Q. intervocalic [j] diphthongized after long vowel; [V̄jV] > [VijV]

Q. intervocalic [j] diphthongized after long vowel; [V̄jV] > [VijV]

In cases where j survived between vowels (specifically after long vowels), it expanded into ij to form a diphthong with the preceding vowel. Tolkien described this development in the Outline of Phonetic Development [OP1] from the 1930s:

After long vowels y, w remained and w was strengthened to TQ v. So māya, rāwa [rāva]. In the case of māya there was a tendency to mā̆iya, often represented in spelling maia, maiya (OP1: PE19/62).

In addition to Q. Maia, examples include:

This change did not apply to ēya or ūya however:

Tolkien sometimes gave variant forms with both aiya and aia, such as:

See also the rule whereby [ij], [uw] became [i], [u]

Conceptual Development: In Qenyaqetsa of the 1910s Tolkien gave numerous examples of áı̯-, óı̯-, úı̯- > aiy-, oiy-, uiy- (PE12/12), but here the accent indicates stress rather than length, and the numerous variant forms make it difficult to puzzle out Tolkien’s intent.

Order (00600)

After 03800 AQ. [j], [w] often reduced between vowels

Phonetic Rule Elements

[āja] > [aija]
[ōja] > [oija]

Phonetic Rule Examples

āja > aija āja > aija AYA > Q. Aiya ✧ PE17/146
āja > aija āja > aija AYA > aiya > Q. aia ✧ PE17/149
ājan > aijan āja > aija áyan > Q. aian ✧ PE17/149
lājā > laijā āja > aija lājā > Q. laia ✧ PE22/153
lājā > laijā āja > aija lājā > Q. laia ✧ VT49/13
māja > maija āja > aija MAY > máya > Q. maia ✧ PE17/163
māja > maija āja > aija MAY > máya > Q. maia ✧ PE17/163
mājar > maijar āja > aija MAY > Q. Maiar ✧ PE17/163
mōja- > moija- ōja > oija mōjă > Q. moia- ✧ VT43/31

ᴹQ. intervocalic [j] diphthongized after long vowel; [V̄jV] > [VijV]

@@@ PE19/62

Reference ✧ PE19/62

Order (00600)

After 03900 ᴹAQ. [j], [w] often reduced between vowels

Phonetic Rule Elements

[āja] > [aija]

Phonetic Rule Examples

māja > maija āja > aija ᴹ✶māya > mā̆iya > ᴹQ. maia ✧ PE19/62
wājā > waija āja > aija ᴹ✶wā́yā > ᴹQ. Vaiya ✧ Ety/GEY
wājā > waija āja > aija ᴹ✶wāyā > waia > ᴹQ. vaia ✧ Ety/WAY
wājā > waija āja > aija ᴹ✶wāyā > waiya > ᴹQ. vaiya ✧ Ety/WAY
wājaro > waijaro āja > aija ᴹ✶wā́yārō̆/Vā́yārō̆ > ᴹQ. Vaiaro ✧ Ety/WAY

ᴱQ. intervocalic [ū], [ī] became [uw], [ij]; [VūV|VīV] > [VuwV|VijV]

References ✧ PE12/8, 10, 12

Order (03700)

Before [ei], [ou] became [ai], [au]
Before 04300 [w] became [v] after [u] and [o] and before [o]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[VūV] > [VuwV]
[VīV] > [VijV]

Phonetic Rule Examples

paīan > paijan VīV > VijV ᴱ✶pah͡y-īand > păχī́ănd > pắ(h)īăn(d) > ᴱQ. paiyan ✧ PE12/8
naūa > nauwa VūV > VuwV ᴱ✶naχū́a > naū́a > náuwa > ᴱQ. nauva ✧ PE12/10