AQ. initial nasals plus stops reduced to nasals; [mb-|nd-|ŋg-] > [m-|n-|ŋ-]

AQ. initial nasals plus stops reduced to nasals; [mb-|nd-|ŋg-] > [m-|n-|ŋ-]

In all versions of Quenya from the 1910s through the 1960s, any initial nasal + stop clusters (excluding only those that became syllabic) reduced to simple nasals. Tolkien described this change all the way back in the Qenyaqetsa written in the 1910s (PE12/15-16) and there are numerous examples of it in the Qenya Lexicon, The Etymologies and throughout Tolkien’s writing. A fairly complete description of this change appears in the Outline of Phonology [OP2] from the 1950s with a representative set of examples:

These groups in Quenya normally became simplified to nasals initially. (In Telerin they became b, d, g.) Thus:

  • mb- > m, as in *mbar- > Q már “habitation”.
  • nd- > n, as in *ndōrē > Q nóre “country”.
  • ñg- > ñ, as in *ñgolodo > Q ñoldo “Noldo, Gnome”.
  • ñgy > ny, as in *ñgyar- > Q nyare “recites”.
  • ñgw > ñw, as in *ñgwar- > Q ñware “frets, wears away”.

The full medial development > mb, nd, ñg, ndy, ñgw still appeared in AQ in the second element of compounds after a preceding vowel, and after vocalic proclitics such as especially the article i (AQ iñgoldo “the Gnome”). The retention of the medial forms was still frequent in PQ, surviving in many cases, especially in old names, in TQ. But the initial forms tended to spread, even in compounds, and in the case of proclitics, such as the prepositions, the article, or grammatical augments in verbs, were generally substituted in PQ and TQ (OP2: PE19/76).

A very similar description appears in Outline of Phonetic Development [OP1] from the 1930s (PE19/35-36). OP1 indicates that the reduction to simple nasals occurred in AQ, and OP2 effectively says the same thing, with the addendum that the full combinations survived longer in compounds. These phonetic developments were mentioned in many other places in Tolkien’s writing (e.g. PE17/123; PE18/103; PE22/112).

In OP1, Tolkien mentioned that same change occurred for initial nasals + voiceless stops (PE19/35), an idea that reappeared in the second version of Tengwesta Qenderinwa (TQ2: PE18/92) and the first drafts of OP2 (PE19/76 note #40). But Tolkien seems to have decided that nasals + voiceless stops were no longer a valid initial combination in Primitive Elvish (PE19/77 note #45, PE19/78 note #48 and #49).

References ✧ PE17/123; PE18/103; PE19/76

Order (04400)

After 03000 velars were dentalized before [j]
After 04200 initial [ŋ] vanished
After 04300 [β], [ɣ] vocalized before voiced consonants ndagwē > ndau̯we > nau̯we > Q. naue PE19/94

Related

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mb-] > [m-] ✧ PE19/76 (mb- > m); PE17/104 (mb > mm > m); PE17/124 (mb > mm > m; initial); PE18/105 (mb > m)
[nd-] > [n-] ✧ PE19/76 (nd- > n)
[ŋg-] > [ŋ-] ✧ PE19/76 (ñg- > ñ); PE19/76 (ñgy- > ny); PE19/76 (ñgw- > ñw); PE18/105 (ñg > ñ); PE18/105 (ñgw > ñw)
[mp-] > [p-] ✧ PE18/92 (mp > p-); PE18/92 (nt > t-)
[nt-] > [t-]
[ŋk-] > [k-] ✧ PE18/92 (tk > c-)

