Ad. pronominal-prefixes grammar.

Ad. pronominal-prefixes grammar.

Most attested Adûnaic pronouns appear as prefixes to verbs. When a pronoun is the subject of a verb, it is prefixed directly to the verb form. For example, the Adûnaic feminine singular pronoun is hi “she” and the aorist form of the verb kalab- “to fall” is kalba “falls”, so “she falls” in Adûnaic would be hikalba (SD/247).

There appear to be several circumstances in which a pronominal-prefix can be used with verbs.

1) The pronominal-prefix could be the only subject:

2) There can be a separate subject noun in the normal-case. When the subject is in the normal case, the pronominal-prefix is always required (SD/429):

3) There can be a separate subject noun in the subjective case. When the subjective case is used in combination with a pronominal-prefix, the subject is emphatic (SD/429):

The pronominal-prefix is optional if the subject noun is declined into the subjective case. Where omitted, the subject is not emphatic:

Apart from the subjective case, the only other known situation where the pronominal prefix can be omitted is with passive-verbs, which have no subject.

Examples (3rd-sg-neut)
ayadda “went” [← #yad-] past adūn izindi batān tāidō ayadda ✧ SD/247
ayadda “it went” [← #yad-] past ✧ VT24/12
Examples (3rd-sg-masc)
urahta [← rahat-] aorist bārun an-adūn {urahhata >>} urahta dāira sāibēth-mā ēruvō ✧ SD/312
usaphda “he understood” [← #saphad-] aorist ✧ SD/421
usaptha “he understood” [← #saphad-] aorist ✧ SD/421
ukallaba “fell” [← kalab-] past bār ukallaba, bārun (u)kallaba ✧ SD/429
unakkha “he-came” [← #nakh-] past Kadō zigūrun zabathān unakkha ✧ SD/247
unakkha [← #nakh-] past ✧ SD/312
urahhata [← rahat-] past ✧ SD/312
hunekkū “he-came” [← #nakh-] past draft ✧ SD/311
unekkū “he-came” [← #nakh-] past draft Kadō zigūrun zabathān {hunekkū >>} unekkū ✧ SD/311
Examples (3rd-sg-fem)
hikalba [← kalab-] aorist ✧ SD/288
hikalba [← kalab-] aorist anadūnē zīrān {hikallaba >>} hikalba ✧ SD/312
hikalba “she fell” [← kalab-] aorist anadūnē zīrān hikalba ✧ VT24/12
hikallaba “she-fell down” [← kalab-] past anadūnē zīrān hikallaba ✧ SD/247
hikallaba [← kalab-] past ✧ SD/312
Examples (3rd-pl-neut)
yakalubim “lean over” [← kalab-] continuative-present plural Urīd yakalubim ✧ SD/251
yanākhim “are at hand” [← #nakh-] continuative-present plural Narīka ’nBāri ’nAdūn yanākhim ✧ SD/251
Examples (3rd-pl-masc)
yurahtam “broke” [← rahat-] aorist plural bārim an-adūn yurahtam dāira sāibēth-mā ēruvō ✧ SD/247
yurahtam “they rent” [← rahat-] aorist plural ✧ VT24/12


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