ᴹAQ. [r], [l] often became syllabic in clusters; [V₁Cḷ|CCr] > [V₁CV₁l|CCar]

ᴹAQ. [r], [l] often became syllabic in clusters; [V₁Cḷ|CCr] > [V₁CV₁l|CCar]

References ✧ PE19/39-40, 43-44, 47, 56

Order (01000)

After 00700 [nl], [nr] became [ll], [rr]
After 00900 [rl] and [lr] became [ll]
Before 01100 [r] became [s] after voiceless stops and aspirates

Changes

Phonetic Rule Elements

[aCCl] > [aCCal]
[CCl] > [CCil]
[ḷ] > [il]
[CCør] > [CCar]

Phonetic Rule Examples

taŋkl > taŋkil CCl > CCil ᴹ✶tankla > ᴹQ. tankil ✧ Ety/TAK
taŋkla > taŋkilā CCl > CCil ᴹ✶tanklā > ᴹQ. tankila ✧ PE19/40
kwentrō > kwentarō CCør > CCar ᴹ✶kwentrō > ᴹQ. qentaro ✧ Ety/KWET
kwentrō > kwentarō CCør > CCar ᴹ✶kwe-n-trō > ᴹQ. qentaro ✧ PE18/51
kwentrō > kwentarō CCør > CCar ᴹ✶kwentrō > ᴹQ. quentaro ✧ PE19/40
ḷ- > al- aCCl > aCCal ᴹ✶ > > ᴹQ. al- ✧ PE19/56
makl > makal aCCl > aCCal ᴹ✶maklă > ᴹQ. makal ✧ PE19/39
taŋkla > taŋkala aCCl > aCCal ᴹ✶ta-n-klă > ᴹQ. tankala ✧ PE18/51
taŋkl > taŋkala aCCl > aCCal ᴹ✶tañklă > tañkal(a) > ᴹQ. tañkal ✧ PE19/40
ḷ- > il- ḷ > il ᴹ✶la- > ᴹQ. il ✧ Ety/LA
ḷ- > il- ḷ > il ᴹ✶la > > > ᴹQ. il ✧ EtyAC/LA
makl > makil ḷ > il ᴹ✶makla > ᴹQ. makil ✧ Ety/MAK
tekl > tekil ḷ > il ᴹ✶tekla > ᴹQ. tekil ✧ Ety/TEK

ᴱQ. short syllabic [ḷ] became [il], or [ul] before labials; [ḷ|ḷ{pbɸmw}|ḷCʷ] > [il|ul{pbɸmw}|ulCʷ]

Reference ✧ PE12/11

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ḷ] > [il] ✧ PE12/10 (ḷ short + k > il); PE12/10 (ḷ short + k̑ > il); PE12/10 (ḷ short + t > il)
[ḷp] > [ulp] ✧ PE12/10 (ḷ short + p > ul)
[ḷb] > [ulb]
[ḷɸ] > [ulɸ]
[ḷm] > [ulm]
[ḷw] > [ulw]
[ḷkʷ] > [ulkʷ] ✧ PE12/10 (ḷ short + q > ul)
[-Cḷ] > [-Cḷ]

