ᴹAQ. [j], [w] often reduced between vowels; [V̆{jw}V] > [VV]

ᴹAQ. [j], [w] often reduced between vowels; [V̆{jw}V] > [VV]

References ✧ PE19/62-63; PE22/114

Order (03900)

After 02000 aspirates became voiceless spirants
After 03500 unstressed medial long vowels shortened ᴹ✶farāyā́ > fárăyā > ᴹQ. farea PE22/111
After 03700 [ɣ] between a vowel and [e] and became [j]
After 03700 [jei], [wou] became [jē], [wō]
Before 00400 ᴹQ. [ei], [ou] generally became [ī], [ū]
Before 00500 ᴹQ. [ji], [wu] became [i], [u]
Before 00600 ᴹQ. intervocalic [j] diphthongized after long vowel
Before 03200 ᴹQ. [w] became [v] initially and between vowels

Phonetic Rule Elements

[aja] > [ea]
[aje] > [ie]
[ajo] > [eo]
[eja] > [ia]
[eje] > [ie]
[ije] > [ie]
[eja] > [ea]
[awa] > [oa]
[owa] > [oa]
[owo] > [uo]
[oja] > [oia]
[uwa] > [ua]
[uja] > [uia]

Phonetic Rule Examples

ajar > ear aja > ea ᴹ√ÁYAR > ᴹQ. ear ✧ Ety/AY
kantaja > kantea aja > ea ᴹ✶kantaya > ᴹQ. kantea ✧ PE19/63
ɸarajā > ɸarea aja > ea ᴹ✶farāyā́ > fárăyā > ᴹQ. farea ✧ PE22/111
ɸajanāro > ɸeanāro aja > ea ᴹ✶Phay-anāro > ᴹQ. Feanáro ✧ Ety/PHAY
lajō > leo ajo > eo ᴹ✶daı̯ō > ᴹQ. leo ✧ Ety/DAY
eja > ea eja > ea ᴹ✶eʒyā > ᴹQ. ëa ✧ PE22/122
ɣeja > ɣia eja > ia ᴹ✶geı̯ā > ᴹQ. ia ✧ Ety/GEY
eja > ia eja > ia ᴹ✶eı̯ā > ᴹQ. ia ✧ Ety/EY
neje > nie eje > ie ᴹ√NEI̯ > ᴹQ. nie ✧ Ety/NEI
neje > nie eje > ie ᴹ✶neñē > neʒe > ᴹQ. nie ✧ EtyAC/NEI
tejē > tie eje > ie ᴹ✶teʒē > ᴹQ. tie ✧ Ety/TEƷ
wejē > wie eje > ie ᴹ✶weʒē > ᴹQ. vie ✧ Ety/WEG
-ije > -ie ije > ie ᴹ✶ > ᴹQ. #-ie ✧ PE22/99
-ije > -ie ije > ie ᴹ√ > ᴹQ. -ie ✧ EtyAC/YĒ
oja > oia oja > oia ᴹ√OY > ᴹQ. oia ✧ PE22/125
ojale > oiale oja > oia ᴹ√OY > ᴹQ. oiale ✧ Ety/OY
ŋgowa > ŋgoa owa > oa ᴹ√ÑGŌ̆W > ᴹQ. noa ✧ EtyAC/ÑGŌ̆W
towa > toa owa > oa ᴹ√TOW > ᴹQ. toa ✧ Ety/TOW
xoworē > xuorē owo > uo ᴹ✶Khō-gorē > ᴹQ. Huore ✧ Ety/KHŌ-N
tuja- > tuia- uja > uia ᴹ√TUY > ᴹQ. tuia ✧ Ety/TUY
kukuwā > kukua uwa > ua ᴹ✶kukūwā > ᴹQ. kukua ✧ Ety/KŪ

ᴱQ. [ai] became [e] before unstressed [a], [o] or [u], but [aj] before stressed [a], [o] or [u]; [ai{auo}|ai{áóú}] > [eø{auo}|aj{áóú}]

References ✧ PE12/11-13

Phonetic Rule Elements

[aia] > [ea] ✧ PE12/12 (áı̯a > ea)
[aio] > [eo] ✧ PE12/12 (áı̯o > eo (aiyo))
[aiu] > [eu] ✧ PE12/12 (áı̯u > eu (aiyu))
[aiá] > [ajá] ✧ PE12/13 (aı̯á > aya)
[aió] > [ajó] ✧ PE12/13 (aı̯ó > ayo)
[aiú] > [ajú] ✧ PE12/13 (aı̯ú > ayu)

