ᴹAQ. initial nasals plus stops reduced to nasals; [mb-|nd-|ŋg-] > [m-|n-|ŋ-]

ᴹAQ. initial nasals plus stops reduced to nasals; [mb-|nd-|ŋg-] > [m-|n-|ŋ-]

References ✧ PE19/35-36; PE22/112

Order (04400)

After 03000 velars were dentalized before [j]
After 04200 initial [ŋ] vanished

Related

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mb-] > [m-] ✧ PE19/38 (mb > m; initial)
[nd-] > [n-] ✧ PE19/38 (nd > n; initial)
[ŋg-] > [ŋ-] ✧ PE19/38 (ñg > ñ; initial); PE19/38 (ñgw > ñw; initial)
[mp-] > [p-] ✧ PE19/37 (mp > p; initial)
[nt-] > [t-] ✧ PE19/37 (nt > t; initial)
[ŋk-] > [k-] ✧ PE19/37 (ñk > k; initial); PE19/38 (ñky > kw; initial); PE19/38 (ñky > ty; initial)

Phonetic Rule Examples

anda-mbundā > anda-mundā mb- > m- ᴹ✶andambundā > ᴹQ. andamunda ✧ Ety/MBUD
mbakar > makar mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAKH > ᴹQ. makar ✧ Ety/MBAKH
mballe > malle mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAL > ᴹQ. malle ✧ Ety/MBAL
mbanda > manda mb- > m- ᴹ✶mbanda > ᴹQ. #manda ✧ Ety/MBAD
mbandos > mandos mb- > m- ᴹ✶mbandō > ᴹQ. mandos ✧ EtyAC/MBAD
mbaŋxa- > maŋxa- mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAKH > ᴹQ. manka- ✧ Ety/MBAKH
mbar > mar mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAR > ᴹQ. mar ✧ Ety/ÉNED
mbar > mar mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAR > ᴹQ. mar ✧ Ety/GAWA
mbar > mar mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAR > ᴹQ. mar ✧ Ety/MBAR
mbar > mar mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAR > ᴹQ. mar ✧ Ety/MBAR
mbar > mar mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAR > ᴹQ. mar ✧ Ety/TAN
mbar > mar mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAR > ᴹQ. mar ✧ EtyAC/MBAR
mbaranme > maranme mb- > m- ᴹ√MBARAT > ᴹQ. maranwe ✧ Ety/MBARAT
mbard > mard mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAR > ᴹQ. mar(d)- ✧ EtyAC/MBAR
mbard > mard mb- > m- ᴹ√[?mbar] > ᴹQ. mar(d-) ✧ EtyAC/SIL
mbarta > marta mb- > m- ᴹ√MBARAT > ᴹQ. marta ✧ Ety/MBARAT
mbarta > marta mb- > m- ᴹ√[?mbar]-ta > ᴹQ. marta ✧ EtyAC/SIL
mbasta > masta mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAS > ᴹQ. masta ✧ Ety/MBAS
mbasta- > masta- mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAS > ᴹQ. masta- ✧ Ety/MBAS
mbauja- > mauja- mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAW > ᴹQ. mauya- ✧ Ety/MBAW
mbaure > maure mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAW > ᴹQ. maure ✧ Ety/MBAW
mberend > merend mb- > m- ᴹ√MBER > ᴹQ. meren ✧ Ety/MBER
mberja > merja mb- > m- ᴹ√MBER > ᴹQ. merya ✧ Ety/MBER
mbirilja- > mirilja- mb- > m- ᴹ√MBIRÍL > ᴹQ. mirilya- ✧ Ety/MBIRIL
mbirill > mirill mb- > m- ᴹ√MBIRÍL > ᴹQ. miril ✧ Ety/MBIRIL
mbotto > motto mb- > m- ᴹ√MBOTH > ᴹQ. motto ✧ Ety/MBOTH
mbundo > mundo mb- > m- ᴹ✶mbundu > ᴹQ. mundo ✧ Ety/MBUD
a-ndanta > a-nanta nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAN > ᴹQ. a-nanta ✧ Ety/NDAN
ndake > nake nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAK- > ᴹQ. nake ✧ PE22/112
ndakta- > nakta- nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAG > ᴹQ. nahta- ✧ PE22/102
ndakuβan > nakuβan nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndăkŭbā̆nyē > ᴹQ. nakuvan ✧ PE21/65
ndamba > namba nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAM > ᴹQ. namba ✧ Ety/NDAM
ndamba- > namba- nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAM > ᴹQ. namba- ✧ Ety/NDAM
ndān > nān nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAN > ᴹQ. nān ✧ Ety/NDAN
ndan- > nan- nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAN > ᴹQ. nan- ✧ Ety/NDAN
ndanar > nanar nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAN > ᴹQ. Nanar ✧ Ety/DAN
ndandakka- > nandakka- nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAK- > ᴹQ. nandakka- ✧ PE22/112
naniθārō > naniθārō nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndani-thārō > ᴹQ. Nanisáro ✧ LR/188
