[ŋ] ‹ñ›

[ŋ] ‹ñ›

References ✧ LotR/1115; PE17/44, 60, 124, 169; PE18/82, 91-92, 94, 102-105; PE19/69, 71-72, 74-77, 81-82, 89, 95-96, 98-99; PE22/149; VT48/26

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

medial [ŋj], [ŋw] became [ŋgj], [ŋgw] -ŋgj- < -ŋj- ✧ PE18/102 (ŋy > ŋgy; medially); PE18/104 (ñy > ñgy; medially)
medial [ŋj], [ŋw] became [ŋgj], [ŋgw] -ŋgw- < -ŋw- ✧ PE18/102 (ŋw > ŋgw; medially); PE18/104 (ñw > ñgw; medially)
nasals assimilated to following stops and aspirates ŋk < nk ✧ PE18/102 (n > ŋ; before k, kh, g, ʒ); PE19/98 (n > ñ; before k, kh, g)
nasals assimilated to following stops and aspirates ŋk < mk ✧ PE18/102 (m > ŋ; before k, kh, g)
medial nasal plus stop after another consonant became simple nasal -Cŋ- < -Cŋg- ✧ PE19/81 (ñg > ñ; in the second element of compounds)
ŋw- > m- ✧ PE18/105 (ñw > m)
ŋgw- > m- ✧ PE18/105 (ñgw > m)
ŋgj- > n- ✧ PE18/105 (ñgy > n)
ŋg- > ŋ- ✧ PE18/104 (ñg > ñ); PE18/105 (ñg > ñ)
V̄ŋ{rlmn} > V̄{rlmn} ✧ PE18/103 (ñ > [ø]; before r, l, n, m)
AQ. nasals became voiceless stops before aspirates ŋkʰ > kkʰ ✧ PE19/89 (ñkh > *kkh > kk)
AQ. syllabic nasals developed a preceding vowel of similar quality ŋ̣g- > iŋg- ✧ PE17/124 (ŋ̣̃ > ); PE19/77 (*ŋ̣g- > *iŋg-)
AQ. syllabic nasals developed a preceding vowel of similar quality ŋ̣gj- > iŋgj- ✧ PE19/77 (*ŋ̣gj- > *iŋgj-)
AQ. syllabic nasals developed a preceding vowel of similar quality ŋ̣gw- > uŋgw- ✧ PE17/124 ([ŋ̣]gw > uŋ[gw]); PE19/77 (*ŋ̣gw- > *uŋgw-)
AQ. velars were dentalized before [j] ŋj > nj ✧ PE19/74 (ñy > ny); PE18/94 (ñy > ny); PE18/105 (ñy > ny)
AQ. velars were dentalized before [j] ŋgj > ndj ✧ PE18/105 (ñgy > ny)
AQ. initial nasals plus stops reduced to nasals ŋg- > ŋ- ✧ PE19/76 (ñg- > ñ); PE19/76 (ñgy- > ny); PE19/76 (ñgw- > ñw); PE18/105 (ñg > ñ); PE18/105 (ñgw > ñw)
AT. labialized velars became labials ŋgw > mb ✧ PE18/105 (ñgw > b); PE18/104 (ñgw > mb)
AT. labialized velars became labials ŋw- > m- ✧ PE18/104 (ŋ̃w > m; initially); PE18/105 (ñw > m); PE18/104 (ñw > m)
Ilk. initial [ŋ], [ɣ] became [g] ŋ- > g- ✧ PE18/105 (ñ > ñg > g); PE18/105 (ñw > ñgw > gw)
Ilk. [j] was lost after initial velars and dentals gj- > g- ✧ PE18/105 (ñy > ñg(y) > g); PE18/105 (ñgy > g)
Ilk. initial nasals usually vanished before stops ŋg- > g- ✧ PE18/105 (ñg > g); PE18/105 (ñgw > gw)
