[d]

[d]

References ✧ LotR/1113; PE17/153; PE18/82, 91, 101-102; PE19/69-70, 76, 79, 82-83, 90, 92, 94-95; VT48/30; WJ/363, 413-414

Variations

Related

Element In

Phonetic Development

AQ. initial voiced stops became spirants d- > ð- ✧ PE19/69 (d > đ; medially between vowels); PE17/153 (d > l; initial)
AQ. initial [d-] became [l-] d- > l- ✧ PE19/69 (d > l; initially); VT48/30 (d > l); WJ/363 (d > l)
AQ. medial [dj] became [lj] -dj- > -lj- ✧ PE19/70 (dy > ly); PE19/94 (dy > ly); WJ/363 (dj > ly)
AQ. initial nasals plus voiced stops reduced to nasals nd- > n- ✧ PE19/76 (nd- > n)
AQ. voiced stops before nasals became nasals d{mnŋ} > n{mnŋ} ✧ PE19/92 (d > n; before nasals)
AQ. initial [d] assimilated to following [n] dVXn- > nVXn- ✧ VT48/30 (d > n); WJ/414 (d > n-)
AQ. long dynamic voiceless stops became unvoiced dd > tt ✧ PE18/91 (dd > tt; from dynamic lengthening); PE19/83 (dd > tt)
AQ. initial [dr-], [dl-] became [r-], [l-] dr- > r- ✧ PE19/79 (dr > r; initially)
AQ. initial [dr-], [dl-] became [r-], [l-] dl- > l- ✧ PE19/79 (dl > l; initially)
voiced stops unvoiced when combined with voiceless stops and aspirates {pʰtʰkʰptk}d > {pʰtʰkʰptk}t ✧ PE18/101 (d > t; in suffixes after voiceless stops and aspirates)
voiced stops unvoiced when combined with voiceless stops and aspirates d{pʰtʰkʰptk} > t{pʰtʰkʰptk} ✧ PE18/102 (d-t > tt); PE18/102 (d-th > tth)
stops were unvoiced before voiceless consonants d{ptkpʰtʰkʰs} > t{ptkpʰtʰkʰs} ✧ PE19/90 (d > t; before voiceless consonants); PE19/95 (d > t; before s)
[t+t], [d+d] from suffixion became [st], [zd] d+d > zd ✧ PE18/102 (dd > dʰd > dᶻd > zd; suffixal); PE19/82 (d+d > zd); PE19/90 (d+d > dᶻd > zd); PE18/91 (d-d > st)
S. voiced stops became spirants after vowels Vd > ✧ LotR/1113 (d > [dh])

ᴹ✶[d]

References ✧ PE18/30, 59; PE19/18, 21, 23, 30

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

Ilk. voiced stops spirantalized after vowels Vd > ✧ PE19/23 (-d- > -ð-)
Ilk. [dl] became [gl] dl > gl ✧ PE19/21 (dl- > gl-)

ᴱ✶[d]

References ✧ PE12/15; PE14/63

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. voiced stops became spirants after vowels Vd > ✧ PE12/16 (d > z; medial)

ᴱ✶[dʲ] ‹dy›

References ✧ PE12/15

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. voiced stops became spirants after vowels Vdʲ > Vðʲ ✧ PE12/16 (d͡y > ; medial)