Q. perfect grammar.

Q. perfect grammar.

The perfect tense in Quenya indicates an action that has been completed before the present time. In English, the perfect tense is usually expressed with an auxiliary verb “has” or “have”, as in (past) “ate” vs. (perfect) “has eaten” from the verb “to eat”. In Quenya, the perfect tense has its own verbal conjugation: past mante vs. perfect amátie from the verb mat- (PE17/13): i atan amátie, amátien “the man has eaten, I have eaten”. As Tolkien described its use in Common Eldarin: Verb Structure (EVS2) written in the early 1950s:

Perfect. This described an action or process that was completed in the immediate past, but the effects of which are still present. It is not certain whether this tense was completely differentiated from the next (Past) in Common Eldarin, or there were simply two similar competing methods of forming a “past tense”, the functions of which were not yet clearly fixed (PE22/130).

A nearly identical description appeared in Quendian & Common Eldarin Verbal Structure (EVS1) from the late 1940s (PE22/95-96). Like English, the Quenya perfect is used when the effects of the completed action are still felt in the present time, as distinct from the past tense, where the action simply occurred at some point in the past. For example, if you say “the man lived in the city (for many years)”, you only know that at some point in the past the man was in the city. If, however, you say “the man has lived in the city (for many years)”, you imply that he has lived in it up to the present day.

Forming the Perfect: Tolkien described the origins and formation of the perfect tense several times starting with the 1940s.

The so-called “perfect” formations were marked by lengthening of the base (never by fortification), followed by a suffix (i)yē. These stems were also often augmented. There appears also to have been a variety with compulsory augment and short (aor.) stem followed by (not iyē). Thus √MAT: mātiye- “have eaten” / amatyē / blended amātiē. √TUL: tūliyē “have come, am arrived, am here” / utulyē / utūliyē. The augment was probably more frequently used in words where the view was of the past rather than the present: thus rather amatyē, but tūliyē “I am here” ... In Quenya ... the perfect was normally augmented and as a rule has lengthened stem + suffix -iē (EVS1, late 1940s, PE22/96).
In Augmentation the sundóma was placed before the first consonant: as ATA, ATAL, ATALAT, ATALTA. In Eldarin this variety was often used in verbal systems to mark perfection or completion: as √TALAT “slip (down)”: atalat “slip right down, fall in ruin” ... Primitively (though rarely in formalized grammatical uses in Eldarin) prefixion was frequently accompanied by suppression of the normal sundóma: see below. Thus KAL, KALAR > akla-, aklar-; TALAT > atlat-. It seems originally to have appeared in the “perfect” forms of ³√: as atlātijē < √TALAT (Tengwesta Qenderinwa 2, TQ2, around 1950, PE18/85).
The formations usually regarded as “perfect” were marked by lengthening of the base-vowel (never by fortification), and addition to the stem of a suffix: jē, ijē. There was also a different but allied form with augmented base, with short base vowel and suffix-. Thus from √MAT: mātiē or amatje; from √TUL: tūlie or utulje. There were also possibly already in Common Eldarin mixed forms, such as amātiē, utūliē (but not matjē etc.). The augment was probably more frequently used in words where the “perfect” form naturally referred rather to the past than to the present: so amatjē “has eaten”; but tūlijē “has come, is here” ... In Quenya ... the perfect was normally augmented, and as a rule showed lengthened stem with suffix -iē (EVS2, early 1950s, PE22/130-131).

Thus the conjugation for the Quenya perfect has three markers: (1) a vowel prefix (augment) identical to the base vowel of the verb, (2) a lengthening of the base vowel and (3) the suffix -ie, which replaces the final vowel of the verb stem. For example, in the perfect ecénie from the verb cen- (PE22/103), the initial e- is the augment that matches the base vowel, the base vowel itself is lengthened to é, and the suffix -ie is added. Similarly, the perfect of tul- “to come” is utúlie “has come” (S/190). Derived verbs frequently have similar perfects where the -ie replaces the final vowel of the stem: fara-afárie, nahta-anahtie; liru-ilírie. I call this method of perfect formation the “simple perfect”.

Of the three markers, only the third, the suffix -ie is absolutely required. The vowel augment is the least necessary of the three markers: it can be omitted for purely aesthetic reasons, especially in verse. For example avánie “has gone” (the perfect form of the irregular verb auta-) can also appear without its augment as simply vánie. Compare the Namárië poems in the 1st and 2nd editions of the Lord of the Rings, where this vánie/avánie variation took place (RC/341). As Tolkien described it in the Quendi and Eldar essay written around 1960:

The most frequently used past and perfect were vāne, avānie ... The form vānie appearing in verse has no augment: probably a phonetic development after a preceding vowel; but such forms are not uncommon in verse (WJ/366).

Similarly, vowel lengthening is prohibited if the base vowel appeared before a pair of consonants or in a diphthong, as in the perfect anahtie from the verb nahta- (PE17/77) or acaitie from the verb caita- (PE22/159). However, the suffix -ie by itself is not enough to properly distinguish the perfect form, because such a conjugation would be identical in form to the verb’s gerund. At least one of the other two markers (augment or lengthened base vowel) should be used if at all possible, which makes the augment “less optional” for derived verbs.

