oronte ✧ QL/70
ōðonto > ōzonto ð > z ᴱ√OŘO > ᴱQ. oronto ✧ QL/70
oðto > ozto ð > z ᴱ√OŘO > ᴱQ. osto ✧ QL/71
puðind > puzind ð > z ᴱ√PUŘU > ᴱQ. purin ✧ QL/76
puðja- > puzja- ð > z ᴱ√PUŘU > ᴱQ. purya- ✧ QL/75
puðma > puzma ð > z ᴱ√PUŘU > ᴱQ. purma ✧ QL/75
puðn > puzn ð > z ᴱ√PUŘU > ᴱQ. pur ✧ QL/75
puðt > puzt ð > z ᴱ√PUŘU > ᴱQ. pus ✧ QL/75
puðu- > puzu- ð > z ᴱ√PUŘU > ᴱQ. puru- ✧ QL/75
raða- > raza- ð > z ᴱ√RAŘA > ᴱQ. rara- ✧ QL/79
raðta > razta ð > z ᴱ√RAŘA > ᴱQ. rasta ✧ QL/79
reðo > rezo ð > z ᴱ√reðe > ᴱQ. rēro ✧ QL/79
reðse > rezse ð > z ᴱ√reðe > ᴱQ. resse ✧ QL/79
saxsōða > saxsōza ð > z ᴱ✶saχsōđa > ᴱQ. saxóra ✧ PE12/18
saxsōða > saxsōza ð > z ᴱ✶saχ-sōđā > ᴱQ. saxóra ✧ PE12/21
saxxōða > saxxōza ð > z ᴱ✶saχsōđa > ᴱQ. Sahóra ✧ PE12/18
saxxōða > saxxōza ð > z ᴱ✶saχ-sōđā > ᴱQ. Sahóra ✧ PE12/21
sīðe > sīze ð > z ᴱ√SIŘI > ᴱQ. sīre ✧ QL/84
siði- > sizi- ð > z ᴱ√SIŘI > ᴱQ. siri- ✧ QL/84
sōða > sōza ð > z ᴱ√SOŘO > ᴱQ. sōra ✧ QL/86
soðo- > sozo- ð > z ᴱ√SOŘO > ᴱQ. soro ✧ QL/86
soðta- > sozta- ð > z ᴱ√SOŘO > ᴱQ. sosta- ✧ QL/85
soðto- > sozto- ð > z ᴱ√SOŘO > ᴱQ. sosto- ✧ QL/86
soðto- > sozto- ð > z ᴱ√SOŘO > ᴱQ. sosto ✧ QL/86
taxsōða > taxsōza ð > z ᴱ✶taχ-sṓđā́ > ᴱQ. tahóra ✧ PE12/21
taxsōða > taxsōza ð > z ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. †tahōra ✧ QL/87
tað > taz ð > z ᴱ√TAÐA > ᴱQ. tar ✧ QL/87
taðasse > tazasse ð > z ᴱ√TAÐA > ᴱQ. tarasse ✧ QL/87
taðwa > tazwa ð > z ᴱ√TAÐA > ᴱQ. tarwa ✧ QL/87
teðekt > tezekt ð > z ᴱ√TEŘE > ᴱQ. teret ✧ QL/91
teðen > tezen ð > z ᴱ√TEŘE > ᴱQ. ‽teren ✧ QL/91
teðte > tezte ð > z ᴱ√TEŘE > ᴱQ. teste ✧ QL/91
tiðind > tizind ð > z ᴱ√TIŘI > ᴱQ. tirin ✧ QL/93
tiðiond > tiziond ð > z ᴱ√TIŘI > ᴱQ. tirion ✧ QL/93
tiðiost > tiziost ð > z ᴱ√TIŘI > ᴱQ. tirios ✧ QL/93
tuðja- > tuzja- ð > z ᴱ√TUŘU > ᴱQ. turya- ✧ QL/96
tuðture > tuzture ð > z ᴱ√TUŘU > ᴱQ. tusture ✧ QL/96
tuðu > tuzu ð > z ᴱ√TUŘU > ᴱQ. turu ✧ QL/96
θʲaðm > θʲazm ð > z ᴱ√HYAŘA > ᴱQ. hyar ✧ QL/41
veði > vezi ð > z ᴱ√VEŘE > ᴱQ. †veri ✧ QL/101
veðu > vezu ð > z ᴱ√VEŘE > ᴱQ. veru ✧ QL/101