[s]

[s]

References ✧ LotR/1114-1115; PE17/76; PE18/82, 93-94, 102; PE19/69-70, 73-74, 79, 82, 84, 87, 91, 101; VT47/42; WJ/413

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

[t+t], [d+d] from suffixion became [st], [zd] st < t+t ✧ PE18/102 (tt > tʰt > tˢt > st; suffixal); PE19/82 (t+t > st); PE19/84 (t+t > tˢt > st); PE19/87 (t+t > tˢt > st)
[hs] became [ss] ss < hs ✧ PE19/74 (hs > ss)
[tk] became [kk] or [kt] kt < tk ✧ VT47/42 (tk > sk)
AQ. syllabic initial [s] became [is] ṣ- > is- ✧ PE19/79 ( > is)
AQ. initial [s] unvoiced following continuant sj- > j̊- ✧ PE19/79 (sy > hy); LotR/1115 (sy- > hy)
AQ. initial [s] unvoiced following continuant sl- > l̥- ✧ LotR/1114 (sl- > †hl; usually); PE19/79 (sl > hl; initially)
AQ. initial [s] unvoiced following continuant sm- > m̥- ✧ PE19/79 (sm > m̌m̌ > hm; initially)
AQ. initial [s] unvoiced following continuant sn- > n̥- ✧ PE19/79 (sn > ňň > hn; initially)
AQ. initial [s] unvoiced following continuant sr- > r̥- ✧ LotR/1114 (sr- > hr; usually); PE19/79 (sr > hr; initially)
AQ. initial [s] unvoiced following continuant sw- > w̥- ✧ PE19/79 (sw > hw); PE19/74 (sw > hw)
AQ. medial [s] often became [z] VsV > VzV ✧ PE17/76 (s > z); PE19/73 (s > z; medially between vowels); WJ/413 (s > z)
AQ. medial [s] often became [z] sm > zm ✧ PE19/101 (sm > zm)
AQ. medial [s] often became [z] sn > zn ✧ PE19/101 (sn > zn)
Ilk. initial [s] unvoiced following [l], [r], [w] sr- > r̥- ✧ PE18/94 (sr- > thr-)
OS. initial [s] unvoiced following consonants sl- > l̥- ✧ LotR/1114 (sl- > lh); PE19/79 (sl > hl; initially)
OS. initial [s] unvoiced following consonants sm- > m̥- ✧ PE19/79 (sm > m; initially)
OS. initial [s] unvoiced following consonants sn- > n̥- ✧ PE19/79 (sn > n; initially)
OS. initial [s] unvoiced following consonants sr- > r̥- ✧ LotR/1114 (sr- > rh; usually); PE19/79 (sr > hr; initially)
[s] became [z] before voiced stops sd > zd ✧ PE18/82 (*sd > [zd]); PE19/91 (s+d > zd)
[s] became [z] before voiced stops sb > zb ✧ PE19/69 (s > z; before b, d, g, m, n, [ñ])
[s] became [z] before voiced stops sg > zg ✧ PE19/101 (s > z; before b, d, g)
Q. [sp], [sk] became [ps], [ks] sk > ks ✧ PE18/94 (sk > ks); PE19/84 (sk > ks; metathesized)
Q. [sp], [sk] became [ps], [ks] sp > ps ✧ PE18/94 (sp > ps); PE19/84 (sp > ps; metathesized)
T. initial [sm], [sn] became nasals [m], [n] sm- > m- ✧ PE19/79 (sm > m; initially)
T. initial [sm], [sn] became nasals [m], [n] sn- > n- ✧ PE19/79 (sn > n; initially)
T. [s] medially between vowels became [z] VsV > VzV ✧ PE19/73 (s > †z; medially between vowels)

ᴹ✶[s]

