√THAG root. “oppress, crush, press”
Tolkien used a variety of similar roots for “(com)press”, often used as a way of explaining the initial element of the name Q. Sangahyando “Throng-cleaver”. In the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s Tolkien had the root ᴱ√SAŊA “pack tight, press” with derivatives like ᴱQ. sanga “throng, tight mass, crowd” and ᴱQ. sanga- “pack tight, compress, press” (QL/81). Its Gnomish cognate G. thang “a crowd, crush, herd” implies the actual root was *ᴱ√ÞAŊA (GL/72).
The Etymologies of the 1930s had the root ᴹ√STAG “press, compress” with derivatives like ᴹQ. sanga “crowd, throng, press” and N. thang “compulsion, duress, need, oppression” (Ety/STAG). In etymological notes associated with Quenya prayers from the 1950s, Tolkien gave √THAG “oppress, crush, press” (along with a deleted fourth gloss “force”) with the derivatives Q. sahtië “pressure or force (to do something against one’s will or conscience)” (VT43/22). Tolkien’s continued use of Q. sanga “press, throng” and S. thang “pressure, oppression” indicate the ongoing validity of the root √THAG or √STAG.
Reference ✧ VT43/22 ✧ thag- “oppress, crush, press”
ᴹ√STAG root. “press, compress”
References ✧ Ety/STAG, SYAD; PE22/107
ᴱ√SAŊA root. “pack tight, press”
References ✧ LT2A/Gurtholfin; QL/81