Phonetic Rule Examples

etḷ > etḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√ETE > ᴱQ. etl ✧ QL/36
kakḷ > kakḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√KAKA > ᴱQ. katl ✧ QL/44
kṇtḷ > kṇtḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√KᴬNTᴬN > ᴱQ. kantl ✧ QL/45
kʷetḷ > kʷetḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√QETE > ᴱQ. qetl ✧ QL/77
kʷinðḷ > kʷinðḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√QIŘI > ᴱQ. qindl ✧ QL/77
kʷintḷ > kʷintḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√QINI > ᴱQ. qintl ✧ QL/77
lipḷ > lipḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√LIPI > ᴱQ. litl ✧ QL/54
lukḷ > lukḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√LUKU > ᴱQ. lutl ✧ QL/56
matḷ > matḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√MATA > ᴱQ. matl ✧ QL/59
maxntḷ > maxntḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√MAHA > ᴱQ. mantl ✧ QL/57
mekḷ > mekḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√MEKE > ᴱQ. metl ✧ QL/60
nʲatḷ > nʲatḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√NYATA > ᴱQ. nyatl ✧ QL/68
papḷ > papḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√PAPA > ᴱQ. patl ✧ QL/72
petḷ > petḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√PETE > ᴱQ. petl ✧ QL/73
puntḷ > puntḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√PU(HU) > ᴱQ. puntl ✧ QL/75
rotḷ > rotḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√ROTO > ᴱQ. rotl ✧ QL/80
sakḷ > sakḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√SAKA > ᴱQ. satl ✧ QL/81
sukḷ > sukḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√SUKU > ᴱQ. sutl ✧ QL/87
tentḷ > tentḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√TENE > ᴱQ. tentl ✧ QL/91
tetḷ > tetḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√TETE > ᴱQ. tetl ✧ QL/92
tṇtḷ > tṇtḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√TṆTṆ > ᴱQ. tantl ✧ QL/93
tompḷ > tompḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√TOMPO > ᴱQ. tontl ✧ QL/94
tʲetḷ > tʲetḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√TYETE > ᴱQ. tyetl ✧ QL/50
xepḷ > xepḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√HEPE > ᴱQ. hetl ✧ QL/40
ɸantḷ > ɸantḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√FANA > ᴱQ. fantl ✧ QL/37
ɸinðḷ > ɸinðḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√FIŘI > ᴱQ. findl ✧ QL/38
βaxnḷ > βaxnḷ -Cḷ > -Cḷ ᴱ√VAHA > ᴱQ. vandl ✧ LT1A/Qalvanda
ḷ- > il- ḷ > il ᴱ✶ḷ- > ᴱQ. i(l)- ✧ QL/41
