Ilk. short final vowels vanished; [-S{ĭĕăŏŭ}|-{gɣ}o] > [-Sø|-{gɣ}a]

Ilk. short final vowels vanished; [-S{ĭĕăŏŭ}|-{gɣ}o] > [-Sø|-{gɣ}a]

In Ilkorin, nearly all original primitive final vowels vanished, which was also the rule in Noldorin. First all long final vowels were shortened, then the remaining short final vowels vanished. Any Ilkorin words ending in vowels were the result of some other process, such as final [j], [w] becoming [i], [u] (after which they became [e], [o] in most cases). The loss of final vowels in Ilkorin is very well attested in the Etymologies; see below for examples.

Final [-o] became [-a] after [g] and [ɣ]: One possible counter-example to this rule is ᴹ✶morókō > Ilk. broga (Ety/MORÓK). Here the final [-go] seems to have developed into [-ga] instead losing its final vowel, as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/broga). Another example (also suggested by Helge Fauskanger, AL-Ilkorin/-a) is the genitive suffix -a(n), which might have developed from primitive ᴹ✶ʒō [ɣō]; this example hints that this development occurred after [ɣ] as well. A third possible example is adda “daddy” (from ?✶attō), again suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/adda). I find this last example less compelling, however, since this child’s word may simply be a late invention rather than a derivation from a primitive form. The theory presented here assumes that [-o] became [-a] after [g] and [ɣ] but not otherwise.

Final [-u] sometimes was preserved? Another possible preservation of a final vowel might be Ilk. ganu, whose Quenya cognate ᴹQ. hanu “a male” implies the survival of a primitive final [-u] (Ety/ƷAN). One possible explanation is that it was not a true cognate, but instead developed from a primitive adjective [ɣanwā], and thus had its final [u] develop from the [w], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/ganu). The Noldorin development ᴹ√ƷAN > ON. anu > N. anw seems to contradict this scenario however, so perhaps the final -u was preserved by comparing the noun and adjective forms in both Ilkorin and Noldorin.

There are no clear examples of final [-u] being lost in Ilkorin. The only possible example is ᴹ✶orku [?urku] > urch (Ety/ÓROK), but in this case the short final [u] would have become [o] primitively, as indicated by its cognates ON. orko and ᴹQ. orko.

Order (04700)

After 01600 short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a] ᴹ✶kuʒnā > kogna > coun > Ilk. caun Ety/KUƷ
Before 04800 medial voiceless spirants voiced after vowels ᴹ✶b’rethā > Ilk. breth Ety/BERÉTH

Phonetic Rule Elements

[-Sĭ] > [-Sø]
[-Sĕ] > [-Sø]
[-Să] > [-Sø]
[-Sŏ] > [-Sø]
[-Sŭ] > [-Sø]
[-ga] > [-go]