ndarwe > narwe nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAR > ᴹQ. narwe ✧ EtyAC/NDAR
ndēr > nēr nd- > n- ᴹ√DER > ᴹQ. nér ✧ Ety/DER
ndēr > nēr nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndǣr > ᴹQ. nér ✧ Ety/NDER
ndēr > nēr nd- > n- ᴹ√der > ᴹQ. NĒ̆R ✧ Ety/NĒR
ndēr > nēr nd- > n- ᴹ✶dēr > ᴹQ. nér ✧ Ety/NĪ¹
ndeuna > neuna nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndeu̯na > ᴹQ. neuna ✧ Ety/NDEW
ndeuro > neuro nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndeuro > ᴹQ. neuro ✧ Ety/NDEW
ndilda > nilda nd- > n- ᴹ√NIL/NDIL > ᴹQ. nilda ✧ Ety/NIL
ndilde > nilde nd- > n- ᴹ√NIL/NDIL > ᴹQ. nilde ✧ Ety/NIL
ndildo > nildo nd- > n- ᴹ√NIL/NDIL > ᴹQ. nildo ✧ Ety/NIL
ndilme > nilme nd- > n- ᴹ√NIL/NDIL > ᴹQ. nilme ✧ Ety/NIL
ndilmo > nilmo nd- > n- ᴹ√NIL/NDIL > ᴹQ. nilmo ✧ Ety/NIL
ndisse > nisse nd- > n- ᴹ√NDIS-SĒ/SĀ > ᴹQ. nisse ✧ Ety/NDIS
ndōla > nōla nd- > n- ᴹ√NDOL > ᴹQ. nóla ✧ Ety/NDOL
ndōre > nōre nd- > n- ᴹ√NDOR > ᴹQ. nóre ✧ Ety/NDOR
ndōrē > nōrē nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndōrē > ᴹQ. nóre ✧ PE19/36
ndōrē > nōrē nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndṓrē > ᴹQ. nōrē ✧ PE19/59
nulda > nulda nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndulna > ᴹQ. nulda ✧ Ety/DUL
ndulla > nulla nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndulla > ᴹQ. nulla ✧ Ety/NDUL
ndulla > nulla nd- > n- ᴹ✶(n)dulla > ᴹQ. nulla ✧ EtyAC/DUL
ndulla > nulla nd- > n- ᴹ✶(n)dulla > ᴹQ. nulla ✧ EtyAC/DUL
ndumbe > numbe nd- > n- ᴹ√NDUB/DUB > ᴹQ. numbe/núve ✧ EtyAC/NDUB
ndur- > nur- nd- > n- ᴹ√NDUR > ᴹQ. nure ✧ PE22/103
ndūro > nūro nd- > n- ᴹ√NDUR > ᴹQ. nûro ✧ Ety/NDŪ
ndūta- > nūta- nd- > n- ᴹ√NDŪ > ᴹQ. núta ✧ Ety/NDŪ
ŋgalme > ŋalme ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGAL/ÑGÁLAM > ᴹQ. ñalme ✧ Ety/ÑGAL
ŋganda- > ŋanda- ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGANAD > ᴹQ. ñanda- ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
ŋgande > ŋande ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGANAD > ᴹQ. ñande ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
ŋgande > ŋande ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGANAD > ᴹQ. nande ✧ EtyAC/ÑGAN
ŋgarmo > ŋarmo ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGAR(A)M > ñarmo > ᴹQ. narmo ✧ Ety/ÑGAR(A)M
ŋgaule > ŋaule ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGAW > ᴹQ. naule ✧ Ety/ÑGAW
ŋgauro > ŋauro ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGAW > ᴹQ. ñauro ✧ Ety/ÑGAW
ŋgjalme > ŋjalme ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGYAL/ÑGYÁLAM > ᴹQ. yalme ✧ EtyAC/ÑGAL
ŋgoa > ŋoa ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGŌ̆W > ᴹQ. noa ✧ EtyAC/ÑGŌ̆W
ŋgōla > ŋōla ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGOL > ᴹQ. ñóla ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > ᴹQ. noldo ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ŊGÓLODŌ > ŋoldo > ᴹQ. noldo ✧ PE18/40
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ✶ñgolodō > ᴹQ. ñoldo ✧ PE19/36
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ✶ñgòlodṓ > ᴹQ. ñgoldṓ ✧ PE19/58
ŋgōle > ŋōle ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGOL > ᴹQ. ñóle ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
ŋgolwe > ŋolwe ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGOL > ᴹQ. ñolwe ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
ŋgorta > ŋorta ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGÓROTH > ᴹQ. norta ✧ EtyAC/ÑGOROTH
ŋgorto > ŋorto ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGÓROTH > ᴹQ. norto ✧ EtyAC/ÑGOROTH
ŋguru > ŋuru ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGUR > ᴹQ. ñuru ✧ Ety/ÑGUR
ŋgwalja- > ŋwalja- ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGWAL > ᴹQ. nwalya- ✧ Ety/ÑGWAL
ŋgwalka > ŋwalka ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGWAL > ᴹQ. nwalka ✧ Ety/ÑGWAL
ŋgwalma > ŋwalma ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGWAL > ᴹQ. nwalma ✧ EtyAC/ÑGWAL