ḷk- > ilk- ḷ > il ᴱ√(I)ḶK > ᴱQ. ilkin- ✧ QL/42
ḷkala > ilkala ḷ > il ᴱ✶ḷkălā́ > ilkắla > ᴱQ. ilcála ✧ PE12/4
ḷke > ilke ḷ > il ᴱ√(I)ḶK > ᴱQ. ilke ✧ QL/42
ḷt > ilt ḷ > il ᴱ√ᴵLTᴵL > ᴱQ. ilt ✧ QL/42
ḷt- > ilt- ḷ > il ᴱ√ᴵLTᴵL > ᴱQ. iltin ✧ QL/42
kḷk- > kilk- ḷ > il ᴱ√KḶKḶ > ᴱQ. kilkin ✧ QL/47
kḷt > kilt ḷ > il ᴱ√KLTL > ᴱQ. kilt ✧ QL/47
kḷt- > kilt- ḷ > il ᴱ√KLTL > ᴱQ. kiltin ✧ QL/47
kʷḷð- > kʷilð- ḷ > il ᴱ√QḶŘḶ > ᴱQ. qildi- ✧ QL/78
kʷḷðe > kʷilðe ḷ > il ᴱ√QḶŘḶ > ᴱQ. qilde ✧ QL/78
kʷḷt- > kʷilt- ḷ > il ᴱ√QḶTḶ > ᴱQ. qilti- ✧ QL/78
kʷḷta > kʷilta ḷ > il ᴱ√QḶTḶ > ᴱQ. qilta ✧ QL/78
lḷt- > lilt- ḷ > il ᴱ✶lḷt > ᴱQ. lilte ✧ PE14/58
lḷt- > lilt- ḷ > il ᴱ√LḶTḶ > ᴱQ. lilt- ✧ QL/55
lḷt > lilt ḷ > il ᴱ√LḶTḶ > ᴱQ. lilt ✧ QL/55
mḷdðʲ > mildðʲ ḷ > il ᴱ√MLŘL > mldẏǝ > ᴱQ. mildi ✧ QL/62
mḷð- > milð- ḷ > il ᴱ√MLŘL > ᴱQ. mild- ✧ QL/62
mḷk- > milk- ḷ > il ᴱ√MḶKḶ > ᴱQ. milk- ✧ QL/62
mḷkin > milkin ḷ > il ᴱ√MḶKḶ > ᴱQ. milkin ✧ QL/62
pḷtʲ > piltʲ ḷ > il ᴱ√PḶT͡YḶ > ᴱQ. pilt ✧ QL/74
pḷtʲ- > pḷtʲ- ḷ > il ᴱ√PḶT͡YḶ > ᴱQ. pilty- ✧ QL/74
sḷk- > silk- ḷ > il ᴱ√SḶKḶ¹ > ᴱQ. silki- ✧ QL/84
sḷka > silka ḷ > il ᴱ√SḶKḶ² > ᴱQ. silka ✧ QL/86
sḷkʷe > silkʷe ḷ > il ᴱ√SḶKḶ² > ᴱQ. silqe ✧ QL/86
sḷt- > silt- ḷ > il ᴱ✶sḷt- > ᴱQ. silte ✧ PE14/58
sḷt- > silt- ḷ > il ᴱ√SḶTḶ > ᴱQ. silt- ✧ QL/84
sḷta > silta ḷ > il ᴱ√SḶTḶ > ᴱQ. silta ✧ QL/84
tḷd- > tild- ḷ > il ᴱ√TḶDḶ > ᴱQ. tildir ✧ QL/93
tḷt- > tilt- ḷ > il ᴱ√TḶTḶ > ᴱQ. tilt- ✧ QL/93
tḷta > tilta ḷ > il ᴱ✶tḷtā́ > ᴱQ. tilta ✧ PE13/165
θḷða > θilða ḷ > il ᴱ√ÞḶÐḶ > ᴱQ. silda ✧ QL/84
vḷð- > vilð- ḷ > il ᴱ√VḶŘḶ > ᴱQ. vildin ✧ QL/102
vḷð > vilð ḷ > il ᴱ√VḶŘḶ > ᴱQ. vil(d) ✧ QL/102
vḷk- > vilk- ḷ > il ᴱ√VḶKḶ > ᴱQ. vilkin ✧ QL/101
vḷkin > vilkin ḷ > il ᴱ√VḶKḶ > ᴱQ. vilkin ✧ QL/101
vḷte > vilte ḷ > il ᴱ√VḶTḶ > ᴱQ. -vilte ✧ QL/102
xḷk- > xilk- ḷ > il ᴱ√HḶKḶ > ᴱQ. hilkin ✧ QL/39
ḷb- > ulb- ḷb > ulb ᴱ✶ḷ- > ᴱQ. UL- ✧ QL/97
pḷkʷe > pulkʷe ḷkʷ > ulkʷ ᴱ√PḶQḶ > ᴱQ. pulqe ✧ QL/74
ḷkʷ- > ulkʷ- ḷkʷ > ulkʷ ᴱ√(U)ḶQ(U)Ḷ > ᴱQ. ulqin ✧ QL/97
ḷma > ulma ḷm > ulm ᴱ✶ḷma > ᴱQ. ulma ✧ QL/97
kḷp- > kulp- ḷp > ulp ᴱ√KLPL > ᴱQ. kulpin ✧ QL/47
sḷp > sulp ḷp > ulp ᴱ√SḶPḶ > ᴱQ. sult ✧ QL/84
sḷp- > sulp- ḷp > ulp ᴱ✶slq- > ᴱQ. sulpe ✧ PE13/149
sḷp- > sulp- ḷp > ulp ᴱ✶sḷp > ᴱQ. sulpe ✧ PE14/58
sḷp- > sulp- ḷp > ulp ᴱ√SḶPḶ > ᴱQ. sulp- ✧ QL/84
sḷpa > sulpa ḷp > ulp ᴱ√SḶPḶ > ᴱQ. sulpa ✧ QL/84
tḷp > tulp ḷp > ulp ᴱ√TḶPḶ > ᴱQ. tult ✧ QL/93
tḷp- > tulp- ḷp > ulp ᴱ√TḶPḶ > ᴱQ. tulpu- ✧ QL/93
tḷpo > tulpo ḷp > ulp ᴱ√TḶPḶ > ᴱQ. tulpo ✧ QL/93
ḷɸ- > ulɸ- ḷɸ > ulɸ ᴱ✶ > ᴱQ. ul- ✧ QL/97