Phonetic Rule Examples

adwa > adw -Să > -Sø ᴹ√AT(AT) > adu > Ilk. ado ✧ Ety/AT(AT)
alxa > alx -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶alk-wā > Ilk. alch ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
arna > arn -Să > -Sø ᴹ√YAR > Ilk. arn ✧ Ety/YAR
askara > askar -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶askarā > Ilk. ascar ✧ Ety/SKAR
assa > ass -Să > -Sø ᴹ√AP > Ilk. ass ✧ Ety/AP
-aθ > -aθ -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶-atta > Ilk. -ath ✧ PE21/57
bréθa > bréθ -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶b’rethā > Ilk. breth ✧ Ety/BERÉTH
demba > demb -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶dimbā > Ilk. dem ✧ Ety/DEM
demba > demb -Să > -Sø ᴹ√DEM > Ilk. demb ✧ EtyAC/DEM
dunna > dunn -Să > -Sø ᴹ√DUN > Dor. dunn ✧ Ety/DUN
elda > eld -Să > -Sø ᴹ√ÉLED > Dor. Eld ✧ Ety/ELED
galda > gald -Să > -Sø ᴹ√GÁLAD > Dor. gald ✧ Ety/GALAD
ganwa > ganw -Să > -Sø ᴹ√ƷAN > Dor. ganu ✧ Ety/ƷAN
garða > garð -Să > -Sø ᴹ√ƷAR > Dor. garth ✧ Ety/ƷAR
garma > garm -Să > -Sø ᴹ√ƷARAM > Dor. garm ✧ Ety/ƷARAM
geliōna > geliōn -Să > -Sø ᴹ√GAL > Ilk. gelion ✧ Ety/GYEL
gelwa > gelw -Să > -Sø ᴹ√ƷEL > Dor. gelu ✧ Ety/ƷEL
gōla > gōl -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶gālæ > Dor. gôl ✧ Ety/KAL
gōra > gōr -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶waʒrā > Ilk. gôr ✧ Ety/WAƷ
gwaθa > gwaθ -Să > -Sø ᴹ√WATH > Ilk. gwath ✧ Ety/WATH
gwawa > gwaw -Să > -Sø ᴹ√WAWA > Ilk. gwau ✧ Ety/WĀ
gweða > gweð -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶wedā > Ilk. gweð ✧ Ety/WED
gwelma > gwelm -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶wilmā > Ilk. gwelm ✧ EtyAC/WIL
gwelwa > gwelw -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶wilwā > gwelu > Ilk. gwelo ✧ Ety/WIL
gwenja > gwenj -Să > -Sø ᴹ√GWEN > Ilk. gwene ✧ Ety/GWEN
gwinja > gwinj -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶winyā > gwini > Ilk. gwine ✧ Ety/WIN
kouna > koun -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶kuʒnā > kogna > coun > Ilk. caun ✧ Ety/KUƷ
laiga > laig -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶laikwa > Ilk. laig ✧ Ety/LAIK
laiga > laig -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶laika > Ilk. laig ✧ Ety/LÁYAK
legla > legl -Să > -Sø ᴹ√LEK > Ilk. legol ✧ Ety/LEK
linda > lind -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶LINDĀ > Ilk. lind ✧ Ety/LIND
linja > linj -Să > -Sø ᴹ√LIN¹ > Ilk. line ✧ Ety/LIN¹
lōma > lōm -Să > -Sø ᴹ√LAM > Dor. lóm ✧ Ety/LAM
lōmena > lōmen -Să > -Sø ᴹ√LAM > Dor. lómen ✧ Ety/LAM
losta > lost -Să > -Sø ᴹ√LUS > Dor. #lost ✧ Ety/KAB
luŋga > luŋg -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶lungā > Dor. lung ✧ Ety/LUG¹
maba > mab -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶mapā > Ilk. mâb ✧ Ety/MAP
maiga > maig -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶mazgā > Ilk. maig ✧ EtyAC/MASAG
meida > meid -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶mizdā > Dor. mēd ✧ Ety/MIZD
nanda > nand -Să > -Sø ᴹ√NAD > Dor. nand ✧ Ety/NAD
neva > nev -Să > -Sø ᴹ√NIB > Dor. nef ✧ Ety/NIB
olga > olg -Să > -Sø ᴹ√ÚLUG > Ilk. olg ✧ Ety/ÚLUG
oθa > oθ -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶OKTĀ > Ilk. oth ✧ Ety/OKTĀ
ranta > rant -Să > -Sø ᴹ√RAT > Ilk. rant ✧ Ety/RAT
resta > rest -Să > -Sø ᴹ√RIS > Ilk. rest ✧ Ety/RIS²
rīma > rīm -Să > -Sø ᴹ√ > Dor. rīm ✧ Ety/RĪ
rōða > rōð -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶rǭda > rōdh > Dor. rōth ✧ Ety/ROD
roða > roð -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶roda > rodh > Dor. roth ✧ EtyAC/ROD
souma > soum -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶sukmā > Ilk. saum ✧ Ety/SUK
taiga > taig -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶taikā > Ilk. taig ✧ EtyAC/TĀ
talma > talm -Să > -Sø ᴹ√TALAM > Ilk. talum ✧ Ety/TAL
targa > targ -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶targā > Ilk. targ ✧ Ety/TÁRAG
tauma > taum -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶takmā > Ilk. taum ✧ Ety/TAK
taxa > tax -Să > -Sø ᴹ√TAK > Ilk. tāch ✧ Ety/TAK
tioga > tiog -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶tiu̯kā > Ilk. tiog ✧ Ety/TIW
tovna > tovn -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶tubnā > Ilk. tovon ✧ Ety/TUB