Phonetic Rule Examples

mbāmā > māmā mb- > m- mbāba > Q. māma ✧ VT47/35
mbandō > mandō mb- > m- mbandō > Q. mando ✧ MR/350
mbandō > mandō mb- > m- mbandō > Q. mando ✧ MR/471
mbando > mando mb- > m- mbando > Q. mando ✧ SA/band
mbār > mār mb- > m- mbăr(a) > mbār > Q. †már ✧ PE17/106
mbār > mār mb- > m- mbar- > Q. már ✧ PE19/76
mbar > mar mb- > m- mbar > Q. mar ✧ PE17/163
mbar > mar mb- > m- mbā̆r > Q. mar ✧ PE17/164
mbard > mard mb- > m- MBAR > Q. mar ✧ PE17/64
mbard > mard mb- > m- mbardă > Q. mar ✧ PE17/163
mbard > mard mb- > m- mbardā̆ > Q. mar ✧ PE17/164
mbard > mard mb- > m- mbard(a) > Q. măr ✧ PE21/76
mbardā > mardā mb- > m- mbardā > Q. marda ✧ PE17/107
mbardā > mardā mb- > m- mbardā > Q. marda ✧ PE17/107
mbardā > mardā mb- > m- mbard(a) > Q. marda ✧ PE21/76
mbartā > martā mb- > m- mbartā > Q. marta- ✧ PE17/104
mbartanō > martanō mb- > m- mbartanō > Q. Martamo ✧ LT1A/Talka Marda
mbartja- > martja- mb- > m- ᴹ√MBARAT > ᴹQ. martya- ✧ Ety/MBARAT
mbarto > marto mb- > m- BAR-AT > Q. marto ✧ PE17/66
mbassē > massē mb- > m- mbassē > Q. masse ✧ PE17/52
mbastā > mastā mb- > m- mbazdā > Q. masta ✧ PE17/52
mbelekta > melekta mb- > m- mbelek > Q. melehta ✧ PE17/115
mbelkōr > melkōr mb- > m- mbelekōro > Q. Melkor ✧ WJ/402
mbelkōre > melkōre mb- > m- mbelek-óre > Q. Melkóre ✧ PE17/115
mbol- > mol- mb- > m- ?√MBOL > Q. mol- ✧ PE17/115
mbolda > molda mb- > m- ?√MBOL > Q. molda ✧ PE17/115
mbōle > mōle mb- > m- ?√MBOL > Q. mōle ✧ PE17/115
ndakin > nakin nd- > n- NDAK > Q. nakin ✧ PE22/156
ndakin > nakin nd- > n- ndak- > Q. nakin ✧ VT49/24
ndakta- > nakta- nd- > n- NDAK > Q. nahta- ✧ PE19/91
ndakta- > nakta- nd- > n- ndakta > Q. nahtan ✧ PE22/156
ndakta- > nakta- nd- > n- ndak- > Q. nahtan ✧ VT49/24
ndan- > nan- nd- > n- nana-/ndan- > Q. nan- ✧ PE17/166
ndan- > nan- nd- > n- NDĀ̆ > Q. nan- ✧ PE17/166
ndanda > nanda nd- > n- NDAN > Q. nanda ✧ PE17/166
ndandor > nandor nd- > n- dan- > Q. Nandor ✧ VT48/32
ndandor > nandor nd- > n- ndandō > Q. Nandor ✧ WJ/412
ndaŋkā > naŋkā nd- > n- ndakna > Q. nanca ✧ PE17/68
ndanmē > nanmē nd- > n- ndanmē > Q. nanwe ✧ VT48/26
ndanmen- > nanmen- nd- > n- nan-men > Q. nanwen- ✧ PE17/166
ndauwē > nauwē nd- > n- ndagwē > ndau̯we > nau̯we > Q. naue ✧ PE19/94
ndaβe > naβe nd- > n- ndab > Q. nave ✧ VT42/34
ndaβin > naβin nd- > n- NDAB > Q. năvin ✧ PE22/154
ndaβo > naβo nd- > n- NDAB > Q. Návo ✧ PE22/154
ndaβuβa > naβuβa nd- > n- NDAB > Q. nauva ✧ PE22/151
ndelja- > nelja- nd- > n- delta/delya > Q. nelya ✧ PE17/17
ndeβ- > neβ- nd- > n- ‽√NDEB > Q. nev- ✧ PE17/167
ndī > nī nd- > n- ndī > Q. ✧ PE17/95
ndīle > nīle nd- > n- ndīlī > Q. níle ✧ PE21/86
ndimpa > nimpa nd- > n- (N)DIP/B > Q. nimpa ✧ PE17/168
