S. *carth, n. “deed”

Sindarin noun for a “deed”, attested only in its lenited plural form gerth within the word úgarth “trespass” (VT44/28), which probably more literally means “*misdeed”. This word is not completely compatible with its Quenya cognate Q. carda “deed” from primitive ✶kardā, which in Sindarin should produce *cardh. Perhaps the Sindarin word had a slightly different primitive form *✶kartā.

Conceptual Development: Perhaps the earliest precursor of this word is G. carm “act, deed, exploit” in the Gnomish Lexicon from the 1910s (GL/25; PE13/111), cognate of contemporaneous ᴱQ. karma “shape, fashion; act, deed” (QL/45). In the Early Noldorin word lists from the 1920s, this word was revised to ᴱN. carbh “deed” (PE13/140), reflecting Tolkien’s changing conception of the phonetic development of final -m in Noldorin. In the Etymologies from the 1930s, the word appeared as N. carth or carð “deed” (cardh), but these forms were rejected and replaced by N. car(ð) “building” (Ety/KAR).

See also S. *carn “deed”.

References ✧ VT44/28

Inflections

*gerth soft-mutation plural ✧ VT44/28.2601-1

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N. carth n. “deed”

References ✧ Ety/KAR

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Phonetic Developments

ᴹ√KAR > carth [karta] > [kartʰa] > [karθa] > [karθ] ✧ Ety/KAR.010

ᴱN. carbh n. “deed”

References ✧ PE13/140

Glosses

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Changes

Inflections

cerbh plural ✧ PE13/140.3004

G. carm n. “deed, act, exploit”

References ✧ GL/25, 42; PE13/111

Glosses

Variations

Inflections

*garm soft-mutation g-mutation ✧ GL/42.8001-2

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