trḗwa > trḗw -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶terḗwā > Ilk. trēw ✧ Ety/TER
tunda > tund -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶tundā > Ilk. tund ✧ Ety/TUN
tuŋga > tuŋg -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶tungā > Ilk. tung ✧ Ety/TUG
θalla > θall -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶stalrā > Ilk. thall ✧ Ety/STAL
θrṓna > θrṓn -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶starāna > Ilk. thrôn ✧ Ety/STARAN
θūrena > θūren -Să > -Sø ᴹ√THUR > Ilk. thúren ✧ Ety/THUR
uŋgra > uŋgr -Să > -Sø ᴹ√UÑG > Ilk. ungor ✧ Ety/UÑG
xeθwa > xeθw -Să > -Sø ᴹ✶khithwa > Dor. heðu ✧ Ety/KHIS
aðme > aðm -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶yatmā > Dor. aðum ✧ EtyAC/YAT
bele > bel -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶belē > Ilk. bel ✧ Ety/BEL
bríθe > bríθ -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶b’rittē > Ilk. brith ✧ Ety/BIRÍT
dimbe > dimb -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶dimbē > Ilk. dim ✧ Ety/DEM
dimbe > dimb -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶dembē > Ilk. dim ✧ EtyAC/DEM
doume > doum -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√DOƷ/DÔ > Ilk. daum ✧ Ety/DOƷ
dūme > dūm -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶dōmi- > Ilk. dûm ✧ Ety/DOMO
eide > eid -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶EZDĒ > Ilk. Ēd ✧ EtyAC/EZDĒ
erðe > erð -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶eredē > Ilk. erð ✧ Ety/ERÉD
esge > esg -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√ESEK > Ilk. esg ✧ Ety/ESEK
esge > esg -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√EZGE > Ilk. esg ✧ Ety/EZGE
espalasse > espalass -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√SPÁLAS > Ilk. espalass ✧ Ety/PHAL
gelle > gell -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√ƷEL > Dor. gell ✧ Ety/ƷEL
gōde > gōd -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶wahtē > Ilk. gōd ✧ Ety/WAƷ
grū́me > grū́m -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶Górōmē > Dor. Grûm ✧ EtyAC/GÓROM
gwinde > gwind -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√GWINDI > Ilk. gwind ✧ EtyAC/GWINDI
gwiŋge > gwiŋg -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶wingē > Ilk. gwing ✧ Ety/WIG
kōme > kōm -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√KWAM > Ilk. côm ✧ Ety/KWAM
kwēne > kwēn -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶kwǣ-nē > Ilk. cwēn ✧ EtyAC/KWǢ
kwende > kwend -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶kwenedē > Dor. cwend ✧ EtyAC/KWEN(ED)
kwesse > kwess -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶kwessē > Ilk. cwess ✧ Ety/KWES
lalme > lalm -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√ÁLAM > Ilk. lalm ✧ Ety/ÁLAM
laure > laur -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶laurē > Dor. laur ✧ Ety/LÁWAR
liŋge > liŋg -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√LINGWI > Dor. ling ✧ EtyAC/LIW
līwe > līw -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶liñwi > Dor. líw ✧ Ety/LIW
luine > luin -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶lugni > Dor. luin ✧ Ety/LUG²
lūne > lūn -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶lugni > Dor. lūn ✧ EtyAC/LUG²
luθe > luθ -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√LUK > Dor. luth ✧ Ety/LUK
luθiēne > luθiēn -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶luktı̯ēnē > Dor. Luthien ✧ Ety/LUK
maige > maig -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶mazgē > Ilk. maig ✧ Ety/MASAG
mīde > mīd -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶mizdē > Dor. mīd ✧ Ety/MIZD
mōre > mōr -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶mǭri > Ilk. môr ✧ Ety/MOR
muile > muil -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√MUY > Dor. muil ✧ Ety/MUY
nasse > nass -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√NAT > Dor. nass ✧ Ety/NAT
naugle > naugl -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√NÁWAK > Dor. naugol ✧ Ety/NAUK
ndore > ndor -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶ndorē > Dor. dôr ✧ EtyAC/NDOR