ndjar- > njar- nd- > n- ñgyar- > Q. nyare ✧ PE19/76
ndjellē > njellē nd- > n- ṇgyellē > Q. nyelle ✧ PE19/78
ndōr > nōr nd- > n- ndōr > Q. nōr ✧ PE17/106
ndōr > nōr nd- > n- ndōro > Q. nór ✧ WJ/413
ndōr > nōr nd- > n- NDŌR/NDŎR- > Q. nôr ✧ PE17/107
ndor > nor nd- > n- ndŏr > Q. nŏr ✧ PE17/181
ndōre > nōre nd- > n- NDOR > Q. nōre ✧ PE17/72
ndōrē > nōrē nd- > n- ndōrē > Q. nóre ✧ PE19/76
ndorna > norna nd- > n- NDOR > Q. norna ✧ PE17/106
ndumba > numba nd- > n- (N)DUP/B > Q. numba ✧ PE17/168
ndūme > nūme nd- > n- NDU > Q. núme ✧ Let/361
ndūmen > nūmen nd- > n- NDU > Q. númen ✧ Let/361
ndūmen > nūmen nd- > n- ndu > Q. númen ✧ SA/andúnë
ndūya- > nūya- nd- > n- ndūya > Q. núya- ✧ PE22/163
ŋgaira > ŋaira ŋg- > ŋ- ÑGAY > Q. naira ✧ PE17/27
ŋgaltā > ŋaltā ŋg- > ŋ- ñalatā > Q. ñalta ✧ PM/347
ŋgaltārīɣel > ŋaltārīɣel ŋg- > ŋ- ñgal(a)tā-rig-el- > Q. Ñaltariel ✧ PE17/60
ŋgauro > ŋauro ŋg- > ŋ- ÑGAW > Q. ñauro ✧ PE17/39
ŋgille > ŋille ŋg- > ŋ- ngil > Q. ñille ✧ MR/388
ŋgille > ŋille ŋg- > ŋ- NGIL > Q. ñille ✧ PE17/22
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ngolodō > Q. Ñoldor ✧ MR/350
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ngolodō > Q. noldo ✧ MR/350
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ngolodõ > Q. Noldo ✧ MR/470
ŋgoldo > ŋoldo ŋg- > ŋ- AQ. ñolda > ŋoldo > Q. noldo ✧ PE17/125
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ñgolodō > Q. ñoldo ✧ PE17/153
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ñgolodō > Q. ñoldo ✧ PE19/76
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- Ñgolodō > Q. Noldo ✧ PM/360
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ngol- > Q. Noldor ✧ SA/gûl
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ñgolodō > Q. Ñoldo ✧ WJ/364
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ñgolodō > Q. Ñoldor ✧ WJ/380
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ñgolodō > Q. Ñoldo ✧ WJ/383
ŋgōle > ŋōle ŋg- > ŋ- ngōl- > Q. ñōle ✧ PE17/79
ŋgōle > ŋōle ŋg- > ŋ- ngol- > Q. nólë ✧ SA/gûl
ŋgōle > ŋōle ŋg- > ŋ- NGOL > Q. ñóle ✧ WJ/383
ŋgolja > ŋolja ŋg- > ŋ- ÑGOL > Q. ñolya ✧ PE17/125
ŋgolme > ŋolme ŋg- > ŋ- ñgol-/ñgōlo- > Q. Ñolmë ✧ PM/360
ŋgolme > ŋolme ŋg- > ŋ- ñgol-/ñgōlo- > Q. ñolmë ✧ PM/360
ŋgolmo > ŋolmo ŋg- > ŋ- ñgol-/ñgōlo- > Q. ñolmo ✧ PM/360
ŋgor > ŋor ŋg- > ŋ- ÑGOR > Q. ñor ✧ PE17/172
ŋgorθūs > ŋorθūs ŋg- > ŋ- ñgor(o)-thūsō > ñorthus > Q. ñorsus ✧ PE17/183
ŋgūla > ŋūla ŋg- > ŋ- ÑGUL > Q. ñúla ✧ PE17/125
ŋgūle > ŋūle ŋg- > ŋ- ÑGŪL > Q. ñūle ✧ PE17/31
ŋgūle > ŋūle ŋg- > ŋ- ÑGUL > Q. ñúle ✧ PE17/125
ŋgwāmē > ŋwāmē ŋg- > ŋ- ñgwaumē > Q. ñwáme ✧ PE19/106
ŋgware > ŋware ŋg- > ŋ- ñgwar- > Q. ñware ✧ PE19/76
ŋgwaurō > ŋwaurō ŋg- > ŋ- ñgwaurō > Q. ñauro ✧ PE19/106

