S. adjectives grammar.

S. adjectives grammar.

One notable feature of Sindarin adjectives is that they generally appear after the nouns they modify:

The adjectival element usually follows in Sindarin but in certain old elements the older (Quenya) order is maintained, as e.g. with mor- “black” (morgul beside gul-dûr); and in names the order could be shifted for euphonic reasons; so Fanuiðol for normal Dol-fanui (PE17/36).
Quenya preferred the (older) order in which adjectival stems preceded, while in Telerin and Sindarin the adjectival elements often were placed second, especially in later-formed names, according to the usual placing of adjectives in the ordinary speech of those languages. In names however that ended in old words referring to status, rank, profession, race or kindred and so on the adjectival element still in Sindarin, following ancient models, might be placed first (PM/346).
In S. the simple genitive was usually expressed by placing the genitival noun in adjectival position (in S. after the primary noun) (RGEO/67).

The adjective then undergoes soft mutation as appropriate. Examples include:

Tolkien was somewhat inconsistent in the lenition of adjectives, however. For example, there is no mutation in the name Laer Cú Beleg “Song of the Great [beleg] Bow” (S/209). The street name Rath Dínen “Silent Street” is inconsistent with Amon Dîn “*Hill of Silence” (LotR/747), since in Sindarin a noun in an appositional genitive is not lenited. This left Tolkien in a quandary as to the proper forms for “silent/silence”, and he vacillated between dín(en) (PE17/98) and tín(en) (RC/551); this vacillation is also seen in the two forms of the name “Silent Land”: Dor Dínen (S/121) and Dor Dhínen (WJ/333). For the most part, these inconsistencies can be chalked up to slips on Tolkien’s part and probably do not represent conceptual vacillations on the mutation of the following adjective.

One of the examples above, Eryd Wethrin, also demonstrates that Sindarin adjectives are inflected into the plural to agree with their noun. Other examples include:

The last example shows that the adjective is inflected into the plural when modifying a class plural as well. The plural forms of adjectives follow the same rules as plural nouns. Though we have no examples of it, most Neo-Sindarin writers assume that adjectives in “to be” statements are likewise put into the plural to agree with the subject: in edain delin “the men (are) hidden [dolen]”. As noted in the entry on the copula, one popular Neo-Sindarin practice is to have adjectives in “to be” statements not undergo soft mutation, to make it easier to distinguish “the men (are) hidden” (in edain delin) from “the hidden men” (in edain dhelin).

There is some evidence that quantitative adjectives precede the noun in Sindarin, in particular in the early 1950s phrase: il chem en i Naugrim, untranslated but probably meaning “all (il) hands [cam liquid-mutated plural] of the Dwarves” as suggested by Carl Hostetter (VT50/5, 22-23). It seems the same is true of numbers, based on the (Noldorin) phrase: lheben teil brann “five feet [tal-plural] high” (TAI/150). Similar positioning can be seen in the names Tad-dail “Two Legged” (WJ/388), Lebennin “Five Rivers [Waters]” (LotR/750; RC/274), and Ossiriand “Land of Seven Rivers” (LotR/469). This is especially interesting given that both Common Eldarin and Quenya placed adjectives before the noun, but numbers after (PE21/77, VT49/45); somehow in Sindarin/Noldorin these positions were reversed.

Conceptual Development: The notion that adjectives follow their noun and undergo soft mutation dates all the way back to the Gnomish Grammar of the 1910s, where they were also inflected for number to agree with the noun (GG/15). Likely these are features Tolkien borrowed from Welsh and retained thereafter, though in Welsh adjectives only undergo soft mutation after singular feminine nouns. Note that in the Early Noldorin Grammar of the 1920s, adjectives following plural nouns underwent nasal mutation instead of soft mutation (PE13/124), but there is no evidence of this idea past the 1920s.

