ᴹAQ. aspirates became voiceless spirants; [{ptk}ʰ] > [{ɸθx}]

ᴹAQ. aspirates became voiceless spirants; [{ptk}ʰ] > [{ɸθx}]

References ✧ PE19/30, 44; PE22/15

Order (02000)

After 01100 [r] became [s] after voiceless stops and aspirates
After 01700 [n], [m] became [t], [w] after aspirates
After 01800 nasals became voiceless stops before aspirates
After 01900 aspirates became voiceless stops after voiceless stops
Before 03900 [j], [w] often reduced between vowels
Before 00100 ᴹQ. [nm], [ŋm] became [nw], [ŋgw]
Before 00700 ᴹQ. spirants became stops after [r], [l]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[pʰ] > [ɸ] ✧ PE19/37 (ph > f); PE19/50 (ph > ph); PE19/50 (phy > phy); PE19/51 (lph > lph); PE19/51 (rph > rph)
[tʰ] > [θ] ✧ PE19/37 (th > th); PE19/51 (lthy > lthy; rare); PE19/50 (th > th); PE19/50 (thy > thy); PE19/50 (thw > thw); PE19/51 (lth > lth); PE19/51 (rth > rth); PE19/51 (rthy > rthy)
[kʰ] > [x] ✧ PE19/51 (lkh > lkh); PE19/51 (lkhy > lkhy; rare); PE19/51 (lkhw > lkhw; rare); PE19/51 (rkh > rkh); PE19/51 (rkhw > rkhw); PE19/51 (rkhy > rkhy)

Phonetic Rule Examples

lakʰe > lakʰe kʰ > x ᴹ√LAKH > ᴹQ. lahe ✧ PE22/102
mbaŋkʰa- > mbaŋxa- kʰ > x ᴹ√MBAKH > ᴹQ. manka- ✧ Ety/MBAKH
nakʰam- > naxam- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAM² > ᴹQ. naham- ✧ EtyAC/KHAM²
nakʰāme > naxāme kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAM² > ᴹQ. nahāme ✧ EtyAC/KHAM²
orkʰal- > orxal- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAL > ᴹQ. orhale ✧ PE22/103
tarkʰil > tarxil kʰ > x ᴹ✶tāra-khil > ᴹQ. Tarkil ✧ Ety/KHIL
kʰad- > xad- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAD > ᴹQ. har- ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
kʰaimē > xaimē kʰ > x ᴹ✶khaimē > ᴹQ. haime ✧ Ety/KHIM
kʰaira > xaira kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAYA > ᴹQ. haira ✧ Ety/KHAYA
kʰāja > xāja kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAYA > ᴹQ. hāya ✧ Ety/KHAYA
kʰakta > xakta kʰ > x ᴹ✶khagda > ᴹQ. hahta ✧ Ety/KHAG
kʰala > xala kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAL¹ > ᴹQ. hala ✧ Ety/KHAL¹
kʰala > xala kʰ > x ᴹ✶khala > ᴹQ. hala ✧ EtyAC/KHAL¹
kʰalatirn > xalatirn kʰ > x ᴹ✶khalatirnō̆ > ᴹQ. halatir ✧ Ety/TIR
kʰalda > xalda kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAL > ᴹQ. halda ✧ PE22/103
kʰam- > xam- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAM > ᴹQ. ham- ✧ Ety/KHAM
kʰam- > xam- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAM > ᴹQ. hame ✧ PE22/103
kʰam- > xam- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAM > ᴹQ. ham- ✧ PE22/125
kʰamwa > xamwa kʰ > x ᴹ✶harat/hamwa > ᴹQ. hamma ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
kʰanako > xanako kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAN-AK > ᴹQ. hanako ✧ EtyAC/KHAN-AK
kʰanda > xanda kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAN > ᴹQ. handa ✧ Ety/KHAN
kʰanda > xanda kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAD > ᴹQ. ?handa ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