Perfects of verbs beginning with vowels: In the case of verbs beginning with vowels, any vowel augment would be absorbed by the base vowel of the verb. For example, the verb (ᴹQ.) ulya- “to pour” would have a perfect form u-úlie (see below for the perfects of ya-verbs), and this simply becomes úlie (PE22/112). Since the vowel augment is optional in any case, verbs beginning with vowels effectively omit the augment.

Sometimes, particularly in poetic writing, the perfects of verbs beginning with a vowel are formed by reduplicating both the vowel and its following consonant, as ulúlie (PE22/112) or (al)ālie from ala- “grow” (PE22/164). This reduplication is particularly useful in cases where the base vowel cannot be lengthened, as in the perfect (or)ortie of the verb orta- “rise” (PE22/164): it helps distinguish the perfect from the gerund. As Tolkien described it in the Quenya Verbal System (QVS) of the late 1940s and Common Eldarin: Verb Structure (EVS2) of the early 1950s:

The augment was the sundóma of “strong” verbs. In case of those verbs beginning with a vowel since they occurred before a stem already lengthened the augment was usually omitted or absorbed, as ulle “poured”, úlie, has poured. Such forms as ulúlie occur only in verse (QVS, PE22/112).
In the case of verbs that began with a vowel the augment naturally was absorbed by it, and since the majority of verbal stems requiring the augment already had a long vowel this disappeared: as in √UL “pour”: u-ūlijē > ūliē “has poured”. But forms with virtual reduplication ul-ūlie were used in Eldarin also, and survive in the derived languages especially in the verse-idioms, but also in some forms in regular use as Parmaquesta olōlie “has become“, orōrie “has arisen” (EVS2, PE22/133).

In QVS Tolkien said that the reduplicated perfects could “occur only in verse”, but he was less rigid in EVS2, allowing for such forms as part of regular Quenya speech. Later examples frequently had only the reduplicated perfects, or had them as an alternative to an unaugmented perfect, strongly indicating such forms could appear in ordinary speech:

Perfects of verbs with reduced initial consonants: In some cases, the perfect can preserve consonant clusters that were normally reduced at the beginning of words. For example nak- “to hew, slay” from the root √NDAK had an (archaic) perfect form †andákie (PE22/112, 133). Over time, however, these perfects tend to normalize and become consistent with their other modern verb forms: anákie. From QVS and EVS2:

The initial consonant of the stem was usually preserved in its Q. form as far as possible after the augment, and reduplication. Anciently, of course, many initial groups, simplified when initial, reappeared after the augment and reduplication. So √NDAK: nake, andákie; √STAR: thare, astárie. The forms with initial nasal before b, d, g were the last to be simplified initially, in consequence such forms as andakie are preserved in classical Q. not only in augmentation and reduplication: nandakka, andakie; but also after the closely proclitic subject pronouns: as me·ndakilti “we hate them”. Later and in TQ the simple form is often reintroduced as anákie, me·nakilti (QVS, PE22/112).
The historic forms in such a case as √SLIK “creep” would have been: sizlikk-, izlik- > sillikk, illikk, but these being obscure in their relation to the simple forms do not survive. In Q. reduplication is with l-/r- while the initial hl, hr is retained medially (being before the main stress): the only case of medial hl, hr. So hlike “creeps”, [frequentative] lilhikke “sneaks about”, [perfect] ihlíkie “has crept” (QVS, PE22/113).
In languages that considerably changed initial consonants or groups (or treated them very differently from medial groups) there was of course a constant tendency to transfer the initial form to position after the augment. But the mb, nd, ñg forms were usually preserved in the older Eldarin tongues in augmentation and reduplication: as Q nak-, perfect andákie. In Q. however initial groups in “regular” forms received their initial treatment after the augment and simple consonants also: as √STAR: thar: athárie; √SAL: asálie (not azálie) (EVS2, PE22/133).

Thus in cases where the relationship between the perfects and the verb stems became obscure, the perfects were reformed to match the verb stem early, probably in Parmaquesta (PQ): ihlíkie, asálie, athárie. The last of these definitely a PQ form since we don’t see th (þ) > s. It seems the nasal clusters survived longer and continued to appear in PQ, but even these perfects were reformed by Tarquesta (TQ): archaic †andákie > later anákie. This is consistent with the examples in Tolkien’s later writing as well: nahta-anahtie (PE22/164) rather than (archaic) *andahtie.

Perfects of verbs with prefixes: There are a couple examples from QVS that indicate that verbs with a prefix would insert the vocalic augment between the prefix and the stem:

Such prefixed verbs might have augmentless perfects as well, which is more convenient for verbs with prefixes like lá-: láquet- “deny” → (presumably) láquétie.

The Perfect and the Past Tense: In Common Eldarin, the conjugations of the perfect and past tenses were independent of one another. Tolkien stated that as time went on, however, “the forms of past and perfect became progressively more closely associated in Quenya” (WJ/366). In some cases, irregular past tenses were reformed to match the perfect, as in √LAB > lav- “lick” → archaic past †lambe or †lamne, later past láve patterned after its perfect form alávie (PE22/102, 151). In other cases, the perfect was formed using the past tense rather than the verb stem. These “perfects from past tenses” can be categorized in two way: strong perfects formed after strong past tenses and weak perfects formed after weak past tenses.

