Q. [m]

Q. [m]

References ✧ PE17/104, 124; PE18/105; PE19/71, 77, 79-80, 82, 92, 97, 101; VT42/24

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

Q. [no change] m < m ✧ PE19/71 (m > m; unchanged)
AQ. initial nasals plus voiced stops reduced to nasals m- < mb- ✧ PE17/104 (mb > mm > m); PE17/124 (mb > mm > m; initial); PE18/105 (mb > m)
AQ. syllabic nasals developed a preceding vowel of similar quality umb- < ṃb- ✧ PE19/77 (*ṃb- > *umb-)
Q. initial voiceless nasals [hm], [hn] became voiced [m], [n] m- < m̥- ✧ PE19/79 (hm > m; initially)
Q. [z] assimilated to following [m], [n] mm < zm ✧ PE19/82 (zm > mm); PE19/101 (zm > mm)
Van. [mm], [nn] became [mb], [nd] mm > mb ✧ PE19/92 (mm > mb)

ᴹQ. [m]

Reference ✧ PE22/65 ✧ m

Element In


ᴱQ. [m]

References ✧ PE12/16, 24; PE14/41, 60

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. [no change] m < m ✧ PE12/16 (m > m); PE12/16 (m > m)
ᴱQ. initial nasalized stops became nasals m- < mb- ✧ PE12/16 (mb > b)
ᴱQ. nasals became [n] before [j] mj > nj ✧ PE12/24 (m + y > ny)