Examples (plural)
ely ← alw ✧ PE17/146
engrin ← angren ✧ SA/anga
Engrin [← angren] ✧ UT/264
denghin ← dangen ✧ PE17/133
dym [← dom] ✧ PE22/153
Dyrn “thrawn, tough, obdurate” ← Dorn ✧ PE17/181
Duir “dark” [← dûr] ✧ UT/280
galadhremmin [← galadhremmen] ✧ LotR/238
galadhremmin “tree-woven” [← galadhremmen] ✧ LotR/1115
galadh-remmin “tree-meshed” [← galadhremmen] ✧ PE17/20
galadhremmin ← galadhremmen ✧ PE17/127
galadhremmin “tree-meshed” ← galadhremmen ✧ PE17/136
galadhremmin [← galadhremmen] ✧ RGEO/63
galadh-remmin “tree-tangled” [← galadhremmen] ✧ RGEO/64
Gwenwin ← Gwanwen ✧ WJ/378
gwethrin ← gwathren ✧ VT42/9
lîch ← laich ✧ PE17/148
Luin “blue” [← luin] ✧ UT/390
Mithrin [← #mithren] ✧ LotR/1064
Nibin [← niben] ✧ UT/100
egl ← ogl ✧ PE17/149
eigl ← ogl ✧ PE17/149
eigil ← ogl ✧ PE17/149
#oennin “born” ← #onnen ✧ WJ/387
remmin ← remmen ✧ PE17/26
silivrin ← silivren ✧ PE17/25
tad-dail “two-legged” [← #tad-dal] ✧ WJ/388
Tad-dail “Two-legged” [← #tad-dal] ✧ WJI/Levain Tad-dail
Tad-dail “Petty-dwarves” [← #tad-dal] ✧ WJI/Tad-dail
tewin ← tawen ✧ PE17/115
telir ← teleir ✧ PE17/139
N(d)engin “slain” [← dangen] mixed-mutation nd-mutation ✧ PE17/97
N(d)engin “dead” [← dangen] mixed-mutation nd-mutation ✧ PE17/97
nenghin ← dangen nasal-mutation ✧ PE17/133
phain “all” [← #pân] nasal-mutation p-mutation ✧ SD/129
Gelin “green” ← calen soft-mutation c-mutation ✧ SA/calen

Elements

comparative

N. adjectives grammar.

Examples (plural)
engrin ← angren ✧ Ety/ANGĀ
engrin “of Iron” [← angren] ✧ Ety/AYAK
lhedin ← lhaden ✧ Ety/LAT
lhegrin “swift, rapid” ← lhagr ✧ Ety/LAK²
thlîn ← thlein ✧ Ety/SLIN
melin ← malen ✧ Ety/SMAL
Mellin ← mallen ✧ Ety/SMAL
Melthin ← malthen ✧ Ety/SMAL
Myrn ← Morn ✧ WR/113
nœin ← noen ✧ PE22/40
sîn “new” ← sein ✧ Ety/SI
tewerin ← tawaren ✧ Ety/TÁWAR
tithin ← tithen ✧ Ety/TIT
Ndengin “slain” ← dangen nasal-mutation nd-mutation ✧ Ety/NDAK
luin “blue” ← lhûn soft-mutation lh-mutation ✧ Ety/LUG²
vyrn “black” [← morn] soft-mutation m-mutation ✧ TI/124

Elements

comparative

ᴱN. adjectives grammar.

