[pʰ] ‹ph›

[pʰ] ‹ph›

References ✧ PE17/92; PE18/82-83, 91; PE19/69, 71, 83-84, 87-88; VT41/8

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

[w] assimilated to preceding [p], [pʰ] ppʰ < pʰw ✧ PE19/88 (phw > pph)
{ptk}pʰ > {ptk}p ✧ PE18/91 (pph > pp)
AQ. aspirates in contact with [s] merged with voiceless stops spʰ|pʰs > sp|ps ✧ PE19/83 (ph-s > ps)
AQ. aspirates in contact with voiceless stops merged with voiceless stops {ptk}pʰ > {ptk}p ✧ PE19/84 (pph > pp); PE19/84 (ph-t > pth); PE19/87 (pph > pp)
AQ. aspirates became voiceless spirants > ɸ ✧ PE19/71 (ph > [ᵽ])
aspiration moved to end of group of stops pʰ{ptk|pʰtʰkʰ} > p{ptk}ʰ ✧ PE19/87 (p-th/ph-t/ph-th > pth)
Q. [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v] ɸ > f ✧ PE17/92 (ph > f)

ᴹ✶[pʰ] ‹ph›

References ✧ PE18/30, 59; PE19/18, 21, 23, 30

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

Dan. aspirates became voiceless spirants > f ✧ PE19/18 (ph- > f-); PE19/18 (ph- > f-); PE19/21 (phr- > fr-); PE19/21 (phr- > fr-); PE19/21 (phl- > fl-); PE19/21 (phl- > fl-)
Dan. medial voiceless spirants voiced after vowels -Vf- > -Vv- ✧ PE19/23 (-ph- > f = v); PE19/23 (-ph- > f = v)
Ilk. aspirates became voiceless spirants > f ✧ PE19/18 (ph- > f-); PE19/21 (phr- > fr-); PE19/21 (phl- > fl-)
Ilk. medial voiceless spirants voiced after vowels -Vf- > -Vv- ✧ PE19/23 (-ph- > -v-)
ON. aspirates became voiceless spirants > ɸ ✧ PE19/18 (ph- > ph/f-); PE19/21 (phr- > phr-); PE19/21 (phl- > phl-); PE19/23 (-ph- > -ph-)

ᴱ✶[ɸ] ‹f›

References ✧ PE12/15, 20

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. [ɸx] became [f] ɸx > f ✧ PE12/20 (ᵽx > fh > f)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirants became stops before stops, [s] or [z] ɸt > pt ✧ PE12/20 (ᵽt > pt)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirants became stops before stops, [s] or [z] ɸs > ps ✧ PE12/20 (ᵽs > ps)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirants became stops after nasals > mp ✧ PE12/20 (nasal + ᵽ > mp)
ᴱQ. final [ɸ] became [xʷ] > -xʷ ✧ PE12/20 ( > ƕ)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirant combinations assimilated except to [θ] ɸxʷ > xʷxʷ ✧ PE12/20 (ᵽ + x͡w > xx͡w)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirants voiced before voiced continuants ɸ{βmnŋrljw} > β{βmnŋrljw} ✧ PE12/20 (ᵽ or f > ƀ; before voiced spirants, before n, r, l, ı̯, u̯)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirants voiced after liquids > ✧ PE12/20 (liquids + ᵽ > lb)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirants voiced after liquids > ✧ PE12/20 (liquids + ᵽ > rb)
ᴱQ. [ɸ] usually became [f] ɸ > f ✧ PE12/16 ( > f)
ᴱQ. [ɸ] usually became [f] ɸɣʷ > f ✧ PE12/20 (fw̑ > f)
ᴱQ. [ɸ] usually became [f] ɸðʲ > ✧ PE12/20 (fy̑ > hy)
ᴱQ. [ɸ] usually became [f] ɸu > βu ✧ PE12/20 ( > ƀ; before ū̆)
ᴱQ. intervocalic voiceless spirants became voiced VfV > VvV ✧ PE12/16 (f > v (w); medial); PE12/20 (ᵽ or f > f > v; between vowels)

ᴹ✶[β] ‹v›

References ✧ PE18/30-31

Variations

Element In


ᴱ✶[β] ‹v, ƀ›

References ✧ PE12/15, 24; PE14/63

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. voiced spirants becames stops after liquids, nasals and [z] > lb ✧ PE12/24 ( > lb)
ᴱQ. voiced spirants becames stops after liquids, nasals and [z] > rb ✧ PE12/24 ( > rb)
ᴱQ. voiced spirants becames stops after liquids, nasals and [z] > mb ✧ PE12/24 ( > mb)
ᴱQ. voiced spirants becames stops after liquids, nasals and [z] > zb ✧ PE12/24 ( > rb)
ᴱQ. [β] became [u] before consonants and finally VβC > VuC ✧ PE12/24 (ƀ + consonant > )
ᴱQ. [β] became [u] before consonants and finally > -u ✧ PE12/24 (ƀ final > u)
ᴱQ. [β] became [v] β > v ✧ PE12/16 (ƀ > v (w); medial); PE12/24 (ƀ > v)
ᴱQ. [β] vanished before [u] βu > øu ✧ PE12/24 (ƀū̆ > ū̆)