kʰande > xande kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAN > ᴹQ. hande ✧ Ety/KHAN
kʰanja- > xanja- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAN > ᴹQ. hanya- ✧ Ety/KHAN
kʰarmen > xarmen kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAR > ᴹQ. harmen ✧ Ety/KHYAR
kʰarna > xarna kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAR > ᴹQ. harna ✧ EtyAC/KHAR
kʰarpa > xarpa kʰ > x ᴹ√KHÁRAP > ᴹQ. harpa ✧ EtyAC/KHAR
kʰat- > xat- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAT > ᴹQ. hat ✧ PE22/127
kʰauta- > xauta- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAW > ᴹQ. hauta- ✧ Ety/KHAW
kʰelka > xelka kʰ > x ᴹ√KHELEK > ᴹQ. helka ✧ Ety/KHEL
kʰelke > xelke kʰ > x ᴹ√KHELEK > ᴹQ. helke ✧ Ety/KHEL
kʰelle > xelle kʰ > x ᴹ√KHEL > ᴹQ. helle ✧ Ety/KHEL
kʰend > xend kʰ > x ᴹ√KHEN-D-E > ᴹQ. hen ✧ Ety/KHEN-D-E
kʰēra > xēra kʰ > x ᴹ√KHER > ᴹQ. héra ✧ Ety/KHER
kʰeren > xeren kʰ > x ᴹ√KHER > ᴹQ. heren ✧ Ety/KHER
kʰeren > xeren kʰ > x ᴹ√KHER > ᴹQ. heri ✧ Ety/KHER
kʰerū > xerū kʰ > x ᴹ√KHER > ᴹQ. heru ✧ Ety/KHER
kʰesto > xesto kʰ > x ᴹ√KHES > ᴹQ. hesto ✧ EtyAC/KHES
kʰild > xild kʰ > x ᴹ√KHIL > ᴹQ. †χild ✧ EtyAC/TĀ
kʰildi > xildi kʰ > x ᴹ√KHIL > ᴹQ. hildi ✧ Ety/KHIL
kʰilja- > xilja- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHIL > ᴹQ. hilya- ✧ Ety/KHIL
kʰim- > xim- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHIM > ᴹQ. hime ✧ PE22/103
kʰimba > ximba kʰ > x ᴹ√KHIM > ᴹQ. himba ✧ Ety/KHIM
kʰimja- > ximja- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHIM > ᴹQ. himya- ✧ Ety/KHIM
kʰiθe > xiθe kʰ > x ᴹ✶khīt(h)i > ᴹQ. híse ✧ Ety/KHIS
kʰiθe > xiθe kʰ > x ᴹ✶χīsi > ᴹQ. híse ✧ PE21/32
kʰiθwa > xiθwa kʰ > x ᴹ✶khithwa > ᴹQ. hiswa ✧ Ety/KHIS
kʰitʰwe > xitʰwe kʰ > x ᴹ✶khithme > ᴹQ. hiswe ✧ Ety/KHIS
kʰjarja > xjarja kʰ > x ᴹ√KHYAR > ᴹQ. hyarya ✧ Ety/KHYAR
kʰjarmen > xjarmen kʰ > x ᴹ√KHYAR > ᴹQ. hyarmen ✧ Ety/KHYAR
kʰjelle > xjelle kʰ > x ᴹ√KHYEL(ES) > ᴹQ. hyelle ✧ Ety/KHYEL(ES)
kʰjelma > xjelma kʰ > x ᴹ√KHYEL(ES) > ᴹQ. hyelma ✧ EtyAC/KHYEL(ES)
kʰōgorē > xōgorē kʰ > x ᴹ✶Khō-gorē > ᴹQ. Huore ✧ Ety/KHŌ-N
kʰōn > xōn kʰ > x ᴹ√KHŌ-N > ᴹQ. hōn ✧ Ety/KHŌ-N
kʰōpa > xōpa kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOP > ᴹQ. hópa ✧ Ety/KHOP
kʰōre > xōre kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOR > ᴹQ. hóre ✧ Ety/KHOR
kʰorja- > xorja- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOR > ᴹQ. horya- ✧ EtyAC/KHOR
kʰorme > xorme kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOR > ᴹQ. horme ✧ Ety/KHOR
kʰorta- > xorta- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOR > ᴹQ. horta- ✧ Ety/KHOR
kʰosta > xosta kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOTH > ᴹQ. hosta ✧ Ety/KHOTH
kʰosta- > xosta- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOTH > ᴹQ. hosta- ✧ Ety/KHOTH
kʰugan > xugan kʰ > x ᴹ√KHUGAN > ᴹQ. huan ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
kʰugan > xugan kʰ > x ᴹ✶khugan > ᴹQ. huan ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
kʰugo > xugo kʰ > x ᴹ√KHUG > ᴹQ. huo ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
