[tʰ] ‹th›

[tʰ] ‹th›

References ✧ PE17/92; PE18/82-83, 102; PE19/69, 71, 83-84, 87, 90

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

AQ. aspirates in contact with [s] merged with voiceless stops stʰ|tʰs > st|ts ✧ PE19/83 (th-s > ts); PE19/84 (s-th > st)
AQ. aspirates in contact with voiceless stops merged with voiceless stops {ptk}tʰ > {ptk}t ✧ PE19/84 (p-th > pth); PE19/84 (kth > kth); PE19/87 (#tth > tt)
AQ. aspirates became voiceless spirants > θ ✧ PE19/71 (th > þ)
aspiration moved to end of group of stops tʰ{ptk|pʰtʰkʰ} > t{ptk}ʰ ✧ PE18/102 (th-t > tth); PE18/102 (th-th > tth)
voiced stops unvoiced when combined with voiceless stops and aspirates {pʰtʰkʰptk}d > {pʰtʰkʰptk}t ✧ PE18/102 (th-d > tth)

ᴹ✶[tʰ] ‹th›

References ✧ PE18/30, 59; PE19/18, 21, 23, 30

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

Dan. aspirates became voiceless spirants > θ ✧ PE19/18 (th- > th-); PE19/18 (th- > th-); PE19/21 (thr- > þr-); PE19/21 (thr- > þr-)
Dan. medial voiceless spirants voiced after vowels -Vθ- > -Vð- ✧ PE19/23 (-th- > -ð-); PE19/23 (-th- > þ, ð)
Dan. initial [θl] became [fl] θl- > fl- ✧ PE19/21 (thl- > fl-); PE19/21 (thl- > fl-)
Ilk. aspirates became voiceless spirants > θ ✧ PE19/18 (th- > th-); PE19/21 (thr- > thr-); PE19/21 (thl- > thl-)
Ilk. medial voiceless spirants voiced after vowels -Vθ- > -Vð- ✧ PE19/23 (-th- > -ð-)
ON. aspirates became voiceless spirants > θ ✧ PE19/18 (th- > th/þ-); PE19/21 (thr- > thr-); PE19/21 (thl- > thl-); PE19/23 (-th- > -th-)

ᴱ✶[ð] ‹đ, ř›

References ✧ PE12/15, 24; PE14/63

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. initial [ð] became [d] ð- > d- ✧ PE12/24 (đ > initially d)
ᴱQ. voiced spirants becames stops after liquids, nasals and [z] > ld ✧ PE12/24 ( > ld)
ᴱQ. voiced spirants becames stops after liquids, nasals and [z] > rd ✧ PE12/24 ( > rd)
ᴱQ. voiced spirants becames stops after liquids, nasals and [z] > nd ✧ PE12/24 ( > nd)
ᴱQ. voiced spirants becames stops after liquids, nasals and [z] > zd ✧ PE12/24 ( > rd)
ᴱQ. [ð] became [θ] before voiceless stops and [s] ðt > θt ✧ PE12/24 (đ + voiceless stop > þ)
ᴱQ. [ð] became [z] ð > z ✧ PE12/16 (đ > z; medial); PE12/24 (đ > z)

ᴱ✶[θ] ‹þ›

References ✧ PE12/15, 19-21; PE14/63

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. voiceless spirants voiced after liquids > ✧ PE12/19 (liquids + þ > )
ᴱQ. voiceless spirants voiced after liquids > ✧ PE12/19 (liquids + þ > )
ᴱQ. final voiceless spirants were weakened and voiced > ✧ PE12/20 (þ > đ)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirant combinations assimilated except to [θ] θɸ > ɸɸ ✧ PE12/21 (þ + ᵽ > ᵽᵽ)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirants became stops after nasals > nt ✧ PE12/19 (nasals + þ > nt)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirant combinations assimilated except to [θ] θx > xx ✧ PE12/20 (þx > xx)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirant combinations assimilated except to [θ] θxʷ > xʷxʷ ✧ PE12/20 (þ + x͡w > xx͡w)
ᴱQ. [θ] became [s] θ > s ✧ PE12/16 (þ > s); PE12/19 (þ > s)
ᴱQ. intervocalic voiceless spirants became voiced VθV > VðV ✧ PE12/16 (þ > z; medial)

ᴱ✶[θʲ] ‹χ̑, þy›

References ✧ PE12/15, 18-21

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. voiceless spirants voiced after liquids lθʲ > lðʲ ✧ PE12/19 (liquids + hy > ldy)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirants voiced after liquids rθʲ > rðʲ ✧ PE12/19 (liquids + hy > rdy)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirant combinations assimilated except to [θ] θʲɸ > ɸɸ ✧ PE12/21 (x͡y + ᵽ > ᵽᵽ)
ᴱQ. final voiceless spirants were weakened and voiced -θj > -j ✧ PE12/20 (hy > )
ᴱQ. voiceless spirants became stops after nasals nθʲ > ntʲ ✧ PE12/19 (nasals + hy > nty)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirant combinations assimilated except to [θ] θʲx > xx ✧ PE12/20 (x͡y + x > xx)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirant combinations assimilated except to [θ] θʲxʷ > xʷxʷ ✧ PE12/20 (x͡y + x͡w > xx͡w)
ᴱQ. initial [θʲ] became [sj] θʲ- > sj- ✧ PE12/18 (þ͡y > hy); PE12/16 (þ͡y > sı̯)
ᴱQ. intervocalic voiceless spirants became voiced VθʲV > VðʲV ✧ PE12/16 (þ͡y > ; medial); PE12/19 (þ͡y > )