nelde > neld -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√NÉL-ED > Dor. neld ✧ Ety/NEL
ŋgandelle > ŋgandell -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√ÑGANAD > Ilk. gangel ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
ŋgolwe > ŋgolw -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√ÑGOL > Dor. (n)golo ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
nīwe > nīw -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶NEÑ-WI > Dor. nîw ✧ Ety/NEÑ-WI
orne > orn -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√ÓRON > Dor. orn ✧ Ety/NEL
orne > orn -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶ÓR-NI > Dor. orn ✧ Ety/ÓR-NI
riŋge > riŋg -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√RINGI > Dor. ring ✧ Ety/RINGI
roste > rost -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√ROS² > Dor. rost ✧ Ety/ROS²
salxe > salx -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶SALÁK-(WĒ) > Ilk. salch ✧ Ety/SALÁK-(WĒ)
tasse > tass -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶taksē > Ilk. tass ✧ Ety/TAK
taure > taur -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶tau̯rē > Ilk. taur ✧ Ety/TÁWAR
telfe > telf -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√KYÉLEP > Ilk. telf ✧ Ety/KYELEP
telle > tell -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√TELES > Ilk. tell ✧ EtyAC/TELES
timme > timm -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶tinmē > Ilk. tim ✧ Ety/TIN
trúmbe > trúmb -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶turúmbē > trumb > Ilk. trum ✧ Ety/TURÚM
tusse > tuss -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶tupsē > Ilk. tuss ✧ Ety/TUP
θinde > θind -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶thindi > Ilk. thind ✧ Ety/THIN
θorne > θorn -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√THÓRON > Ilk. thorn ✧ Ety/THOR
uŋgle > uŋgl -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ√UÑG > Ilk. ungol ✧ Ety/UÑG
uske > usk -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶us(u)k-wē > Ilk. usc ✧ Ety/USUK
xiθme > xiθm -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶khithme > Dor. hiðum ✧ EtyAC/KHIS
xrasse > xrass -Sĕ > -Sø ᴹ✶khrassē > Dor. rhass ✧ EtyAC/KHARÁS
benno > benn -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ✶besnō > Ilk. benn ✧ Ety/BES
bero > ber -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ✶berō > Ilk. ber ✧ Ety/BER
dorno > dorn -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ√DÓRON > Dor. dorn ✧ Ety/DÓRON
kwindro > kwindr -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ✶kwentrō > Dor. cwindor ✧ Ety/KWET
mboθo > mboθ -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ√MBOTH > Dor. moth ✧ Ety/MBOTH
ndeniθōro > ndeniθōr -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ✶ndani-thārō > Dor. Deniþor ✧ LR/188
ndioro > ndior -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ✶ndeuro > Dor. Dior ✧ Ety/NDEW
ŋgarmo > ŋgarm -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ√ÑGAR(A)M > Dor. garm ✧ Ety/ÑGAR(A)M
ŋgoldo > ŋgold -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > Dor. (n)gold ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
ŋgorθo > ŋgorθ -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ√ÑGÓROTH > Dor. ngorth ✧ Ety/ÑGOROTH
nivno > nivn -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ√NIB > Dor. nivon ✧ Ety/NIB
orθo > orθ -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ√ÓROT > Dor. orth ✧ Ety/ÓROT
rondo > rond -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ√ROD > Ilk. rond ✧ Ety/ROD
tōro > tōr -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ✶tārō > Ilk. tôr ✧ Ety/TĀ
tūɣo > tūɣ -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ✶tūgu > tūgh > Ilk. ✧ Ety/TUG
θavno > θavn -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ✶stabnō > Ilk. thavon ✧ Ety/STAB
uduvno > uduvn -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ✶Utubnu > Ilk. Uduvon ✧ Ety/TUB
ulgundo > ulgund -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ✶ulgundō > ulgund > ulgon > Ilk. ulion ✧ Ety/ÚLUG
urxo > urx -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ✶órku > Dor. urch ✧ Ety/ÓROK
xesto > xest -Sŏ > -Sø ᴹ√KHES > Ilk. hest ✧ EtyAC/KHES
brógo > bróga -ga > -go ᴹ✶morókō > Ilk. broga ✧ Ety/MORÓK