ON. initial and intervocalic [ŋ] vanished ŋ- > ø- ✧ PE18/105 (ñ > [ø]); PE18/105 (ñy > y, ı̯); PE18/104 (ñy > y); PE18/104 (ŋ̃ > [ø]; initially)
OS. initial [ŋ] became [ŋg] ŋ- > ŋg- ✧ PE17/60 (ñ- > ñg)
OS. [j] was lost after initial velars ŋgj > ŋg ✧ PE18/105 (ñgy > g)
OS. initial syllabic [m], [n], [ŋ] became [am], [an], [aŋ] ŋ̣- > aŋ- ✧ PE17/124 (ŋ̣̃ > ang-)
[ŋŋ], [ŋɣ] became [ŋg] ŋŋ > ŋg ✧ PE18/91 (ŋŋ > ŋg); PE18/104 (ññ > ñg); PE19/96 (ññ > ñg); PE22/149 (ŋŋ > ng); PE22/149 (ŋŋ > ŋg)
medial [ŋ] usually became [ɣ] VŋV > VɣV ✧ PE18/102 (ŋ > ʒ); PE19/72 (ñ > ʒ; denasalized medially between vowels); PE19/95 (ñ > ʒ; between vowels or before r, l)
nasals assimilated to following stops and aspirates ŋp > mp ✧ PE18/102 (ŋ > m; before p, ph, b); PE19/98 (ñ > m; before labial stop and aspirates)
nasals assimilated to following stops and aspirates ŋt > nt ✧ PE18/102 (ŋ > n; before t, th, d); PE19/98 (ñ > n; before dental stop and aspirates); PE19/99 (ñt > nt)
[ŋs] became [ns] ŋs > ns ✧ PE18/102 (ŋ > n; before ... s); PE19/82 (ŋs > ns); PE19/99 (ñs > ns); PE18/104 (ñs > ns)
medial [ŋj], [ŋw] became [ŋgj], [ŋgw] -ŋj- > -ŋgj- ✧ PE18/102 (ŋy > ŋgy; medially); PE18/104 (ñy > ñgy; medially)
medial [ŋj], [ŋw] became [ŋgj], [ŋgw] -ŋw- > -ŋgw- ✧ PE18/102 (ŋw > ŋgw; medially); PE18/104 (ñw > ñgw; medially)
medial nasal plus stop after another consonant became simple nasal -Cŋg- > -Cŋ- ✧ PE19/81 (ñg > ñ; in the second element of compounds)
Q. medial [ŋ] after a [n], [ŋ], [l], [r] became [g] -{nŋlr}ŋ- > -{nŋlr}g- ✧ PE19/81 (ñ > g)
Q. [ŋ] assimilated to following [n] after [e], [a], [o] aŋn > ann ✧ PE22/149 (ŋn > nn; later)
S. initial nasals vanished before stops ŋg- > g- ✧ PE17/169 (ŋ > ʒ > g); PE18/105 (ñg > g)
S. initial nasals vanished before stops ŋx- > x- ✧ PE18/92 (ŋk > h-)
S. [ŋ] vanished with compensatory lengthening Vŋn > V̄n ✧ PE22/149 (ŋn > ŋn > ¯n)
S. [ŋ] vanished with compensatory lengthening Vŋw > V̄w ✧ PE17/44 (ñm > ¯w)
T. initial nasalized voiced stops became stops ŋg- > g- ✧ PE19/76 (ñg > g; initially)
T. palatalized velars became dentals ŋj- > n- ✧ PE18/103 (ñy > n; initially); PE18/105 (ñy > n)
T. palatalized velars became dentals ŋgj- > nd- ✧ PE18/104 (ñgy > n)
T. initial [ŋ] vanishes ŋ- > ø- ✧ PE17/60 (ñ- > [ø])

