[k]

[k]

References ✧ PE18/82, 94; PE19/69, 75-76, 78, 83, 86-87, 90, 92-93, 95-96; UT/265; VT42/7, 24, 26; WJ/374-375

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

[tk] became [kk] or [kt] kk < tk ✧ PE19/87 (tk > kk)
voiced stops unvoiced before voiceless consonants kt < gt ✧ PE19/90 (g > k; before voiceless consonants)
voiced stops unvoiced before voiceless consonants ks < gs ✧ PE19/95 (g > k; before s)
kj > tj ✧ PE19/75 (ky > *ty)
AQ. initial [s] plus voiceless stops became voiceless spirants sk- > x- ✧ PE19/78 (sk > χχ > h; initially)
AQ. velars were dentalized before [j] kj > tj ✧ PE19/75 (ky > ty); PE19/83 (k > t; before y); PE19/86 (ky > ty); PE19/92 (ky > ty); PE19/93 (ky > ty); PE18/94 (ky > ty)
AQ. velars were dentalized before [j] ŋkj > ntj ✧ PE19/96 (ñky > nty)
AT. labialized velars became labials kw > p ✧ VT42/7 (kw > p); UT/265 (kw > p); WJ/374 (kw > p); WJ/375 (kw > p)
OS. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals kn > gn ✧ VT42/26 (kn > gn)
OS. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals km > gm ✧ VT42/26 (km > gm)

ᴹ✶[k]

References ✧ PE18/30, 59; PE19/18, 20-21, 23, 30, 38, 50-52

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴹ✶voiced stops unvoiced before voiceless consonants ks < gs ✧ PE19/50 (g + s > ks)
ᴹ✶voiced stops unvoiced before voiceless consonants kt < gt ✧ PE19/52 (g + t > k + t)
ᴹ✶aspirate became voiceless stop before [s] ks < kʰs ✧ PE19/50 (kh + s > ks)
ᴹ✶aspiration moved to end of group of stops ktʰ < kʰt ✧ PE19/52 (kh + t > k + th)
Dan. initial [skw] became [sw] skw- > sw- ✧ PE19/20 (skw- > sw-)
Dan. [w] vanished after medial velars in Ossiriandic -kw- > -k- ✧ PE19/23 (-kw- > -c-)
Dan. [j] became [i] in Ossiriandic j > i ✧ PE19/23 (-kj- > -c(i)-)
Dan. non-initial [w] became [v] in East Danian Xw > Xv ✧ PE19/18 (kw- > kv-, k-); PE19/23 (-kw- > -k(v)-)
Ilk. voiceless stops voiced after vowels Vk > Vg ✧ PE19/23 (-k- > -g-)
ᴹAQ. stops frequently underwent metathesis with nasals and liquids kl > lk ✧ PE19/51 (kl > lk)
ᴹAQ. stops frequently underwent metathesis with nasals and liquids kr > rk ✧ PE19/51 (kr > rk)
ᴹAQ. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals km > gm ✧ PE19/50 (km > gm)
ᴹAQ. aspirates became voiceless stops after voiceless stops ktʰ > kt ✧ PE19/52 (k + th > k + t)
ᴹAQ. velars were dentalized before [j] kj > tj ✧ PE19/51 (sky > sty); PE19/50 (ky > ty); PE19/38 (ky > ty); PE19/51 (lky > lty); PE19/51 (rky > rty)
ON. labialized velars became labials kw > p ✧ PE19/18 (kw- > p-); PE19/20 (skw- > sph-); PE19/23 (-kw- > -p-)
ON. voiceless stops became spirants after initial [s] sk- > sx- ✧ PE19/20 (sk- > skh-)

ᴱ✶[k]

References ✧ PE12/15, 22; PE14/63

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] kkʷ > kʷkʷ ✧ PE12/22 (kq > q)
ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] kp > pp ✧ PE12/22 (kp > pp)
ᴱQ. [pj], [kj] became [tj] kj > tj ✧ PE12/22 (kẏ > ty)

ᴱ✶[kʷ] ‹kw, q›

References ✧ PE12/15, 21-22

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱ✶[kʷu] became [ku] kʷu > ku ✧ PE12/21 (qū̆ > cu)
ᴱQ. [tʲ], [kʷ] became [t], [k] before [t], [s] kʷt > kt ✧ PE12/21 (q + t > ct)
ᴱQ. [tʲ], [kʷ] became [t], [k] before [t], [s] kʷs > ks ✧ PE12/21 (q + s > x)
ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] kʷk > kk ✧ PE12/21 (q + k > cc)
ᴱQ. [kʷkʷ] became [kʷ] kʷkʷ > ✧ PE12/22 (qq > q)
ᴱT. labialized velars became labials kʷ- > p- ✧ PE12/16 (k͡w > p)