[n]

[n]

References ✧ LotR/1115; PE17/124, 162; PE18/82, 92, 102; PE19/69, 71, 76-77, 81-82, 85, 89, 96, 98-100; VT42/24; VT47/24

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

nasals assimilated to following stops n{ttʰd} < ŋ{ttʰd} ✧ PE18/102 (ŋ > n; before t, th, d); PE19/98 (ñ > n; before dental stop and aspirates); PE19/99 (ñt > nt)
[ŋs] became [ns] ns < ŋs ✧ PE18/102 (ŋ > n; before ... s); PE19/82 (ŋs > ns); PE19/99 (ñs > ns)
medial nasal plus stop after another consonant became simple nasal -Cn- < -Cnd- ✧ PE19/81 (nd > n; in the second element of compounds)
final [m] became [n] -n < -m ✧ VT47/24 (-m > -n)
AQ. syllabic nasals developed a preceding vowel of similar quality ṇd- > and- ✧ PE17/124 ( > an); PE19/77 (*ṇd- > *and-)
AQ. [ln] became [ld] ln > ld ✧ PE19/100 (ln > ld)
AQ. [nl], [nr] became [ll], [rr] nl > ll ✧ PE19/98 (nl > ll)
AQ. [nm] became [mm] nm > mm ✧ PE19/96 (nm > mm); PE19/98 (nm > mm)
AQ. [nl], [nr] became [ll], [rr] nr > rr ✧ PE19/98 (nr > rr)
AQ. [n], [m] after voiceless stops became [t], [w] {ptk}n > {ptk}t ✧ PE19/85 (pn > pʰň > pʰt); PE19/85 (tn > tʰň > tt); PE19/85 (kn > kʰň > kʰt)
AQ. nasals before aspirates became voiceless stops ntʰ > ttʰ ✧ PE19/89 (nth > *tth > tt)
AT. initial nasalized voiced stops became stops nd- > d- ✧ PE19/76 (nd > d; initially)
AT. [ln] became [ll] ln > ll ✧ PE19/100 (ln > ll)
OS. initial syllabic [m], [n], [ŋ] became [am], [an], [aŋ] ṇ- > an- ✧ PE17/124 ( > an-)
nasals assimilated to following stops n{ppʰb} > m{ppʰb} ✧ PE18/102 (n > m; before p, ph, b); PE19/98 (n > m; before labial stop and aspirates)
medial nasal plus stop after another consonant became simple nasal -Cnd- > -Cn- ✧ PE19/81 (nd > n; in the second element of compounds)
nasals assimilated to following stops n{kkʰg} > ŋ{kkʰg} ✧ PE18/102 (n > ŋ; before k, kh, g, ʒ); PE19/98 (n > ñ; before k, kh, g)
Q. [n] vanished between vowels and [r] with compensatory lengthening Vnr > V̄ør ✧ PE17/162 (nr > ¯r)
Q. initial voiceless nasalized stops became stops mp- > p- ✧ PE18/92 (nt > t-)
S. initial nasals vanished before stops nθ- > θ- ✧ PE18/92 (nt > th-)
S. [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn] nd > nn ✧ LotR/1115 (nd > nn; usually)

ᴹ✶[n]

References ✧ PE18/30, 54, 59; PE19/19-21, 23, 30

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴹ✶nasals assimilated to following stops n{ttʰd} < ŋ{ttʰd} ✧ PE18/54 (ŋt, ŋth, ŋd > nt, nth, nd)
Dan. initial nasals vanished before stops nd- > d- ✧ PE19/20 (nd- > d); PE19/20 (nd- > d)
Ilk. initial [s] was lost before consonants sC- > øC- ✧ PE19/21 (sn- > n-)
Ilk. initial nasals usually vanished before stops nd- > d- ✧ PE19/20 (nd- > d, nd)
ON. initial [s] unvoiced following [m], [n], [j], [w] sn- > n̥- ✧ PE19/21 (sn- > n-)

ᴱ✶[n]

References ✧ PE12/15; PE14/63

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development


ᴱ✶[nd]

Reference ✧ PE12/15 ✧ nd

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. initial nasalized stops became nasals nd- > n- ✧ PE12/16 (nd > d)
ᴱT. initial nasalized voiced stops became nasals nd- > n- ✧ PE12/16 (nd > n)

ᴱ✶[ndʲ] ‹ndy›

Reference ✧ PE12/15 ✧ ñj

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. initial nasalized stops became nasals ndʲ- > nʲ- ✧ PE12/16 (ñj > dı̯)
ᴱT. initial nasalized voiced stops became nasals ndʲ- > nʲ- ✧ PE12/16 (ñj > nı̯)

ᴱ✶[nʲ] ‹ny, ñ›

References ✧ PE12/15

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development