Ad. common-nouns grammar.

Ad. common-nouns grammar.

Common nouns are used for animals and people in cases where no sex is specified (SD/426). They are also used for the names of the races of people, such as Adûnâ “Númenórean", Nimir “Elf" or uruk “Orc”. Many common nouns can be converted to masculine-nouns or feminine-nouns by adding the suffixes (feminine) or (masculine) or their variants and (SD/434).

According to Tolkien, common nouns have the same general form as neuter-nouns (SD/427). This means that they favor a as their last vowel, cannot have long î or û as their last vowel and cannot have a final long or . There are a number of seemingly common nouns that contradict this statement, however: khô “crow”, manô “spirit”, nûph (or nîph) “fool”. Perhaps such formations were merely rare with common nouns rather than completely forbidden as with neuter nouns.

Examples (common)
#Adûnâ “Númenórean, (lit.) Westerner”
anâ “human being”
*bên “servant, ?person”
#Êruhin “Child of God”
izindu-bêth “true-sayer, prophet”
kadar-lâi “city folk”
karab “horse”
khô “crow”
lâi “folk”
manô “spirit”
#miya “infant”
#narak “eagle”
Nimir “Elf, (lit.) Shining One”
#nimruzîr “Elf-friend”
nûph “fool”
nuphâr “parent”
raba “dog”
urug “bear”
uruk “orc, goblin”

References ✧ SD/426-427, 432, 434

Element In