Primitive Elvish Phonetics

Phonemes

  p-series t-series k-series
voiceless-stops [p] [t] [k]
aspirates [pʰ] ‹ph› [tʰ] ‹th› [kʰ] ‹kh›
voiced-stops [b] [d] [g]
nasals [m] [n] [ŋ] ‹ñ›
oral-continuants [w] [l] [r] [ɣ] ‹ʒ› [j] ‹y›
spirants [s] [z] [h]

vowels [i] [e] [a] [o] [u]
long-vowels [ī] [ē] [ę̄] [ā] [ō] [ǭ] [ū]
diphthongs [ai] [ei] [oi] [ui] [au] [eu] [iu] [ou]
others [ø]

Phonetic Groups

Phonetic Rules

aspirate became voiceless stop before [s] [{ptk}ʰs] > [{ptk}s]
aspirates became voiceless stops after [s], [h] [s{ptk}ʰ|htʰ] > [s{ptk}|ht]
aspiration moved to end of group of stops [{ptk}ʰ{ptk|pʰtʰkʰ}] > [{ptk}{ptk}ʰ]
[bm], [dn] became [mb], [nd] [bm|dn] > [mb|nd]
final [j], [w] became [i], [u] [-{jw}] > [-{iu}]
final [j], [w] vanished after long vowels in monosyllables [CV̄{jw}] > [CV̄]
final [l] became [r] [-l] > [-r]
final [m] became [n] [-m] > [-n]
[hs] became [ss] [hs] > [ss]
[ɣ] became [h] before voiceless consonants [ɣ{ptkpʰtʰkʰs}] > [h{ptkpʰtʰkʰs}]
[j], [w] became [i], [u] before consonants [V{jw}C] > [V{iu}C]
[lɣ] became [lg] [lɣ] > [lg]
long vowels shortened before consonant clusters [V̄CC] > [V̆CC]
medial [ɣ]/[h] vanished except before [t] [-h-|VhC|ht] > [-ø-|V̄øC|xt]
medial nasal plus stop after another consonant became simple nasal [-C{mnŋ}{bdg}-] > [-C{mnŋ}-]
medial [ŋj], [ŋw] became [ŋgj], [ŋgw] [-ŋ{wj}-] > [-ŋg{wj}-]
medial [ŋ] usually became [ɣ] [VŋV|ŋ{rl}|-ŋ] > [VɣV|ɣ{rl}|-ɣ]
metathesis [km] > [mk]
nasals assimilated to following stops and aspirates [{nŋ}{ppʰb}|{mŋ}{ttʰd}|{mn}{kkʰg}] > [m{ppʰb}|n{ttʰd}|ŋ{kkʰg}]
[ŋŋ], [ŋɣ] became [ŋg] [ŋ{ŋɣ}] > [ŋg]
[ŋs] became [ns] [ŋs] > [ns]
[pw], [pʰw] became [pp], [pʰp] [pw|pʰw] > [pp|pʰpʰ]
[s] became [z] before voiced stops [s{bdg}] > [z{bdg}]
short final [e], [a], [o] vanished [-S{ĕăŏǝ}] > [-Sø]
short final [i], [u] became [e], [o] [-S{ĭŭ}] > [-S{eo}]
stressed [wŏ] became [wa] [wŏ́] > [wa]
[t+t], [d+d] from suffixion became [st], [zd] [{ttʰd}+t|d+d] > [st|zd]
[tk] became [kk] or [kt] [tk] > [kk]
unstressed long vowels shortened [ˌV̄] > [V̆]
voiced stops unvoiced after voiceless stops and aspirates [{pʰtʰkʰptk}{bdg}|{bdg}{pʰtʰkʰptk}] > [{pʰtʰkʰptk}{ptk}|{ptk}{pʰtʰkʰptk}]
voiced stops unvoiced before voiceless consonants [{bdg}{ptkpʰtʰkʰs}] > [{ptk}{ptkpʰtʰkʰs}]
[wau] became [au] or [wā] [wau] > [au|wā]
[wou] became [wō] [] > []
[lr] became [ll] [] > [] 00100
[ae], [ao] became [ā] [a{eo}] > [ā] 00200
semi-vowels formed diphthongs before consonants [V{jw}C] > [V{iu}C] 00300

Other

phonetics