epʰ- > eɸ- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√EPH- > ᴹQ. EPH- ✧ PE22/127
ilpʰirin > ilɸirin pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶ilpirin > ᴹQ. ilfirin ✧ Ety/PHIR
rapʰe > raɸe pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√RAPH > raphe > ᴹQ. rafe ✧ PE22/102
pʰaina- > ɸaina- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAY > ᴹQ. faina- ✧ Ety/PHAY
pʰaire > ɸaire pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAY > ᴹQ. faire ✧ Ety/PHAY
pʰaire > ɸaire pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. faire ✧ Ety/PHIR
pʰajanāro > ɸajanāro pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶Phay-anāro > ᴹQ. Feanáro ✧ Ety/PHAY
pʰalasse > ɸalasse pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > ᴹQ. falasse ✧ Ety/PHAL
pʰalle > ɸalle pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > ᴹQ. falle ✧ Ety/PHAL
pʰalma > ɸalma pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > ᴹQ. falma ✧ Ety/PHAL
pʰalmarin > ɸalmarin pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > ᴹQ. falmarin ✧ Ety/PHAL
pʰarea > ɸarea pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. farea ✧ Ety/PHAR
pʰarea > ɸarea pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. fā̆rea ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
pʰaren > ɸaren pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. faren ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
pʰarja- > ɸarja- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. farya- ✧ Ety/PHAR
pʰarja- > ɸarja- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. farya- ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
pʰarme > ɸarme pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. fáre ✧ Ety/PHAR
pʰarme > ɸarme pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. farme ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
pʰarne > ɸarne pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHARAN > ᴹQ. farne ✧ EtyAC/PHARAN
pʰasne > ɸasne pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAS > ᴹQ. farne ✧ EtyAC/PHARAN
pʰasne > ɸasne pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAS > fazne > ᴹQ. farne ✧ EtyAC/PHAS
pʰasse > ɸasse pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAS > ᴹQ. fasse ✧ Ety/PHAS
pʰasta- > ɸasta- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAS > ᴹQ. fasta- ✧ Ety/PHAS
pʰauka > ɸauka pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAU̯ > ᴹQ. fauka ✧ Ety/PHAU
pʰelgā > ɸelgā pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHÉLEG > ᴹQ. felya ✧ Ety/PHÉLEG
pʰenda > ɸenda pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHEN > ᴹQ. fenda ✧ Ety/PHEN
pʰeren > ɸeren pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶phéren > ᴹQ. feren ✧ Ety/BERÉTH
pʰeren > ɸeren pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHÉREN > ᴹQ. feren ✧ Ety/PHER
pʰerna > ɸerna pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHÉREN > ᴹQ. ferna ✧ Ety/PHER
pʰeuya- > ɸeuya- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHEW > ᴹQ. feuya- ✧ Ety/PHEW