ᴹAQ. initial nasals plus stops reduced to nasals; [mb-|nd-|ŋg-] > [m-|n-|ŋ-]

References ✧ PE19/35-36; PE22/112

Order (04500)

After 03100 velars were dentalized before [j]
After 04300 initial [ŋ] vanished

Related

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mb-] > [m-] ✧ PE19/38 (mb > m; initial)
[nd-] > [n-] ✧ PE19/38 (nd > n; initial)
[ŋg-] > [ŋ-] ✧ PE19/38 (ñg > ñ; initial); PE19/38 (ñgw > ñw; initial)
[mp-] > [p-] ✧ PE19/37 (mp > p; initial)
[nt-] > [t-] ✧ PE19/37 (nt > t; initial)
[ŋk-] > [k-] ✧ PE19/37 (ñk > k; initial); PE19/38 (ñky > kw; initial); PE19/38 (ñky > ty; initial)

Phonetic Rule Examples

anda-mbundā > anda-mundā mb- > m- ᴹ✶andambundā > ᴹQ. andamunda ✧ Ety/MBUD
mbakar > makar mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAKH > ᴹQ. makar ✧ Ety/MBAKH
mballe > malle mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAL > ᴹQ. malle ✧ Ety/MBAL
mbanda > manda mb- > m- ᴹ✶mbanda > ᴹQ. #manda ✧ Ety/MBAD
mbandos > mandos mb- > m- ᴹ✶mbandō > ᴹQ. mandos ✧ EtyAC/MBAD
mbaŋxa- > maŋxa- mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAKH > ᴹQ. manka- ✧ Ety/MBAKH
mbar > mar mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAR > ᴹQ. mar ✧ Ety/ÉNED
mbar > mar mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAR > ᴹQ. mar ✧ Ety/GAWA
mbar > mar mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAR > ᴹQ. mar ✧ Ety/MBAR
mbar > mar mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAR > ᴹQ. mar ✧ Ety/MBAR
mbar > mar mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAR > ᴹQ. mar ✧ Ety/TAN
mbar > mar mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAR > ᴹQ. mar ✧ EtyAC/MBAR
mbaranme > maranme mb- > m- ᴹ√MBARAT > ᴹQ. maranwe ✧ Ety/MBARAT
mbard > mard mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAR > ᴹQ. mar(d)- ✧ EtyAC/MBAR
mbard > mard mb- > m- ᴹ√[?mbar] > ᴹQ. mar(d-) ✧ EtyAC/SIL
mbarta > marta mb- > m- ᴹ√MBARAT > ᴹQ. marta ✧ Ety/MBARAT
mbarta > marta mb- > m- ᴹ√[?mbar]-ta > ᴹQ. marta ✧ EtyAC/SIL
mbasta > masta mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAS > ᴹQ. masta ✧ Ety/MBAS
mbasta- > masta- mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAS > ᴹQ. masta- ✧ Ety/MBAS
mbauja- > mauja- mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAW > ᴹQ. mauya- ✧ Ety/MBAW
mbaure > maure mb- > m- ᴹ√MBAW > ᴹQ. maure ✧ Ety/MBAW
mberend > merend mb- > m- ᴹ√MBER > ᴹQ. meren ✧ Ety/MBER
mberja > merja mb- > m- ᴹ√MBER > ᴹQ. merya ✧ Ety/MBER
mbirilja- > mirilja- mb- > m- ᴹ√MBIRÍL > ᴹQ. mirilya- ✧ Ety/MBIRIL
mbirill > mirill mb- > m- ᴹ√MBIRÍL > ᴹQ. miril ✧ Ety/MBIRIL
mbotto > motto mb- > m- ᴹ√MBOTH > ᴹQ. motto ✧ Ety/MBOTH
mbundo > mundo mb- > m- ᴹ✶mbundu > ᴹQ. mundo ✧ Ety/MBUD
a-ndanta > a-nanta nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAN > ᴹQ. a-nanta ✧ Ety/NDAN
ndake > nake nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAK- > ᴹQ. nake ✧ PE22/112
ndakta- > nakta- nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAG > ᴹQ. nahta- ✧ PE22/102
ndakuβan > nakuβan nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndăkŭbā̆nyē > ᴹQ. nakuvan ✧ PE21/65
ndamba > namba nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAM > ᴹQ. namba ✧ Ety/NDAM
ndamba- > namba- nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAM > ᴹQ. namba- ✧ Ety/NDAM
ndān > nān nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAN > ᴹQ. nān ✧ Ety/NDAN
ndan- > nan- nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAN > ᴹQ. nan- ✧ Ety/NDAN
ndanar > nanar nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAN > ᴹQ. Nanar ✧ Ety/DAN
ndandakka- > nandakka- nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAK- > ᴹQ. nandakka- ✧ PE22/112
naniθārō > naniθārō nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndani-thārō > ᴹQ. Nanisáro ✧ LR/188
ndarwe > narwe nd- > n- ᴹ√NDAR > ᴹQ. narwe ✧ EtyAC/NDAR
