[t]

[t]

References ✧ PE17/166; PE18/82, 91, 101-102; PE19/69, 78, 82, 84, 87, 90, 95; VT42/18, 24, 26; VT47/14, 16, 42

Variations

Related

Element In

Phonetic Development

{pʰtʰkʰptk}t < {pʰtʰkʰptk}d ✧ PE18/101 (d > t; in suffixes after voiceless stops and aspirates); PE18/102 (t-d > tt); PE18/102 (th-d > tth)
t{pʰtʰkʰptk} < d{pʰtʰkʰptk} ✧ PE18/102 (d-t > tt); PE18/102 (d-th > tth)
aspiration moved to end of group of stops ttʰ < tʰt ✧ PE18/102 (th-t > tth)
aspiration moved to end of group of stops ttʰ < tʰtʰ ✧ PE18/102 (th-th > tth)
t{ptkpʰtʰkʰs} < d{ptkpʰtʰkʰs} ✧ PE19/90 (d > t; before voiceless consonants); PE19/95 (d > t; before s)
{pʰtʰkʰptk}d > {pʰtʰkʰptk}t ✧ PE18/102 (t-d > tt)
AQ. aspirates became voiceless stops after voiceless stops ttʰ > tt ✧ VT47/14 (tth > tt); VT47/16 (tth > tt)
AQ. initial [s] plus voiceless stops became voiceless spirants st- > θ- ✧ PE19/78 (st > þþ > þ; initially)
AQ. initial nasals plus stops reduced to nasals ŋk- > k- ✧ PE18/92 (tk > c-)
OS. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals tn > dn ✧ VT42/26 (tn > dn)
OS. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals tm > dm ✧ VT42/26 (tm > dm)
OS. aspirates became voiceless spirants ttʰ > θθ ✧ VT47/14 (tth > tt > þþ); VT47/16 (tth > þþ)
[tk] became [kk] or [kt] tk > kk ✧ PE19/87 (tk > kk)
[t+t], [d+d] from suffixion became [st], [zd] t+t > st ✧ PE18/102 (tt > tʰt > tˢt > st; suffixal); PE19/82 (t+t > st); PE19/84 (t+t > tˢt > st); PE19/87 (t+t > tˢt > st); PE18/91 (t-t > st); VT42/18 (t-t > st)
[tk] became [kk] or [kt] tk > kt ✧ VT47/42 (tk > sk); PE17/166 (tk > kt; frequently in Quenya)
T. aspirates became voiceless stops after voiceless stops {ptk}tʰ > {ptk}t ✧ VT47/14 (tth > tt); VT47/16 (tth > tt)

ᴹ✶[t]

References ✧ PE18/30, 59; PE19/18, 20-21, 23, 30, 50-52

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴹ✶voiced stops unvoiced after voiceless stops and aspirates kt < kd ✧ PE19/52 (k + d > k + t)
ᴹ✶voiced stops unvoiced before voiceless consonants ts < ds ✧ PE19/50 (d + s > ts)
ᴹ✶aspirate became voiceless stop before [s] ts < tʰs ✧ PE19/50 (th + s > ts)
Ilk. initial [s] spirantalized following voiceless stops st- > θ- ✧ PE19/20 (st- > th-)
Ilk. voiceless stops voiced after vowels Vt > Vd ✧ PE19/23 (-t- > -d-)
ᴹAQ. stops frequently underwent metathesis with nasals and liquids tl > lt ✧ PE19/51 (tl > lt)
ᴹAQ. stops frequently underwent metathesis with nasals and liquids tr > rt ✧ PE19/51 (tr > rt)
ᴹAQ. [r] became [s] after voiceless stops and aspirates ntr > ns ✧ PE19/50 (ntr > ns; rare)
ᴹAQ. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals tn > dn ✧ PE19/50 (tn > dn)
ᴹAQ. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals tm > dm ✧ PE19/50 (tm > dm)
ᴹ✶[t+t], [d+d] from suffixion became [st], [zd] t+t > st ✧ PE19/51 (t-t > st; older)
ON. voiceless stops became spirants after initial [s] st- > sθ- ✧ PE19/20 (st- > sth-)

ᴱ✶[t]

References ✧ PE12/15, 22-23; PE14/63

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. [pp] became [pt] pt < pp ✧ PE12/23 (pp > pt)
ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] tk > kk ✧ PE12/22 (tk > cc); PE12/22 (tk > cc); PE12/23 ([t] + k > cc (ct))
ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] tkʷ > kʷkʷ ✧ PE12/23 ([t] + q > q)
ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] tp > pp ✧ PE12/22 (tp > pp)

ᴱ✶[tʲ] ‹ty, ky›

References ✧ PE12/15, 22

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] tʲk > kk ✧ PE12/22 (c̑ + k > cc (ct))
ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] tʲkʷ > kʷkʷ ✧ PE12/22 (c̑ + q > q)