ᴹAQ. initial [s] plus voiceless stops became voiceless spirants; [sp-|st-|sk-] > [ɸ-|θ-|x-]

ᴹAQ. initial [s] plus voiceless stops became voiceless spirants; [sp-|st-|sk-] > [ɸ-|θ-|x-]

References ✧ PE19/36-37, 41

Order (02100)

After 02000 syllabic initial [s] became [is]
Before 02300 [x], [s] unvoiced following [j], [w]
Before 03400 unstressed medial long vowels shortened ᴹ✶farāyā́ > fárăyā > ᴹQ. farea PE22/111

Phonetic Rule Elements

[sp-] > [ɸ-] ✧ PE19/37 (sp > f; initial)
[st-] > [θ-] ✧ PE19/37 (st > th; initial)
[sk-] > [x-] ✧ PE19/38 (sky > hy; initial); PE19/38 (skw > hw; initial); PE19/37 (sk > h; initial)

Phonetic Rule Examples

skala > xala sk- > x- ᴹ√SKAL² > ᴹQ. hala ✧ Ety/SKAL²
skalja- > xalja- sk- > x- ᴹ√SKAL¹ > ᴹQ. halya- ✧ Ety/SKAL¹
skalja- > xalja- sk- > x- ᴹ√SKAL³ > ᴹQ. halya- ✧ EtyAC/SKAL³
skalmā > xalmā sk- > x- ᴹ✶skalmā > ᴹQ. halma ✧ EtyAC/SKEL
skalnā > xalnā sk- > x- ᴹ✶skalnā > ᴹQ. halda ✧ Ety/SKAL¹
skalna > xalna sk- > x- ᴹ✶skalnā > ᴹQ. halla ✧ EtyAC/SKEL
skarna- > xarna- sk- > x- ᴹ√SKAR > ᴹQ. harna- ✧ Ety/SKAR
skarnā > xarnā sk- > x- ᴹ✶skarnā > ᴹQ. harna ✧ Ety/SKAR
skarwē > xarwē sk- > x- ᴹ✶skarwē > ᴹQ. harwe ✧ Ety/SKAR
skat- > xat- sk- > x- ᴹ√SKAT > ᴹQ. hat- ✧ Ety/SKAT
skelmā > xelmā sk- > x- ᴹ✶skelmā > ᴹQ. helma ✧ Ety/SKEL
skelnā > xelnā sk- > x- ᴹ✶skelnā > ᴹQ. helda ✧ Ety/SKEL
skjapat > xjapat sk- > x- ᴹ✶skyapat- > ᴹQ. hyapat ✧ Ety/SKYAP
skora- > xora- sk- > x- ᴹ✶skorā > ᴹQ. hora ✧ PE22/113
skwarin > xwarin sk- > x- ᴹ√SKWAR > ᴹQ. hwarin ✧ Ety/SKWAR
skwarma > xwarma sk- > x- ᴹ√SKWAR > ᴹQ. hwarma ✧ Ety/SKWAR
spaika > ɸaika sp- > ɸ- ᴹ√SPAY > ᴹQ. faika ✧ Ety/SPAY
spāna > ɸāna sp- > ɸ- ᴹ√SPAN > ᴹQ. fána ✧ Ety/SPAN
spaŋgā > ɸaŋgā sp- > ɸ- ᴹ✶spangā > ᴹQ. fanga ✧ Ety/SPÁNAG
spanja > ɸanja sp- > ɸ- ᴹ√SPAN > ᴹQ. fanya ✧ Ety/SPAN
spantur > ɸantur sp- > ɸ- ᴹ✶Spanturo > ᴹQ. Fantur ✧ Ety/SPAN
spāra > ɸāra sp- > ɸ- ᴹ√SPAR² > ᴹQ. fára ✧ EtyAC/SPAR²
spara- > ɸara- sp- > ɸ- ᴹ✶sparā > ᴹQ. fara- ✧ PE22/113
sparājā > ɸarājā sp- > ɸ- ᴹ✶farāyā́ > fárăyā > ᴹQ. farea ✧ PE22/111
sparma > ɸarma sp- > ɸ- ᴹ√SPAR² > ᴹQ. farma ✧ EtyAC/SPAR²
spinde > ɸinde sp- > ɸ- ᴹ✶spindē > ᴹQ. finde ✧ Ety/SPIN
spinē > ɸinē sp- > ɸ- ᴹ✶spinē > ᴹQ. fine ✧ Ety/SPIN
stabnē > θabnē st- > θ- ᴹ✶stabnē > ᴹQ. samna ✧ Ety/STAB
stabnō > θabnō st- > θ- ᴹ✶stabnō > ᴹQ. samno ✧ Ety/STAB
stambē > θambē st- > θ- ᴹ✶stambē > ᴹQ. sambe ✧ Ety/STAB
θanda > θanda st- > θ- ᴹ√STAN > ᴹQ. sanda ✧ Ety/STAN
θaŋgā > θaŋgā st- > θ- ᴹ✶stangā > ᴹQ. sanga ✧ Ety/STAG
θaŋgā > θaŋgā st- > θ- ᴹ√STAG > ᴹQ. sanga ✧ PE22/107
θaŋgasjandō > θaŋgasjandō st- > θ- ᴹ✶stangasyandō > ᴹQ. sangahyando ✧ Ety/SYAD
θanja > θanja st- > θ- ᴹ√STAN > ᴹQ. sanya ✧ Ety/STAN
θanje > θanje st- > θ- ᴹ√STAN > ᴹQ. sanye ✧ Ety/STAN
θaŋkā > θaŋkā st- > θ- ᴹ✶stankā > ᴹQ. sanka ✧ Ety/STAK
star- > θar- st- > θ- ᴹ√STAR > ᴹQ. thare ✧ PE22/112
θara > θara st- > θ- ᴹ√STAR > ᴹQ. sara ✧ Ety/STAR
stegrā > θegrā st- > θ- ᴹ✶stegrā > ᴹQ. thḗra ✧ PE19/46
stintā > θintā st- > θ- ᴹ√STINTĀ > ᴹQ. sinta ✧ Ety/STINTĀ
stugnā > θugnā st- > θ- stuknā > Q. thúna ✧ PE19/86
stundo > θundo st- > θ- ᴹ√SUD > ᴹQ. sundo ✧ Ety/SUD

ᴱQ. initial [s] plus voiceless stops became voiceless spirants; [s{pɸ}-|s{tθ}-|s{kx}-] > [ɸ-|θ-|x-]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[sp-] > [ɸ-]
[st-] > [θ-]
[sk-] > [x-]

Phonetic Rule Examples

skampa- > xampa- sk- > x- ᴱ√kapa- > ᴱQ. hampa- ✧ PE14/66
skanta > xanta sk- > x- ᴱ✶skantá > ᴱQ. hanta ✧ PE13/147
skapta- > xapta- sk- > x- ᴱ✶skapi̯a- > ᴱQ. hapta- ✧ PE14/66
skend > xend sk- > x- ᴱ✶ske-ndá > ᴱQ. hen ✧ PE13/147
staina > θaina st- > θ- ᴱ✶stainá > ᴱQ. saina ✧ PE13/153
stakta- > θakta- st- > θ- ᴱ✶stak+ta > ᴱQ. sahta ✧ PE14/66