ᴱQ. short syllabic [ṛ] became [ar], [ir] before palatized consonants or [ur] after [w] and [kʷ]; [ṛ|ṛCʲ|wṛ] > [ar|irCʲ|ur]

Reference ✧ PE12/11

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ṛ] > [ar] ✧ PE12/10 (ṛ short + q > ar); PE12/10 (ṛ short + k > ar); PE12/10 (ṛ short + t > ar); PE12/10 (ṛ short + p > ar)
[ṛCʲ] > [irCʲ] ✧ PE12/10 (ṛ short + k̑ > ir)
[wṛ] > [ur]
[kʷṛ] > [kur]

Phonetic Rule Examples

kʷṛðu > kurðu kʷṛ > kur ᴱ√qṛđ > ᴱQ. kurdu ✧ GL/28
wṛðu > urðu wṛ > ur ᴱ√GWṚÐR > ᴱQ. urdu ✧ QL/104
wṛθu > urθu wṛ > ur ᴱ✶gu̯rþū́ > ᴱQ. urdu ✧ GL/43
ambṛta > ambarta ṛ > ar ᴱ✶(a)mbrtá > ᴱQ. ambarta ✧ PE13/137
ambṛta > ambarta ṛ > ar ᴱ✶a-mbṛtá > ᴱQ. ambarta ✧ PE13/159
ṛm- > arm- ṛ > ar ᴱ√‘ṚMṚ > ᴱQ. arm- ✧ QL/32
ṛma > arma ṛ > ar ᴱ√‘ṚMṚ > ᴱQ. arma ✧ QL/32
gṛgo > gargo ṛ > ar ᴱ✶grgu- > ᴱQ. karko ✧ PE13/144
gṛθa- > garθa- ṛ > ar ᴱ√gṛþ- > ᴱQ. karda ✧ GL/42
kṛka > karka ṛ > ar ᴱ√KṚKṚ > ᴱQ. karka ✧ QL/48
kṛne > karne ṛ > ar ᴱ√KṚN > [kṛn]ı̯ǝ > ᴱQ. karne ✧ QL/48
kṛp- > karp- ṛ > ar ᴱ✶kṛp- > ᴱQ. karpe ✧ PE14/58
kṛp > karp ṛ > ar ᴱ√KᴬRPᴬR > ᴱQ. kart ✧ QL/45
kṛpale > karpale ṛ > ar ᴱ√KᴬRPᴬR > ᴱQ. karpale ✧ QL/45
kṛpalima > karpalima ṛ > ar ᴱ✶kṛ̹pa̜lima > ᴱQ. ka̜rpa̹lima ✧ PE12/6
kṛpan > karpan ṛ > ar ᴱ√KᴬRPᴬR > ᴱQ. karpan ✧ QL/45
mṛð > marð ṛ > ar ᴱ√MṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. mar ✧ QL/63
mṛð- > marð- ṛ > ar ᴱ√MṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. mard- ✧ QL/63
mṛðma > marðma ṛ > ar ᴱ√MṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. marma ✧ QL/63
mṛk > mark ṛ > ar ‽ᴱ√MṚKṚ > ᴱQ. mark ✧ QL/63
mṛkwa > markwa ṛ > ar ‽ᴱ√MṚKṚ > ᴱQ. marqa ✧ QL/63
