[p]

[p]

References ✧ PE18/82, 91; PE19/69, 78, 86-87, 90, 95; VT42/24, 26

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

[w] assimilated to preceding [p], [pʰ] pp < pw ✧ PE19/86 (pw > pp)
aspiration moved to end of group of stops p{ptk}ʰ < pʰ{ptk|pʰtʰkʰ} ✧ PE19/87 (p-th/ph-t/ph-th > pth)
stops were unvoiced before voiceless consonants p{ptkpʰtʰkʰs} < b{ptkpʰtʰkʰs} ✧ PE19/90 (b > p; before voiceless consonants); PE19/95 (b > p; before s)
{ptkmnŋlr}p > {ptkmnŋlr}pʰ ✧ PE18/91 (pp > pph); PE19/86 (rp > rf)
AQ. initial [s] plus voiceless stops became voiceless spirants sp- > ɸ- ✧ PE19/78 (sp > ff > f; initially)
OS. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals pm > bm ✧ VT42/26 (pm > bm)
OS. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals pn > bn ✧ VT42/26 (pn > bn)

ᴹ✶[p]

References ✧ PE18/30, 59; PE19/18, 20-21, 23, 30

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

Dan. initial [p] became [pʰ] p- > pʰ- ✧ PE19/18 (p- > f-); PE19/18 (p- > f-); PE19/21 (pr- > fr-); PE19/21 (pr- > fr-); PE19/21 (pl- > fl-); PE19/21 (pl- > fl-)
Ilk. initial [s] spirantalized following voiceless stops sp- > f- ✧ PE19/20 (sp- > f-)
Ilk. voiceless stops voiced after vowels Vp > Vb ✧ PE19/23 (-p- > -b-)
ON. voiceless stops aspirated after initial [s] sp- > spʰ- ✧ PE19/20 (sp- > sph-)

ᴱ✶[p]

References ✧ PE12/15, 23; PE14/63

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. [pp] became [pt] pp > pt ✧ PE12/23 (pp > pt)
ᴱQ. [pw] became [tw] pw > tw ✧ PE12/23 (pw̑ > tw̑)