ndēr > nēr nd- > n- ᴹ√DER > ᴹQ. nér ✧ Ety/DER
ndēr > nēr nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndǣr > ᴹQ. nér ✧ Ety/NDER
ndēr > nēr nd- > n- ᴹ√der > ᴹQ. NĒ̆R ✧ Ety/NĒR
ndēr > nēr nd- > n- ᴹ✶dēr > ᴹQ. nér ✧ Ety/NĪ¹
ndeuna > neuna nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndeu̯na > ᴹQ. neuna ✧ Ety/NDEW
ndeuro > neuro nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndeuro > ᴹQ. neuro ✧ Ety/NDEW
ndilda > nilda nd- > n- ᴹ√NIL/NDIL > ᴹQ. nilda ✧ Ety/NIL
ndilde > nilde nd- > n- ᴹ√NIL/NDIL > ᴹQ. nilde ✧ Ety/NIL
ndildo > nildo nd- > n- ᴹ√NIL/NDIL > ᴹQ. nildo ✧ Ety/NIL
ndilme > nilme nd- > n- ᴹ√NIL/NDIL > ᴹQ. nilme ✧ Ety/NIL
ndilmo > nilmo nd- > n- ᴹ√NIL/NDIL > ᴹQ. nilmo ✧ Ety/NIL
ndisse > nisse nd- > n- ᴹ√NDIS-SĒ/SĀ > ᴹQ. nisse ✧ Ety/NDIS
ndōla > nōla nd- > n- ᴹ√NDOL > ᴹQ. nóla ✧ Ety/NDOL
ndōre > nōre nd- > n- ᴹ√NDOR > ᴹQ. nóre ✧ Ety/NDOR
ndōrē > nōrē nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndōrē > ᴹQ. nóre ✧ PE19/36
ndōrē > nōrē nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndṓrē > ᴹQ. nōrē ✧ PE19/59
nulda > nulda nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndulna > ᴹQ. nulda ✧ Ety/DUL
ndulla > nulla nd- > n- ᴹ✶ndulla > ᴹQ. nulla ✧ Ety/NDUL
ndulla > nulla nd- > n- ᴹ✶(n)dulla > ᴹQ. nulla ✧ EtyAC/DUL
ndulla > nulla nd- > n- ᴹ✶(n)dulla > ᴹQ. nulla ✧ EtyAC/DUL
ndumbe > numbe nd- > n- ᴹ√NDUB/DUB > ᴹQ. numbe/núve ✧ EtyAC/NDUB
ndur- > nur- nd- > n- ᴹ√NDUR > ᴹQ. nure ✧ PE22/103
ndūro > nūro nd- > n- ᴹ√NDUR > ᴹQ. nûro ✧ Ety/NDŪ
ndūta- > nūta- nd- > n- ᴹ√NDŪ > ᴹQ. núta ✧ Ety/NDŪ
ŋgalme > ŋalme ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGAL/ÑGÁLAM > ᴹQ. ñalme ✧ Ety/ÑGAL
ŋganda- > ŋanda- ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGANAD > ᴹQ. ñanda- ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
ŋgande > ŋande ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGANAD > ᴹQ. ñande ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
ŋgande > ŋande ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGANAD > ᴹQ. nande ✧ EtyAC/ÑGAN
ŋgarmo > ŋarmo ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGAR(A)M > ñarmo > ᴹQ. narmo ✧ Ety/ÑGAR(A)M
ŋgaule > ŋaule ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGAW > ᴹQ. naule ✧ Ety/ÑGAW
ŋgauro > ŋauro ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGAW > ᴹQ. ñauro ✧ Ety/ÑGAW
ŋgjalme > ŋjalme ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGYAL/ÑGYÁLAM > ᴹQ. yalme ✧ EtyAC/ÑGAL
ŋgoa > ŋoa ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGŌ̆W > ᴹQ. noa ✧ EtyAC/ÑGŌ̆W
ŋgōla > ŋōla ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGOL > ᴹQ. ñóla ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > ᴹQ. noldo ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ŊGÓLODŌ > ŋoldo > ᴹQ. noldo ✧ PE18/40
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ✶ñgolodō > ᴹQ. ñoldo ✧ PE19/36
ŋgoldō > ŋoldō ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ✶ñgòlodṓ > ᴹQ. ñgoldṓ ✧ PE19/58
ŋgōle > ŋōle ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGOL > ᴹQ. ñóle ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
ŋgolwe > ŋolwe ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGOL > ᴹQ. ñolwe ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
ŋgorta > ŋorta ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGÓROTH > ᴹQ. norta ✧ EtyAC/ÑGOROTH
ŋgorto > ŋorto ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGÓROTH > ᴹQ. norto ✧ EtyAC/ÑGOROTH
ŋguru > ŋuru ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGUR > ᴹQ. ñuru ✧ Ety/ÑGUR
ŋgwalja- > ŋwalja- ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGWAL > ᴹQ. nwalya- ✧ Ety/ÑGWAL
ŋgwalka > ŋwalka ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGWAL > ᴹQ. nwalka ✧ Ety/ÑGWAL
ŋgwalma > ŋwalma ŋg- > ŋ- ᴹ√ÑGWAL > ᴹQ. nwalma ✧ EtyAC/ÑGWAL