ᴱQ. initial nasalized stops became nasals; [{mb|nd|ndʲ|ŋg|ŋgʷ}-] > [{mnnʲŋŋʷ}-]

Order ()

Before initial [ŋʷ] became [m]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mb-] > [m-] ✧ PE12/16 (mb > b)
[nd-] > [n-] ✧ PE12/16 (nd > d)
[ndʲ-] > [nʲ-] ✧ PE12/16 (ñj > dı̯)
[ŋg-] > [ŋ-] ✧ PE12/16 (ȵg > g)
[ŋgʷ-] > [ŋʷ-] ✧ PE12/16 (ȵg͡w > gu̯; initial)

Phonetic Rule Examples

mbaldor > maldor mb- > m- ᴱ√MALA³ > ᴱQ. maldor ✧ QL/58
mbalka > malka mb- > m- ᴱ√MALA³ > ᴱQ. malka ✧ QL/58
mbanðor > manðor mb- > m- ᴱ√mᵇṇřṇ > ᴱQ. mandor ✧ PME/58
mbanðost > manðost mb- > m- ᴱ√Mᵇ(A)NÐ(A)N > ᴱQ. Mandos ✧ QL/58
mbanðu > manðu mb- > m- ᴱ√Mᵇ(A)NÐ(A)N > ᴱQ. -MANDU ✧ QL/58
mbar > mar mb- > m- ᴱ√MBARA > ᴱQ. mar ✧ QL/60
mbaksa > maska mb- > m- ᴱ√M(B)ASA > ᴱQ. maksa- ✧ QL/59
mbasta > masta mb- > m- ᴱ✶mb[asta] > ᴱQ. masta ✧ PE16/141
mbasta > masta mb- > m- ᴱ√M(B)ASA > ᴱQ. masta ✧ QL/59
mbasta > masta mb- > m- ᴱ√M(B)ASA > ᴱQ. mas- ✧ QL/59
mbasto > masto mb- > m- ᴱ√MBARA > ᴱQ. masto ✧ QL/60
mbaswa > maswa mb- > m- ᴱ√M(B)ASA > ᴱQ. maswa ✧ QL/59
mbure > mure mb- > m- ᴱ✶mbúrya: > ᴱQ. mure ✧ PE13/139
mburja > murja mb- > m- ᴱ✶mburyá: > ᴱQ. murya ✧ PE13/139
ndaxta- > naxta- nd- > n- ᴱ✶ndag+ta > ᴱQ. nahta- ✧ PE14/66
ndoldare > noldare nd- > n- ᴱ√NDOLO > ᴱQ. noldare ✧ QL/65
ndolmo > nolmo nd- > n- ᴱ√NDOLO > ᴱQ. nolmo ✧ QL/65
ndolpa > nolpa nd- > n- ᴱ√ndolo- > ᴱQ. nolpa ✧ GL/30
ndor > nor nd- > n- ‽ᴱ√NOŘO > ᴱQ. nor ✧ QL/67
ndōre > nōre nd- > n- ᴱ✶ndŏre > ᴱQ. nōre ✧ PE13/161
ndorne > norne nd- > n- ‽ᴱ√NOŘO > ᴱQ. norne ✧ QL/67
ŋgʷāloθ > ŋʷāloθ ŋgʷ- > ŋʷ- ᴱ✶ŋgua-aloþ- > malosta > ᴱQ. mālos ✧ GL/41
ŋgʷeril > ŋʷeril ŋgʷ- > ŋʷ- ᴱ√ŋgu̯eđe > ᴱQ. meril ✧ GL/45