ᴱQ. [au] became [o] before unstressed vowel, but [aw] before stressed vowel; [au{ieao}|au{íéáó}] > [oø{ieao}|aw{íéáó}]

References ✧ PE12/11-14

Order (03300)

After 02700 [jǝ], [wǝ] became [je], [wo] after a vowel
Before 03900 [oe] became [oa]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[aui] > [oi] ✧ PE12/12 (áu̯i > oi (ávi))
[aue] > [oe] ✧ PE12/12 (áu̯e > oe (ávo))
[aua] > [oa] ✧ PE12/12 (áu̯a > oa)
[auo] > [ō] ✧ PE12/12 (áu̯o > ō (ávo))
[auí] > [awí] ✧ PE12/13 (au̯í > awí)
[aué] > [awé] ✧ PE12/13 (au̯é > awé)
[auá] > [awá] ✧ PE12/13 (au̯á > awá)
[auó] > [awó] ✧ PE12/13 (au̯ó > avó)

Phonetic Rule Examples

laua > loa aua > oa ᴱ√LAW̯A > ᴱQ. Loa ✧ QL/52
maua > moa aua > oa ᴱ√MAWA > mawa > ᴱQ. moa ✧ QL/60
mauar > moar aua > oa ᴱ✶mau̯ard- > ᴱQ. moar ✧ PE12/14
raua > roa aua > oa ᴱ✶raw̯a > ᴱQ. roa ✧ QL/79
lauista- > loista- aui > oi ᴱ√LAW̯A > ᴱQ. loista ✧ QL/52
lauite > loite aui > oi ᴱ√LAW̯A > law̯iti- > ᴱQ. loite ✧ QL/52
auárna > awárna auá > awá ᴱ√AW̯A > ᴱQ. avarna ✧ QL/33
mauárdi > mawárdi auá > awá ᴱ✶mau̯ardī > ᴱQ. mawardi ✧ PE12/14
mauárdo > mawárdo auá > awá ᴱ√MAWA > ᴱQ. mavardo ✧ QL/60
auésta > awésta aué > awé ᴱ✶awestá > ᴱQ. avesta ✧ PE13/137
auésta > awésta aué > awé ᴱ✶awestá > ᴱQ. avesta ✧ PE13/160

ᴱQ. [ou] became [u] before [e] and [o], but [o] before [i] and [a]; [ou{eo}|ou{ia}] > [uø{eo}|oø{ia}]

@@@ counterexample: ua (GL/61)

References ✧ PE12/11-13

Order (03400)

After 02700 [jǝ], [wǝ] became [je], [wo] after a vowel
Before [ei], [ou] became [ai], [au]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[oue] > [ue] ✧ PE12/12 (óu̯e > ue (oa)); PE12/13 (ou̯é > ué (oá))
[ouo] > [uo] ✧ PE12/12 (óu̯o > uo); PE12/13 (ou̯ó > )
[oui] > [oi] ✧ PE12/12 (óu̯i > oi (ui)); PE12/13 (ou̯í > oi (ui))
[oua] > [oa] ✧ PE12/12 (óu̯a > oa (ua)); PE12/13 (ou̯á > )

Phonetic Rule Examples

noua > nua oua > oa ᴱ√NŌ/NOWO‽/NONO‽ > ᴱQ. nua ✧ QL/67
oua > oa oua > oa ᴱ√OWO > ᴱQ. oa ✧ QL/34
oua > oa oua > oa ᴱ√OWO > ᴱQ. oa ✧ QL/71
oualle > oalle oua > oa ᴱ√OWO > ᴱQ. oalle ✧ QL/71
toua > toa oua > oa ᴱ✶tou̯ > ᴱQ. toa ✧ GL/71
oua > ua oua > oa ᴱ✶ou̯a > ᴱQ. ua ✧ GL/61
oue > ue oue > ue ᴱ✶ou̯χe > ᴱQ. ue ✧ QL/71
oue > ue oue > ue ᴱ√OWO > ᴱQ. UE ✧ QL/97
souile > soile oui > oi ᴱ√SOW̯O > ᴱQ. soile ✧ QL/86
souina > soina oui > oi ᴱ√SOW̯O > ᴱQ. soina ✧ QL/86
kouo > kuo ouo > uo ᴱ√KOHO > koχuo > ᴱQ. kuo ✧ QL/47
nouo > nuo ouo > uo ᴱ√NŌ/NOWO‽/NONO‽ > ᴱQ. nuo ✧ QL/66