mṛt > mart ṛ > ar ᴱ√MṚTṚ > ᴱQ. mart ✧ QL/63
mṛt- > mart- ṛ > ar ᴱ√MṚTṚ > ᴱQ. mart- ✧ QL/63
mṛta- > marta- ṛ > ar ᴱ√M(B)ṚTṚ > ᴱQ. marta- ✧ QL/63
mṛto > marto ṛ > ar ᴱ√MṚTṚ > ᴱQ. marto ✧ QL/63
nṛkʷa > narkʷa ṛ > ar ᴱ√NṚQṚ > ᴱQ. narqa ✧ QL/68
nṛkʷa- > narkʷa- ṛ > ar ᴱ√NṚQṚ > ᴱQ. narqa- ✧ QL/68
nṛkʷele > narkʷele ṛ > ar ᴱ√NṚQṚ > ᴱQ. narqele ✧ QL/68
nṛθ > narθ ṛ > ar ᴱ√NṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. nar ✧ QL/68
nṛθa- > narθa- ṛ > ar ᴱ√NṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. narda- ✧ QL/68
nṛθi > narθi ṛ > ar ᴱ√NṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. Nardi ✧ QL/68
nṛθile > narθile ṛ > ar ᴱ√NṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. nardile ✧ QL/68
nṛθwe > narθwe ṛ > ar ᴱ√NṚŘṚ > ᴱQ. narwe ✧ QL/68
sṛko > sarko ṛ > ar ᴱ√SṚKṚ > ᴱQ. sarko ✧ QL/86
sṛkʷa > sarkʷa ṛ > ar ᴱ√SṚKṚ > ᴱQ. sarqa ✧ QL/86
tṛka > tarka ṛ > ar ᴱ√tṛk > ᴱQ. tarka ✧ GL/69
tṛka > tarka ṛ > ar ᴱ√TṚKṚ > ᴱQ. tarka ✧ QL/94
tṛkʷa- > tarkʷa- ṛ > ar ᴱ√TṚQṚ > ᴱQ. tarqa- ✧ QL/94
vṛð- > varð- ṛ > ar ᴱ√VṚDṚ > ᴱQ. vard- ✧ QL/102
vṛðni > varðni ṛ > ar ᴱ✶vṛ̆đní > ᴱQ. varni ✧ QL/102
vṛka > varka ṛ > ar ᴱ√VṚKṚ > ᴱQ. varka ✧ QL/102
vṛka- > varka- ṛ > ar ᴱ√VṚKṚ > ᴱQ. varkin ✧ QL/102
vṛkʷa > varkʷa ṛ > ar ᴱ√VṚKṚ > ᴱQ. varqa ✧ QL/102
vṛta > varta ṛ > ar ᴱ√vṛt- > ᴱQ. varta ✧ QL/102
ṛtʲ > irtʲ ṛCʲ > irCʲ ᴱ√ᴵRTYᴵR > ᴱQ. irt ✧ QL/43
ṛtʲin > irtʲin ṛCʲ > irCʲ ᴱ√ᴵRTYᴵR > ᴱQ. irtin ✧ QL/43
tṛtʲ > tirtʲ ṛCʲ > irCʲ ᴱ√TṚT͡YṚ > ᴱQ. tirt ✧ QL/94
tṛtʲ- > tirtʲ- ṛCʲ > irCʲ ᴱ√TṚT͡YṚ > ᴱQ. tirty- ✧ QL/94
vṛtʲ > virtʲ ṛCʲ > irCʲ ᴱ√VṚT͡YṚ > ᴱQ. virt ✧ QL/102
vṛtʲir > virtʲir ṛCʲ > irCʲ ᴱ√VṚT͡YṚ > ᴱQ. virtir ✧ QL/102