Q. infinitive grammar.

The Quenya infinitive is simply the uninflected (aorist) verb stem, for example cenë “to see” for the verb cen- “to see” (PE22/99). Like English, the infinitive can be used when one verb was the object of another: merin cenë atarinya “I wish to see my father”. Unlike English, the Quenya infinitive could not be used as the subject of another verb. Where English allows a phrase like “to listen gives wisdom”, Quenya would require the gerund: lastië anta nólë “listening gives wisdom” (PE22/119).

The Quenya infinitive was also a proper noun, and as such could not take pronominal object suffixes. However, Quenya had another infinitive construction, the so called “particular infinitive” suffix -ita, which could take an object suffix: merin cenitas (cen-ita-s) “I wish to see him”. The particular infinitive could also take possessive suffixes as a way of forming passive constructions: mérin cenitalyas (cen-ita-lya-s) anta alassë lyenna “I wish [that] your seeing him gives you joy” (lit. gives joy to you).

The infinitive was used in imperative expressions, following the imperative particle á, as in á laita (te) “[do] praise (them)”. In addition, as a noun it could take further prefixes, such as carë “to do” >> lacarë “not to do = inaction”, úcarë “bad doing = misdeed”. These derived nouns were sufficiently divorced from their verbal function that they behaved as ordinary nouns (PE22/154) and could become the subject of sentences, etc.

Conceptual Development: @@@

Examples (infinitive)
anta “*give” [← anta-] Alye anta men siar ilyarea {mastammar >>} mastamma, ámen anta síra ilaurëa massamma ✧ VT43/18.0111
kare “(to) do” [← car-] uin kare ✧ PE17/068.1405
kare [← car-] uin kare ✧ PE22/152.0901
kar-e “do, make” [← car-] ✧ PE22/152.1001
kare “do” [← car-] eke nin kare sa, ekuva nin kare sa noa ✧ VT49/20.0901
care “do” [← car-] ✧ VT49/34.2206
kare “do [it]” [← car-] áva kare ✧ WJ/371.1611
kese “to look in” ← kes- kese parma ✧ PE17/156.3008
na-kúna “bending” ← kúna- Menel na-kúna ✧ MC/222.2102
akúna ← kúna- Menel akúna ✧ MC/222.3909
na-kúna ← kúna- ✧ MC/223.2305
henta “to read” [← henta-] henta parma ✧ PE17/156.3001
na-hosta “gather” ← hosta- Man kenuva lumbor na-hosta? ✧ MC/222.2004
ahosta ← hosta- Man kenuva lumbor ahosta? ✧ MC/222.3906
na-hosta ← hosta- ✧ MC/223.2209
laita “bless” [← laita-] A laita te, laita te, A laita te, laita te ✧ Let/448.3605
laita “bless (or praise)” [← laita-] a laita tárienna ✧ Let/448.3615
laita “praise” [← laita-] A laita te, laita te, A laita te, laita te ✧ LotR/0953.2502
laita [← laita-] a laita tárienna ✧ LotR/0953.2703
laita [← laita-] A laita te, laita te, A laita te, laita te ✧ SD/047.1002
nurrua ← nurru- raumo nurrua ✧ MC/222.3813
pole [← pol-] ✧ PE17/155.3304
pole [← pol-] ✧ VT41/06.2504
quete “speak” [← quet-] lerta[n] quete ✧ PE17/160.0902
quete “speak” [← quet-] polin quete ✧ PE17/181.3413
quete “speak” [← quet-] polin quete ✧ VT41/06.2301
rúma ← rúma- undume rúma ✧ MC/222.3903
talta “falling” ← talta- elenillor pella talta-taltala ✧ MC/222.2701
tihta “blinking” ← tihta- anar púrëa tihta ✧ MC/222.3203
tūle “to come” [← tul-] nauva tūle ✧ PE22/151.2407
yarra “snarling” ← yarra- ninqui karkar yarra ✧ MC/222.1303
yarra “snarling” ← yarra- ninqui ondor yarra ✧ MC/222.3614
Examples (particular-infinitive)
karita “to do (in this case)” [← car-] lá karita i hamil mára alasaila (ná) ✧ PE22/154.1314
karita “to do” [← car-] ✧ VT41/17.4211
karita “to do” [← car-] lá karita i hamil mára alasaila (ná) ✧ VT42/33.3612
karitalya(s) “your doing (it)” [← car-] 2nd-pl-poss with-sg-object ✧ VT41/17.4307
karitalya(s) “your doing (it)” [← car-] 2nd-sg-polite-poss with-sg-object la năvin karitalya(s) mára ✧ PE22/154.1105
karitalya(s) “your doing (it)” [← car-] 2nd-sg-polite-poss with-sg-object la navin karitalya(s) mára ✧ VT42/33.3303
karitas [← car-] with-sg-object lá karitas alasaila ké nauva, lá karitas, navin, alasaila ná ✧ PE22/154.2007
karitas “to do it” [← car-] with-sg-object (h)ore nin karitas ✧ VT41/13.2303
karitas “to do so” [← car-] with-sg-object ore nin karitas nō namin alasaila ✧ VT41/13.2403
karitas “doing it” [← car-] with-sg-object ✧ VT41/17.4303
karitas “doing this” [← car-] with-sg-object lá karitas alasaila ké nauva, lá karitas, navin, alasaila ná ✧ VT42/34.0506

