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PEN root. “lack, be without, have not”

PEN root. “lack, be without, have not”

A root appearing in various notes from around 1959-60 with glosses like “lack” (PE17/144), “lack, have not” (PE17/173), and “lack, be without” (WJ/375). The root clearly entered the Eldarin languages to explain the name S. Iarwain Ben-adar “Oldest and Fatherless” of Tom Bombadil (LotR/265), but Tolkien expanded its use from there.

References ✧ PE17/144, 171, 173; WJ/375, 408

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