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TAM root. “construct”

TAM root. “construct; [ᴹ√] knock, [ᴱ√] beat; smelt, forge”

In The Etymologies, the word for “craftsman, smith” was ᴹQ. tano, N. *tân as in N. Cirdan “Shipbuilder”, both from the root ᴹ√TAN “make, fashion”. In later writings, Tolkien changed √TAN >> √TAM “construct” and the Quenya form tano >> tamo “smith” (PE17/107-108), possibly due to conflict with a new root √TAN² “show, indicate”. That this change was lasting is supported by the appearance of the form Q. Martamo as a title of Aulë in a “very late note” (LT1A/Talka Marda), as opposed to the form ᴹQ. Martan(o) in The Etymologies (Ety/TAN).

However, √TAM would have produced S. **tav, and Tolkien wanted to retain the name Círdan. On PE17/108, he indicated that √TAN became the usual Sindarin form of the root, owing to the influence of √PAN “arrange, set in order”. Thus, the Sindarin development would have been √TAM > ✶tan- > *tân, lenited in S. Círdan and S. calardan “lampwright”, whose plural appears in The Lord of the Rings as part of S. Rath Celerdain “Lampwrights’ Street”.

References ✧ PE17/107, 186

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ᴹ√TAM root. “knock”

References ✧ Ety/PEL(ES), TAM

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ᴱ√TAMA root. “beat; smelt, forge”

References ✧ LT1A/Aulë; QL/88-89

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TAN¹ root. “construct, make with tools”

Apparently replaced in later writings by √TAM (see discussion in that entry), though it likely survived as the Sindarin (and Telerin?) form of the root.

References ✧ PE17/69, 96, 107-108, 186

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ᴹ√TAN¹ root. “make, fashion”

References ✧ Ety/GAWA, KIR, MBAR, TAN

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