References ✧ Ety/ÓLOS; PE18/30, 54, 59; PE19/19, 21, 23, 30, 37-38, 50-52

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴹ✶[t+t], [d+d] from suffixion became [st], [zd] st < t+t ✧ PE19/51 (t-t > st; older)
ᴹ✶[hs] became [ss] ss < hs ✧ PE18/54 (hs > ss); PE19/51 (hs > ss)
Dan. [j] was lost after initial dentals and [s] sj- > s- ✧ PE19/21 (sj- > s-); PE19/21 (sj- > s-)
Dan. initial [sr] became [str] sr- > str- ✧ PE19/21 (sr- > str-); PE19/21 (sr- > str-)
Ilk. [j] was lost after initial [s] sj- > s- ✧ PE19/21 (sj- > s)
Ilk. initial [s] unvoiced following [l], [r], [w] sl- > l̥- ✧ PE19/21 (sl- > lh-)
Ilk. initial [s] unvoiced following [l], [r], [w] sr- > r̥- ✧ PE19/21 (sr- > rh-)
Ilk. initial [s] unvoiced following [l], [r], [w] sw- > w̥- ✧ PE19/21 (sw- > hw-)
ᴹAQ. [sr] became [ss] sr > ss ✧ PE19/51 (sr > r [ss?])
ᴹAQ. initial [s] plus voiceless stops became voiceless spirants sp- > ɸ- ✧ PE19/37 (sp > f; initial)
ᴹAQ. initial [s] plus voiceless stops became voiceless spirants sk- > x- ✧ PE19/38 (sky > hy; initial); PE19/38 (skw > hw; initial); PE19/37 (sk > h; initial)
ᴹAQ. initial [s] plus voiceless stops became voiceless spirants st- > θ- ✧ PE19/37 (st > th; initial)
ᴹAQ. initial [s] unvoiced following continuant sj- > j̊- ✧ PE19/38 (sy > hy; initial)
ᴹAQ. initial [s] unvoiced following continuant sl- > l̥- ✧ PE19/38 (sl > hl; initial)
ᴹAQ. initial [s] unvoiced following continuant sm- > m̥- ✧ PE19/38 (sm > m; initial)
ᴹAQ. initial [s] unvoiced following continuant sn- > n̥- ✧ PE19/38 (sn > n; initial)
ᴹAQ. initial [s] unvoiced following continuant sr- > r̥- ✧ PE19/38 (sr > hr; initial)
ᴹAQ. initial [s] unvoiced following continuant sw- > w̥- ✧ PE19/38 (sw > hw; initial)
ᴹAQ. [x], [s] unvoiced following [j], [w] sj > ✧ PE19/50 (sy > hy); PE19/51 (lsy > lhy; rare); PE19/51 (rsy > rhy); PE19/52 (sy > hy)
ᴹAQ. [x], [s] unvoiced following [j], [w] sw > ✧ PE19/50 (sw > hw); PE19/52 (sw > hw)
ᴹAQ. medial [s] often became [z] VsV > VzV ✧ PE19/50 (s > z)
ᴹAQ. medial [s] often became [z] sm > zm ✧ PE19/50 (sm > zm)
ᴹAQ. medial [s] often became [z] sn > zn ✧ PE19/50 (sn > zn)
ᴹAQ. medial [s] often became [z] sl > zl ✧ PE19/51 (sl > zl)
ᴹ✶[s] became [z] before voiced stops sb > zb ✧ PE18/54 (sb > zb)
ᴹ✶[s] became [z] before voiced stops sd > zd ✧ PE18/54 (sd > zd); PE18/59 (sd > zd)
ᴹ✶[s] became [z] before voiced stops sg > zg ✧ PE18/54 (sg > zg)
ᴹQ. [sf] became [f] sf > f ✧ Ety/ÓLOS (s-f > f)
ᴹQ. [sp], [sk] became [ps], [ks] sk > ks ✧ PE19/38 (sk > ks; initial)
ᴹQ. [sp], [sk] became [ps], [ks] sp > ps ✧ PE19/38 (sp > ps; initial)
ON. initial [s] unvoiced following [m], [n], [j], [w] sj- > j̊- ✧ PE19/21 (sj- > ɧ-)
ON. initial [s] unvoiced following [m], [n], [j], [w] sw- > w̥- ✧ PE19/21 (sw- > ƕ-)
ON. intervocalic [s] became [h] VsV > VhV ✧ PE19/23 (-s- > -h-)
ON. initial [s] became [θ] before [l], [r] sl- > θl- ✧ PE19/21 (sl- > thl-)
ON. initial [s] became [θ] before [l], [r] sr- > θr- ✧ PE19/21 (sr- > thr-)

ᴱ✶[s]

References ✧ PE12/15, 20; PE14/63

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. [sx] became [ss] sx > ss ✧ PE12/20 (sx > sh > ss)
ᴱQ. [xs] became [xx] xs > xx ✧ PE12/20 (χs > χχ)
ᴱQ. final voiceless spirants were weakened and voiced -s > -z ✧ PE12/20 (s > z)