ᴱQ. initial voiced stops became voiceless; [{bdggʷ}-] > [{ptkkʷ}-]

⚠️ᴱQ. initial voiced stops became voiceless; [{bdggʷ}-] > [{ptkkʷ}-]

Reference ✧ PE12/17

Order ()

After initial [gʷ] became [w]
After palatals became dentals before [i]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[b-] > [p-]
[d-] > [t-]
[g-] > [k-]
[gʷ-] > [kʷ-]

Phonetic Rule Examples

balava- > palava- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palava- ✧ QL/71
balāva- > palāva- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palāva ✧ QL/71
balis > palis b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palis ✧ QL/71
balo > palo b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palo ✧ QL/71
balta > palta b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palta ✧ QL/71
balwa- > palwa- b- > p- ᴱ√PALA > ᴱQ. palwa- ✧ QL/71
bē > pē b- > p- ᴱ√ > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/72
bondo > pondo b- > p- ᴱ√BOÐO > ᴱQ. pondo ✧ QL/75
bonte > ponte b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. ponte ✧ QL/75
bosta > posta b- > p- ᴱ√BOÐO > ᴱQ. posta ✧ QL/75
bote > pote b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. pote ✧ QL/75
botsi > potsi b- > p- ᴱ√POT-I > ᴱQ. potsi ✧ QL/75
bulko > pulko b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulko ✧ QL/75
bulme > pulme b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulme ✧ QL/75
bulu- > pulu- b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulu- ✧ QL/75
bulwa > pulwa b- > p- ᴱ√PULU > ᴱQ. pulwa ✧ QL/75
burja- > purja- b- > p- ᴱ✶búrı̯ā > ᴱQ. purya ✧ PE13/116
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ✶dagā́ > ᴱQ. tá- ✧ PE13/161
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/87
da > ta d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. ✧ QL/87
dā > tā d- > t- ᴱ✶da’a > > ᴱQ. ✧ PE13/142
dajorme > tajorme d- > t- ᴱ√TAʕA > ᴱQ. tayorme ✧ QL/87
dāra > tāra d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. tāra ✧ QL/87
daramb > taramb d- > t- ᴱ√TARAMA > ᴱQ. taran ✧ QL/89
dāri > tāri d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > ᴱQ. tāri ✧ QL/87
darwa > tarwa d- > t- ᴱ✶dar’wa- > ᴱQ. tarwa ✧ PE13/161
dorme > torme d- > t- ᴱ√TAHA > tahorme > taorme > ᴱQ. torme ✧ QL/87
gala- > kala- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kala- ✧ QL/44
gala > kala g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kala ✧ QL/44
galaine > kalaine g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalaine ✧ QL/44
gāle > kāle g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kále ✧ QL/44
galenda > kalenda g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalenda ✧ QL/44
galle > kalle g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalle ✧ QL/44
gallu- > kallu- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kal(l)u- ✧ QL/44
galma > kalma g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalma ✧ QL/44
galmarn > kalmarn g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalmar ✧ QL/44
galta- > kalta- g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalta- ✧ QL/44
galwa > kalwa g- > k- ᴱ√KALA > ᴱQ. kalwa ✧ QL/44
gargo > kargo g- > k- ᴱ✶grgu- > ᴱQ. karko ✧ PE13/144
garθa- > karθa- g- > k- ᴱ√gṛþ- > ᴱQ. karda ✧ GL/42
giw- > kiw- g- > k- ᴱ√giu̯i > ᴱQ. kiu̯ ✧ GL/39
gōpa > kōpa g- > k- ᴱ√KOPO > ᴱQ. kópa ✧ QL/47
gos > kos g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kos ✧ QL/48
gosar > kosar g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kosar ✧ QL/48
gosta- > kosta- g- > k- ᴱ√KOSO > ᴱQ. kosta- ✧ QL/48
gwin > kwin g- > k- ᴱ√QIMI > ᴱQ. qin ✧ QL/77
gwinde > kwinde g- > k- ᴱ√QIMI > ᴱQ. (i) qinde ✧ QL/77
gʷen > kʷen gʷ- > kʷ- ᴱ✶Gwendi- > ᴱQ. Qen ✧ PE13/146