ᴱQ. initial nasalized stops became nasals; [{mb|nd|ndʲ|ŋg|ŋgʷ}-] > [{mnnʲŋŋʷ}-]

Order ()

Before initial [ŋʷ] became [m]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mb-] > [m-] ✧ PE12/16 (mb > b)
[nd-] > [n-] ✧ PE12/16 (nd > d)
[ndʲ-] > [nʲ-] ✧ PE12/16 (ñj > dı̯)
[ŋg-] > [ŋ-] ✧ PE12/16 (ȵg > g)
[ŋgʷ-] > [ŋʷ-] ✧ PE12/16 (ȵg͡w > gu̯; initial)

Phonetic Rule Examples

mbaldor > maldor mb- > m- ᴱ√MALA³ > ᴱQ. maldor ✧ QL/58
mbalka > malka mb- > m- ᴱ√MALA³ > ᴱQ. malka ✧ QL/58
mbanðor > manðor mb- > m- ᴱ√mᵇṇřṇ > ᴱQ. mandor ✧ PME/58
mbanðost > manðost mb- > m- ᴱ√Mᵇ(A)NÐ(A)N > ᴱQ. Mandos ✧ QL/58
mbanðu > manðu mb- > m- ᴱ√Mᵇ(A)NÐ(A)N > ᴱQ. -MANDU ✧ QL/58
mbar > mar mb- > m- ᴱ√MBARA > ᴱQ. mar ✧ QL/60
mbaksa > maska mb- > m- ᴱ√M(B)ASA > ᴱQ. maksa- ✧ QL/59
mbasta > masta mb- > m- ᴱ✶mb[asta] > ᴱQ. masta ✧ PE16/141
mbasta > masta mb- > m- ᴱ√M(B)ASA > ᴱQ. masta ✧ QL/59
mbasta > masta mb- > m- ᴱ√M(B)ASA > ᴱQ. mas- ✧ QL/59
mbasto > masto mb- > m- ᴱ√MBARA > ᴱQ. masto ✧ QL/60
mbaswa > maswa mb- > m- ᴱ√M(B)ASA > ᴱQ. maswa ✧ QL/59
mbure > mure mb- > m- ᴱ✶mbúrya: > ᴱQ. mure ✧ PE13/139
mburja > murja mb- > m- ᴱ✶mburyá: > ᴱQ. murya ✧ PE13/139
ndaxta- > naxta- nd- > n- ᴱ✶ndag+ta > ᴱQ. nahta- ✧ PE14/66
ndoldare > noldare nd- > n- ᴱ√NDOLO > ᴱQ. noldare ✧ QL/65
ndolmo > nolmo nd- > n- ᴱ√NDOLO > ᴱQ. nolmo ✧ QL/65
ndolpa > nolpa nd- > n- ᴱ√ndolo- > ᴱQ. nolpa ✧ GL/30
ndor > nor nd- > n- ‽ᴱ√NOŘO > ᴱQ. nor ✧ QL/67
ndōre > nōre nd- > n- ᴱ✶ndŏre > ᴱQ. nōre ✧ PE13/161
ndorne > norne nd- > n- ‽ᴱ√NOŘO > ᴱQ. norne ✧ QL/67
ŋgʷāloθ > ŋʷāloθ ŋgʷ- > ŋʷ- ᴱ✶ŋgua-aloþ- > malosta > ᴱQ. mālos ✧ GL/41
ŋgʷeril > ŋʷeril ŋgʷ- > ŋʷ- ᴱ√ŋgu̯eđe > ᴱQ. meril ✧ GL/45