ᴹ✶[ŋ]

References ✧ Ety/ING; EtyAC/GOS; PE18/30, 54, 59; PE19/19-20, 23, 30, 37-38, 50

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴹ✶nasals assimilated to following stops and aspirates ŋk < mk ✧ PE19/50 (m-k > ñk); PE19/50 (n-k > ñk)
Dan. [ŋ], [ɣ] became [g] ŋ > g ✧ PE19/19 (ŋ- > g-); PE19/19 (ŋ- > g-); PE19/23 (-ŋ- > -g-); PE19/23 (-ŋ- > -g-)
Dan. initial nasals vanished before stops ŋg- > g- ✧ PE19/20 (ŋg- > g); PE19/20 (ŋg- > g)
Ilk. [ŋ] became [ɣ] between vowels and before [l], [r] VŋV > VɣV ✧ PE19/23 (-ŋ- > (ʒ))
Ilk. initial [ŋ], [ɣ] became [g] ŋ- > g- ✧ PE19/19 (ŋ- > g-); PE19/19 (ŋw- > gw-)
Ilk. initial nasals usually vanished before stops ŋg- > g- ✧ PE19/20 (ŋg- > g, ng); PE19/20 (ŋgw- > gw, ngw)
ᴹAQ. nasals became voiceless stops before aspirates ŋkʰ > kkʰ ✧ PE19/50 (ñkh > kk)
ᴹAQ. velars were dentalized before [j] ŋkj > ntj ✧ PE19/50 (ñky > nty)
ᴹAQ. velars were dentalized before [j] ŋj > nj ✧ PE19/38 (ñy > ny)
ᴹAQ. velars were dentalized before [j] ŋgj > ndj ✧ PE19/38 (ñgy > ny)
ᴹAQ. initial [ŋ] vanished ŋw- > w- ✧ PE19/38 (ñw > ʒw > w)
ᴹAQ. initial [ŋ] vanished ŋV- > øV- ✧ PE19/38 (ñ > ø; initial)
ᴹAQ. initial nasals plus stops reduced to nasals ŋk- > k- ✧ PE19/37 (ñk > k; initial); PE19/38 (ñky > kw; initial); PE19/38 (ñky > ty; initial)
ᴹ✶nasals assimilated to following stops and aspirates ŋt > nt ✧ PE18/54 (ŋt, ŋth, ŋd > nt, nth, nd)
ᴹ✶medial [ŋj], [ŋw] became [ŋgj], [ŋgw] -ŋj- > -ŋgj- ✧ PE18/54 (ŋy > ŋgy); PE19/50 (ñy > ñgy)
ᴹ✶medial [ŋj], [ŋw] became [ŋgj], [ŋgw] -ŋw- > -ŋgw- ✧ PE18/54 (ŋw > ŋgw)
ᴹ✶[ŋŋ], [ŋɣ] became [ŋg] ŋŋ > ŋg ✧ PE19/50 (ññ > ñg)
ᴹ✶medial [ŋ] usually became [ɣ] VŋV > VɣV ✧ PE18/54 (ŋ > ʒ)
ᴹ✶medial [ŋ] usually became [ɣ] ŋr > ɣr ✧ PE18/54 (ŋr > ʒr)
ᴹ✶medial [ŋ] usually became [ɣ] ŋl > ɣl ✧ PE18/54 (ŋl > ʒl)
ᴹ✶medial [ŋ] usually became [ɣ] ŋs > ɣs ✧ PE18/54 (ŋs > ʒs)
ON. labialized velars became labials ŋgw > mb ✧ Ety/ING (ngw > mb); PE19/20 (ŋgw- > mb-)
ON. initial and intervocalic [ŋ] vanished ŋ- > ø- ✧ PE19/19 (ŋj- > j-); PE19/19 (ŋ- > -); PE19/19 (ŋw- > w-)
ON. initial and intervocalic [ŋ] vanished VŋV > VøV ✧ PE19/23 (-ŋ- > -)

ᴱ✶[ŋ]

References ✧ PE12/15; PE14/63

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. intervocalic [ŋ], [ŋʷ] became [ŋg], [ŋgʷ] VŋV > VŋgV ✧ PE12/16 (ȵ > ng; medial)
ᴱQ. initial [ŋ] became [n] ŋ- > n- ✧ PE12/16 (ȵ > n)

ᴱ✶[ŋg]

Reference ✧ PE12/15 ✧ ȵg

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. initial nasalized stops became nasals ŋg- > ŋ- ✧ PE12/16 (ȵg > g)
ᴱT. initial nasalized voiced stops became nasals ŋg- > ŋ- ✧ PE12/16 (ȵg > n)

ᴱ✶[ŋgʷ] ‹ngw›

Reference ✧ PE12/15 ✧ ȵg͡w

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. initial nasalized stops became nasals ŋgʷ- > ŋʷ- ✧ PE12/16 (ȵg͡w > gu̯; initial)
ᴱT. labialized velars became labials ŋgʷ- > b- ✧ PE12/16 (ȵg͡w > b)
ᴱT. labialized velars became labials -ŋgʷ- > -mb- ✧ PE12/16 (ȵg͡w > mb; medial)
ᴱT. initial nasalized voiced stops became nasals ŋgʷ- > ŋʷ- ✧ PE12/16 (ȵg͡w > nu̯)

ᴱ✶[ŋʷ] ‹nw›

Reference ✧ PE12/15 ✧ ȵ͡w

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. intervocalic [ŋ], [ŋʷ] became [ŋg], [ŋgʷ] VŋʷV > VŋgʷV ✧ PE12/16 (ȵ͡w > ngu̯; medial)
ᴱT. labialized velars became labials ŋʷ- > m- ✧ PE12/16 (ȵ͡w > m)