References ✧ PE22/154.0211; PE22/154.2201; VT42/34.0703

Element In


ᴹQ. infinitive grammar.

Examples (infinitive)
ampanóta “construct (a building)” [← ampanóta-] ✧ PE22/118.0109
kare [← kar-] ✧ PE22/099.1415
kare “(to) make” [← kar-] ✧ PE22/109.4009
karanya [← karanya-] ✧ PE22/117.1009
kelue ← kelu ✧ PE22/116.2216
laita [← laita-] ✧ SD/047.0605
lirue ← liru ✧ PE22/116.2215
liro “to sing” ← liru ✧ PE22/116.4718
niñqityo [← ninqinta-] ✧ PE22/117.4202
niñqita ← niñqitā- ✧ PE22/117.3511
orta [← orta-] ✧ PE22/117.1008
tule “to come” [← tul-] ✧ PE22/118.0802
ume [← um-] ✧ Ety/LA.012
karilthi “to make them (other things)” [← kar-] plural with-remote-pl-object ✧ PE22/118.1509
karilte “to make it” [← kar-] plural with-sg-object ✧ PE22/118.1102
kára “(to) be making” [← kar-] present ✧ PE22/100.0608
karin [← kar-] with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/099.1502
karithe “to do it” [← kar-] with-remote-sg-object ✧ PE22/118.1407
karite “to make it” [← kar-] with-sg-object ✧ PE22/118.1015

References ✧ PE22/099.1401; PE22/118.0501

Element In


ᴱQ. infinitive grammar.

Examples (infinitive)
ī “be” [← e-²] ✧ PE16/140.4901
sara [← sar-] ✧ PE16/146.0204
tulu [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/128.0505
tulinqe [← tulu-] aorist ✧ PE14/028.1907
tula [← tulu-] aorist ✧ PE14/028.1908
tula(i) [← tulu-] aorist ✧ PE14/028.3910
tultai [← tulu-] aorist ✧ PE14/028.3912
falastane “surging” [← falasta-] bare-stem ✧ MC/213.2702
histane “fading” [← hista-] bare-stem ✧ MC/213.3002
pustane “blowing” [← pusta-] bare-stem ✧ MC/213.2802
lungane “bending” [← lunga(na)-] bare-stem ✧ MC/214.0602
sangane “gather” [← sanga-²] bare-stem ✧ MC/214.0504
tíne “shining” [← tini-] bare-stem ✧ MC/213.2902
tūle [← tulu-] bare-stem ✧ PE16/128.1009
karkane “snarling” [← karka-] bare-stem ✧ MC/213.3303
tulvant [← tulu-] future ✧ PE14/028.1904
tulvasta [← tulu-] future ✧ PE14/028.3906
tuluvant [← tulu-] future ✧ PE16/128.0402
tulval(de) [← tulu-] future passive ✧ PE14/030.1803
tulvas(te) [← tulu-] future reflexive ✧ PE14/029.2003
túlient [← tulu-] past ✧ PE14/028.1905
túlienqe [← tulu-] past ✧ PE14/028.1906
túliesta [← tulu-] past ✧ PE14/028.3907
túlient [← tulu-] past ✧ PE16/128.0302
túliel(de) [← tulu-] past passive ✧ PE14/030.1804
túlies(te) [← tulu-] past reflexive ✧ PE14/029.2004
tulies “arrived” [← tulu-] past reflexive ✧ PE14/032.2212
kiryinqen [← kiri-] present ✧ PE16/056.0305
kiryinqe [← kiri-] present ✧ PE16/056.2604
tulint [← tulu-] present ✧ PE14/028.1902
tulinqe [← tulu-] present ✧ PE14/028.1903
tulista [← tulu-] present ✧ PE14/028.3905
tulint [← tulu-] present ✧ PE16/128.0203
tulil(de) [← tulu-] present passive ✧ PE14/030.1802
tulīma/tulilma [← tulu-] present passive ✧ PE14/030.3608
tulis(te) [← tulu-] present reflexive ✧ PE14/029.2002

References ✧ PE16/128.0201; PE16/128.1001

Element In