[s]

[s]

References ✧ LotR/1114-1115; PE17/76; PE18/82, 93-94, 102; PE19/69-70, 73-74, 79, 82, 84, 87, 91, 101; VT47/42; WJ/413

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

[t+t], [d+d] from suffixion became [st], [zd] st < t+t ✧ PE18/102 (tt > tʰt > tˢt > st; suffixal); PE19/82 (t+t > st); PE19/84 (t+t > tˢt > st); PE19/87 (t+t > tˢt > st)
medial [h] vanished except before [t], [s] ss < hs ✧ PE19/74 (hs > ss)
[tk] became [kk] or [kt] kt < tk ✧ VT47/42 (tk > sk)
AQ. initial [s] plus continuant became voiceless continuant sj- > j̊- ✧ PE19/79 (sy > hy)
AQ. initial [s] plus continuant became voiceless continuant sl- > l̥- ✧ LotR/1114 (sl- > †hl; usually); PE19/79 (sl > hl; initially)
AQ. initial [s] plus continuant became voiceless continuant sm- > m̥- ✧ PE19/79 (sm > m̌m̌ > hm; initially)
AQ. initial [s] plus continuant became voiceless continuant sn- > n̥- ✧ PE19/79 (sn > ňň > hn; initially)
AQ. initial [s] plus continuant became voiceless continuant sr- > r̥- ✧ PE19/79 (sr > hr; initially)
AQ. initial [s] plus continuant became voiceless continuant sw- > w̥- ✧ PE19/79 (sw > hw); PE19/74 (sw > hw)
AQ. [s] medially between vowels and before voiced consonants became [z] VsV > VzV ✧ PE17/76 (s > z); PE19/73 (s > z; medially between vowels); WJ/413 (s > z)
AQ. [s] medially between vowels and before voiced consonants became [z] Vs{mnrljw} > Vz{mnrljw} ✧ PE19/101 (sm > zm); PE19/101 (sn > zn)
Ilk. initial [s] unvoiced following [l], [r], [w] sr- > r̥- ✧ PE18/94 (sr- > thr-)
OS. initial [s] unvoiced following consonant sl- > l̥- ✧ LotR/1114 (sl- > lh); PE19/79 (sl > hl; initially)
OS. initial [s] unvoiced following consonant sr- > r̥- ✧ LotR/1114 (sr- > rh; usually); PE19/79 (sr > hr; initially)
[s] became [z] before voiced stops sd > zd ✧ PE18/82 (*sd > [zd]); PE19/91 (s+d > zd)
[s] became [z] before voiced stops sb > zb ✧ PE19/69 (s > z; before b, d, g, m, n, [ñ])
[s] became [z] before voiced stops sg > zg ✧ PE19/101 (s > z; before b, d, g)
Q. [sj], [xj] became [j̊] sj > ✧ LotR/1115 (sy- > hy)
Q. [sp], [sk] metathesized to [ps], [sk] sk > ks ✧ PE18/94 (sk > ks); PE19/84 (sk > ks; metathesized)
Q. [sp], [sk] metathesized to [ps], [sk] sp > ps ✧ PE18/94 (sp > ps); PE19/84 (sp > ps; metathesized)
Q. syllabic [s] developed a preceding [i] ṣ- > is- ✧ PE19/79 ( > is)
S. initial [sm], [sn] became nasals [m], [n] sm- > m- ✧ PE19/79 (sm > m; initially)
S. initial [sm], [sn] became nasals [m], [n] sn- > n- ✧ PE19/79 (sn > n; initially)
T. initial [sm], [sn] became nasals [m], [n] sm- > m- ✧ PE19/79 (sm > m; initially)
T. initial [sm], [sn] became nasals [m], [n] sn- > n- ✧ PE19/79 (sn > n; initially)
T. [s] medially between vowels became [z] VsV > VzV ✧ PE19/73 (s > †z; medially between vowels)

ᴹ✶[s]

References ✧ Ety/ÓLOS; PE18/30, 54, 59; PE19/19, 21, 23, 30

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴹ✶[hs] from [ɣs], [ŋs] became [ss] ss < hs ✧ PE18/54 (hs > ss)
Dan. [j] was lost after initial dentals and [s] sj- > s- ✧ PE19/21 (sj- > s-); PE19/21 (sj- > s-)
Dan. initial [sr] became [str] sr- > str- ✧ PE19/21 (sr- > str-); PE19/21 (sr- > str-)
Ilk. [j] was lost after initial [s] sj- > s- ✧ PE19/21 (sj- > s)
Ilk. initial [s] unvoiced following [l], [r], [w] sl- > l̥- ✧ PE19/21 (sl- > lh-)
Ilk. initial [s] unvoiced following [l], [r], [w] sr- > r̥- ✧ PE19/21 (sr- > rh-)
Ilk. initial [s] unvoiced following [l], [r], [w] sw- > w̥- ✧ PE19/21 (sw- > hw-)
ᴹ✶[s] became [z] before voiced stops sb > zb ✧ PE18/54 (sb > zb)
ᴹ✶[s] became [z] before voiced stops sd > zd ✧ PE18/54 (sd > zd); PE18/59 (sd > zd)
ᴹ✶[s] became [z] before voiced stops sg > zg ✧ PE18/54 (sg > zg)
ᴹQ. [sf] became [f] sf > f ✧ Ety/ÓLOS (s-f > f)
ON. initial [s] unvoiced following [m], [n], [j], [w] sj- > j̊- ✧ PE19/21 (sj- > ɧ-)
ON. initial [s] unvoiced following [m], [n], [j], [w] sw- > w̥- ✧ PE19/21 (sw- > ƕ-)
ON. intervocalic [s] became [h] VsV > VhV ✧ PE19/23 (-s- > -h-)
ON. initial [s] became [θ] before [l], [r] sl- > θl- ✧ PE19/21 (sl- > thl-)
ON. initial [s] became [θ] before [l], [r] sr- > θr- ✧ PE19/21 (sr- > thr-)

ᴱ✶[s]

References ✧ PE12/15, 20; PE14/63

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. [sx] became [ss] sx > ss ✧ PE12/20 (sx > sh > ss)
ᴱQ. [xs] became [xx] xs > xx ✧ PE12/20 (χs > χχ)
ᴱQ. final voiceless spirants were weakened and voiced -s > -z ✧ PE12/20 (s > z)