Examples (plural)
tlith ← tleth ✧ PE13/165
aigin ← aig ✧ PE13/158
eglethrin ← aglathren ✧ PE13/136
egledhrin ← agladhren ✧ PE13/158
erig ← arog ✧ PE13/137
arogin ← arog ✧ PE13/137
arogin ← arog ✧ PE13/160
eryg ← arog ✧ PE13/160
erig ← arog ✧ PE13/160
emrys ← amros ✧ PE13/159
engib ← angeb ✧ PE13/159
engrin ← angren ✧ PE13/159
ernyth ← ornoth ✧ PE13/151
inethedrin ← inathadren ✧ PE13/148
gwennin ← gwannen ✧ PE13/122
embrid ← ambred ✧ PE13/137
emrid ← ambred ✧ PE13/137
emrid ← amred ✧ PE13/159
berchib ← barcheb ✧ PE13/138
bilig ← beleg ✧ PE13/122
blodrin ← blodren ✧ PE13/160
boedemrys ← bodamros ✧ PE13/159
bodemrys ← bodamros ✧ PE13/159
bedemrys ← bodamros ✧ PE13/159
beryn ← boron ✧ PE13/139
byryn ← boron ✧ PE13/139
brainn ← brann ✧ PE13/139
grim ← graim ✧ PE13/145
celebrin ← celebren ✧ PE13/140
cilibrin ← celebren ✧ PE13/140
crigin ← crigen ✧ PE13/141
dai ←  ✧ PE13/161
dainin ← dain ✧ PE13/141
dain ← dain ✧ PE13/161
dainin ← dain ✧ PE13/161
deneitheb ← daneitheb ✧ PE13/138
dethainc [← dathanc] ✧ PE13/138
egrin ← egren ✧ PE13/142
eithib ← eitheb ✧ PE13/158
gaigl ← gagl ✧ PE13/143
glainn ← glann ✧ PE13/144
glebroesib ← glabroseb ✧ PE13/162
gylbh ← golbh ✧ PE13/145
golwai ← golbh ✧ PE13/145
gonnin ← gonnen ✧ PE13/123
gennin ← gonnen ✧ PE13/145
gonnin ← gonnen ✧ PE13/145
goriaid ← goriad ✧ PE13/122
hith ← haith ✧ PE13/147
hîth ← haith ✧ PE13/163
hith ← haith ✧ PE13/163
cerch ← carch ✧ PE13/140
he(i)rdh ← hardh ✧ PE13/147
blaithrin ← blaithren ✧ PE13/139
lhedin ← lhaden ✧ PE13/148
lhainn ← lhann ✧ PE13/148
derw ← darw ✧ PE13/142
deirw ← darw ✧ PE13/161
deirbh ← darw ✧ PE13/161
derw ← darw ✧ PE13/161
deru ← darw ✧ PE13/161
medrin ← madren ✧ PE13/163
medrin ← madren ✧ PE13/165
môr(in) ← môr ✧ PE13/122
môr(ir) ← môr ✧ PE13/124
maur ← maur ✧ PE13/150
melin ← malen ✧ PE13/150
melin ← malen ✧ PE13/163
myrn ← morn ✧ PE13/150
ninn ← nainn ✧ PE13/150
ninn ← nainn ✧ PE13/164
nerig ← narog ✧ PE13/150
nûdir ← nûd ✧ PE13/122
minidh ← minedh ✧ PE13/150
minidh ← minedh ✧ PE13/164
ydig ← odog ✧ PE13/151
edyg ← odog ✧ PE13/151
erirdh ← orerdh ✧ PE13/144
elirdh ← olerdh ✧ PE13/161
elirdh ← olerdh ✧ PE13/164
oelirdh ← olerdh ✧ PE13/164
orin ← oren ✧ PE13/151
aurin ← auren ✧ PE13/151
orin ← oren ✧ PE13/160
erfaing ← orfang ✧ PE13/156
oerthainc ← orthanc ✧ PE13/156
oerthainc ← orthanc ✧ PE13/164
erthainc ← orthanc ✧ PE13/164
beledig ← balodog ✧ PE13/138
pethrin ← pathren ✧ PE13/152
binn ← benn ✧ PE13/138
binn ← benn ✧ PE13/160
puigir ← puig ✧ PE13/124
gwaig ← gwag ✧ PE13/122
guig ← gwag ✧ PE13/122
gaug(in) ← gaug ✧ PE13/144
haibin ← haib ✧ PE13/146
tín ← tain ✧ PE13/153
tîn ← tain ✧ PE13/165
tîn ← tain ✧ PE13/165
tainc ← tanc ✧ PE13/124
tainc ← tanc ✧ PE13/153
tainc ← tanc ✧ PE13/165
e(i)rch ← arch ✧ PE13/137
e(i)rch ← arch ✧ PE13/160
te(i)rf ← tarf ✧ PE13/165
terf ← tarf ✧ PE13/165
thely ← thala ✧ PE13/153
lhigin ← lhigen ✧ PE13/149
duailch ← dolch ✧ PE13/124
dylch ← dolch ✧ PE13/142
tynnib ← tunneb ✧ PE13/165
tynnin ← tunnen ✧ PE13/165
yrdyf ← urduf ✧ PE13/156
nuilch [← dolch] nasal-mutation d-mutation ✧ PE13/124
i·fuigin ← puig nasal-mutation p-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·mfuigin ← puig nasal-mutation p-mutation ✧ PE13/121
fuig(ir) [← puig] nasal-mutation p-mutation ✧ PE13/124
duailch ← dolch stop-mutation d-mutation ✧ PE13/124
-brid ← -bred (suffix) suffix ✧ PE13/159

References ✧ PE13/123-124


G. adjectives grammar.

Examples (plural)
ewlin ← alw ✧ PE13/109
elwig “lofty” ← alweg ✧ PE13/115
gwandron “beautiful” [← gwandra] ✧ GG/9
gwandron “beautiful” [← gwandra] ✧ GG/15
dain ← da ✧ PE13/112
fuig ← feg ✧ PE13/114
ffwyg ← feg ✧ PE13/114
gleni “slender” [← glen(n)] ✧ GG/11
glossi “white” [← gloss] ✧ GG/15
gwari ← gôr ✧ GL/41
gori “all, every” ← gôr ✧ GL/41
gwinidh ← gwenedh ✧ PE13/118
laithi [← #laith²] ✧ GG/11
laithi [← #laith²] ✧ GG/12
moron “good” ← mora ✧ GG/15
mair(in) ← mawr ✧ PE13/115
glin “?attractive” [← *cli] soft-mutation c-mutation ✧ PE13/93
’lossi “white” [← gloss] soft-mutation g-mutation ✧ GG/15

References ✧ GG/15