[d]

[d]

References ✧ LotR/1113; PE17/153; PE18/82, 91, 101-102; PE19/69-70, 76, 79, 82-83, 90, 92, 94-95; VT48/30; WJ/363, 413-414

Variations

Related

Element In

Phonetic Development

{pʰtʰkʰptk}d > {pʰtʰkʰptk}t ✧ PE18/101 (d > t; in suffixes after voiceless stops and aspirates)
d{pʰtʰkʰptk} > t{pʰtʰkʰptk} ✧ PE18/102 (d-t > tt); PE18/102 (d-th > tth)
d{ptkpʰtʰkʰs} > t{ptkpʰtʰkʰs} ✧ PE19/90 (d > t; before voiceless consonants); PE19/95 (d > t; before s)
AQ. initial [d] assimilated to following [n] dVXn- > nVXn- ✧ VT48/30 (d > n); WJ/414 (d > n-)
AQ. combinations of voiced stops were unvoiced dd > tt ✧ PE18/91 (dd > tt; from dynamic lengthening); PE19/83 (dd > tt)
AQ. voiced stops became nasals before nasals dn > nn ✧ PE19/92 (d > n; before nasals)
AQ. initial [dr-], [dl-] became [r-], [l-] dr- > r- ✧ PE19/79 (dr > r; initially)
AQ. initial [dr-], [dl-] became [r-], [l-] dl- > l- ✧ PE19/79 (dl > l; initially)
AQ. [dj] became [lj] dj > lj ✧ PE19/70 (dy > ly); PE19/94 (dy > ly); WJ/363 (dj > ly)
AQ. initial [d] became [l] d- > l- ✧ PE19/69 (d > l; initially); VT48/30 (d > l); WJ/363 (d > l); PE17/153 (d > l; initial)
AQ. voiced stops became spirants except after nasals d > ð ✧ PE19/69 (d > đ; medially between vowels)
AQ. initial nasals plus stops reduced to nasals nd- > n- ✧ PE19/76 (nd- > n)
[t+t], [d+d] from suffixion became [st], [zd] d+d > zd ✧ PE18/102 (dd > dʰd > dᶻd > zd; suffixal); PE19/82 (d+d > zd); PE19/90 (d+d > dᶻd > zd); PE18/91 (d-d > st)
S. voiced stops became spirants after vowels Vd > ✧ LotR/1113 (d > [dh])

ᴹ✶[d]

References ✧ PE18/30, 59; PE19/18, 21, 23, 30, 38, 50-52

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴹAQ. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals dn < tn ✧ PE19/50 (tn > dn)
ᴹAQ. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals dm < tm ✧ PE19/50 (tm > dm)
Ilk. voiced stops spirantalized after vowels Vd > ✧ PE19/23 (-d- > -ð-)
Ilk. [dl] became [gl] dl > gl ✧ PE19/21 (dl- > gl-)
ᴹAQ. voiced stops became nasals before nasals dn > nn ✧ PE19/50 (dn > nn)
ᴹAQ. voiced stops became nasals before nasals dm > nm ✧ PE19/50 (dm > nm)
ᴹAQ. initial [dr-], [dl-] became [r-], [l-] dl- > l- ✧ PE19/38 (dl > l; initial)
ᴹAQ. initial [dr-], [dl-] became [r-], [l-] dr- > r- ✧ PE19/38 (dr > r; initial)
ᴹAQ. initial [d] became [l] d- > l- ✧ PE19/38 (d > l; initial)
ᴹAQ. initial nasals plus stops reduced to nasals nd- > n- ✧ PE19/38 (nd > n; initial)
ᴹ✶voiced stops unvoiced after voiceless stops and aspirates kd > kt ✧ PE19/52 (k + d > k + t)
ᴹ✶voiced stops unvoiced before voiceless consonants ds > ts ✧ PE19/50 (d + s > ts)
ᴹ✶[t+t], [d+d] from suffixion became [st], [zd] d+d > zd ✧ PE19/51 (d-d > zd)
ᴹQ. medial [ð] dissimilated to [l] after [r] rVð > rVl ✧ PE19/51 (d > l; occasionally)
ᴹQ. intervocalic [ð] became [r] VðV > VrV ✧ PE19/51 (d > r)

ᴱ✶[d]

References ✧ PE12/15; PE14/63

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. voiced stops became spirants after vowels Vd > ✧ PE12/16 (d > z; medial)

ᴱ✶[dʲ] ‹dy›

References ✧ PE12/15

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. voiced stops became spirants after vowels Vdʲ > Vðʲ ✧ PE12/16 (d͡y > ; medial)