pʰilik > ɸilik pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHILIK > ᴹQ. filit ✧ Ety/PHILIK
pʰiliŋke > ɸiliŋke pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶philínkē > ᴹQ. filinke ✧ PE21/56
pʰiond > ɸiond pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHI > ᴹQ. fion ✧ Ety/PHI
pʰire > ɸire pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. fire ✧ Ety/PHIR
pʰīrima > ɸīrima pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. fírima ✧ Ety/PHIR
pʰirin > ɸirin pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. firin ✧ Ety/PHIR
pʰirja > ɸirja pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. firya ✧ Ety/PHIR
pʰorja > ɸorja pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHOR > ᴹQ. forya ✧ Ety/PHOR
pʰorte > ɸorte pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶phoroti > ᴹQ. forte ✧ Ety/PHOR
pʰui > ɸui pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHUY > Fui > ᴹQ. Hui ✧ Ety/PHUY
pʰuine > ɸuine pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶phuine > ᴹQ. huine ✧ Ety/PHUY
pʰuine > ɸuine pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶phuine > Lin. huine ✧ PE19/31
itʰil > iθil tʰ > θ ᴹ✶ITHIL > ᴹQ. Isil ✧ Ety/I²
itʰil > iθil tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIL > ᴹQ. Isil ✧ Ety/SIL
itʰil > iθil tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIL > ᴹQ. Isil ✧ Ety/THIL
itʰil > iθil tʰ > θ ᴹ✶Ithīl > ᴹQ. Isil ✧ SD/306
kʰitʰe > kʰiθe tʰ > θ ᴹ✶khīt(h)i > ᴹQ. híse ✧ Ety/KHIS
kʰitʰe > kʰiθe tʰ > θ ᴹ✶χīsi > ᴹQ. híse ✧ PE21/32
kʰitʰwa > kʰiθwa tʰ > θ ᴹ✶khithwa > ᴹQ. hiswa ✧ Ety/KHIS
ṃbatʰ > ṃbaθ tʰ > θ ᴹ√MBAT(H) > ᴹQ. umbas ✧ EtyAC/MBAT(H)
ndanitʰārō > naniθārō tʰ > θ ᴹ✶ndani-thārō > ᴹQ. Nanisáro ✧ LR/188
nētʰē > nēθē tʰ > θ ᴹ✶nēthē > ᴹQ. nése ✧ Ety/NETH
nortʰo > norθo tʰ > θ ᴹ√NOROTH > ᴹQ. norsa ✧ Ety/NOROTH
noutʰe > nouθe tʰ > θ ᴹ✶nau̯þe > ᴹQ. nause ✧ Ety/NOWO
pitʰe > piθe tʰ > θ ᴹ√PITH > pithe > ᴹQ. pise ✧ PE22/103
tatʰar > taθar tʰ > θ ᴹ✶tathar > ᴹQ. tasar ✧ Ety/TATHAR
tatʰarē > taθarē tʰ > θ ᴹ✶tatharē > ᴹQ. tasare ✧ Ety/TATHAR
titʰilla- > tiθilla- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIL > ᴹQ. tithilla ✧ PE22/100
titʰilla- > tiθilla- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIL > ᴹQ. tithilla ✧ PE22/112
tʰar- > θar- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THAR > ᴹQ. thar- ✧ PE22/126
tʰārō > θārō tʰ > θ ᴹ✶thārō > ᴹQ. #sáro ✧ LR/188
tʰausā > θausā tʰ > θ ᴹ✶thausā > ᴹQ. saura ✧ Ety/THUS
tʰeles > θeles tʰ > θ ᴹ√THELES > ᴹQ. seler ✧ Ety/THEL
θinde > θinde tʰ > θ ᴹ✶thindi > ᴹQ. sinde ✧ Ety/THIN
tʰinje > θinje tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIN > ᴹQ. sinye ✧ Ety/THIN
tʰinta- > θinta- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIN > ᴹQ. sinta- ✧ Ety/THIN
tʰūja- > θūja- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THŪ > ᴹQ. súya- ✧ Ety/THŪ
tʰūle > θūle tʰ > θ ᴹ√THŪ > ᴹQ. súle ✧ Ety/THŪ
tʰūro > θūro tʰ > θ ᴹ√THUS > ᴹQ. Súro ✧ Ety/THUS
xitʰwe > xiθwe tʰ > θ ᴹ✶khithme > ᴹQ. hiswe ✧ Ety/KHIS