[k]

[k]

References ✧ PE18/82, 94; PE19/69, 75-76, 78, 83, 86-87, 90, 92-93, 95-96; UT/265; VT42/7, 24, 26; WJ/374-375

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

[tk] became [kk] or [kt] kk < tk ✧ PE19/87 (tk > kk)
stops were unvoiced before voiceless consonants k{ptkpʰtʰkʰs} < g{ptkpʰtʰkʰs} ✧ PE19/90 (g > k; before voiceless consonants); PE19/95 (g > k; before s)
kj > tj ✧ PE19/75 (ky > *ty)
AQ. [pm], [pn] and [kn] often became [mp] and [ŋk] kn > ŋk ✧ VT42/24 (kn > nk)
AQ. velars were dentalized before [j] kj > tj ✧ PE19/75 (ky > ty); PE19/83 (k > t; before y); PE19/86 (ky > ty); PE19/92 (ky > ty); PE19/93 (ky > ty); PE18/94 (ky > ty)
AQ. velars were dentalized before [j] ŋtj > ntj ✧ PE19/96 (ñky > nty)
AQ. initial [s] plus voiceless stops became voiceless spirants sk- > x- ✧ PE19/78 (sk > χχ > h; initially)
AT. labialized velars became labials kw > p ✧ VT42/7 (kw > p); UT/265 (kw > p); WJ/374 (kw > p); WJ/375 (kw > p)
OS. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals kn > gn ✧ VT42/26 (kn > gn)
OS. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals km > gm ✧ VT42/26 (km > gm)

ᴹ✶[k]

References ✧ PE18/30, 59; PE19/18, 20-21, 23, 30

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

Dan. initial [skw] became [sw] skw- > sw- ✧ PE19/20 (skw- > sw-)
Dan. [w] vanished after medial velars in Ossiriandic -kw- > -k- ✧ PE19/23 (-kw- > -c-)
Dan. [j] became [i] in Ossiriandic j > i ✧ PE19/23 (-kj- > -c(i)-)
Dan. non-initial [w] became [v] in East Danian Xw > Xv ✧ PE19/18 (kw- > kv-, k-); PE19/23 (-kw- > -k(v)-)
Ilk. voiceless stops voiced after vowels Vk > Vg ✧ PE19/23 (-k- > -g-)
ON. labialized velars became labials kw > p ✧ PE19/18 (kw- > p-); PE19/20 (skw- > sph-); PE19/23 (-kw- > -p-)
ON. voiceless stops aspirated after initial [s] sk- > skʰ- ✧ PE19/20 (sk- > skh-)

ᴱ✶[k]

References ✧ PE12/15, 22; PE14/63

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] kkʷ > kʷkʷ ✧ PE12/22 (kq > q)
ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] kp > pp ✧ PE12/22 (kp > pp)
ᴱQ. [pj], [kj] became [tj] kj > tj ✧ PE12/22 (kẏ > ty)

ᴱ✶[kʷ] ‹kw, q›

References ✧ PE12/15, 21-22

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱ✶[kʷu] became [ku] kʷu > ku ✧ PE12/21 (qū̆ > cu)
ᴱQ. [tʲ], [kʷ] became [t], [k] before [t], [s] kʷt > kt ✧ PE12/21 (q + t > ct)
ᴱQ. [tʲ], [kʷ] became [t], [k] before [t], [s] kʷs > ks ✧ PE12/21 (q + s > x)
ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] kʷk > kk ✧ PE12/21 (q + k > cc)
ᴱQ. [kʷkʷ] became [kʷ] kʷkʷ > ✧ PE12/22 (qq > q)
ᴱT. labialized velars became labials kʷ- > p- ✧ PE12/16 (k͡w > p)