Strong Perfects: In the late 1940s QVS, strong perfects were seen even for basic verbs, both with and without the more ordinary “simple perfect”:

These strong perfects of basic verbs may be a remnant of Early Qenya past formations (see Conceptual Development below). In the 1950s and 60s, however, all basic and a-verb perfects were derived from the (aorist) verb stem, with the exception of a few irregular verbs such as ea- “exist” → strong perfect engie, past enge vs. archaic perfect †éye (VT49/29). Thus it seems Tolkien abandoned strong perfects for basic verbs.

There are, however, a fair number of examples in Tolkien’s later writing of derived verbs with strong perfects, notably derived verbs with strong or half-strong past tenses. Some examples from the 1940s, 50s and 60s:

Many of the verbs above are fairly irregular with a large variety of past and perfect forms, so these variations are not representative all of the options Tolkien considered. There are also a number of examples where a “simple” perfect was formed from the verbal root rather than the derived verb stem. For lack of a better term, I call these “root perfects”:

Of special interest are the examples of perfect ānie, past †āne and perfect afānie, past †fāne. Both past forms were replaced by weak pasts antane (PE17/147) and fantane (PE17/180). If these archaic past forms were adapted from the perfect (as with láve past vs. alávie perfect), this must have happened in Ancient Quenya or Parmaquesta, far enough ago that these archaic strong pasts were replaced by weak pasts by the time of Tarquesta. Alternately, these past forms may be remnants of Early Qenya past tenses produced via vowel lengthening; see Conceptual Development below.

Weak verbs and some causative verbs formed their perfects directly from their weak past:

Perfects of Derived Verbs: The section above has already covered the patterns used by derived verbs for forming the perfect:

In derived verbs ending in -a, the “replacement” with -ie was the result of the normal phonetic development from adding the ancient perfect suffix -yē to the final vowel: -aye > -eı̯e > -ëe > -ie. Tolkien illustrated this development in several examples in Late Notes on Verb Structure written in 1969:

orya “rise” ... orṓryā̆ye, orṓryeı̯e. orórie (PE22/157).
orta “raise” ... orortie ... orortā̆iyē. oro[r]taye > > ie (PE22/159).
tultā “fetch” ... utultien. ´tāye. tayen [>] teı̯en > tien (PE22/164).

This is the perfect formation pattern for all attested a-verb perfects:

We only have one attested perfect for a u-verb, and it likewise follows this pattern:

Here, though, the phonetic developments are less plausible, since u would typically survive before suffixal -yē, as seen in gerundial forms liruye, kaluye (PE22/117). It may be that etekélie is a variant perfect derived from the root √KEL rather than the stem kelu-. Perhaps the simple perfect formation for u-verbs would be liru- → *ilíruye or maybe even *ilírwie (see Early Qenya past kelwie of kelu- “flow”, PE14/58), but we have no attested examples.

The genuinely weak verbs typically have weak perfects formed from their weak past tenses: tengwa- “read” → perfect etengwanie, past tengwane (VT49/48). The -causatives are more variable in how their perfects were formed, typically having either simple perfects or weak perfects. Mostly these variant perfects appear in different sources, and thus may represent conceptual vacillations on Tolkien’s part:

The half-strong verbs (-formatives and talat-stems) are even more variable:

The “root perfect” seems to be most common in those cases where there is also a strong past formed from the verbal root: (is)ísie/inse; ahlázie/hlasse; unúzie/nusse; emēnie/menne, although there is orórie with half-strong past oronte. Likewise, the strong perfects exist only in those cases where this is a corresponding strong or half-strong past, and weak perfects only when there is a weak past. There does not seem to be a universal pattern, and the large variety of forms indicate considerable conceptual vacillation Tolkien’s part.

One special case is the ya-verbs which have a more straightforward pattern:

The only exception is weak perfect (or)oryanie from the (hypothetical) -causative orya- “*raise” (PE22/164). The -formatives are very consistent: these verbs have half-strong pasts like melanye, oranye, sirinye, but none of these past forms are used to form a perfect. In QVS Tolkien said:

But the forms in -nye which should produce such perfects as *isirinie either form them periphrastically ye sirinyella or as true strong verbs: isírie (PE22/115).

Superficially, these ya-verb perfects look like “root perfects”, but in fact this is just the normal phonetic development of adding the ancient -yē to the -formative: -yie > -ie. Thus these are technically simple perfects with an extra but regular phonetic change:

orya “rise” ... orṓryā̆ye, orṓryeı̯e. orórie (PE22/157).

Conceptual Development: There are several of examples that appear to be perfect forms in the earliest Lost Tales from the 1910s: ᴱQ. tulielto “they have come” and i·Eldar tulier “the Eldar have come” from the verb tulu- “to come” (LT1/114), as well as i·kal’antúlien “light hath returned” from the verb antulu- “to return” (LT1/184). At this earliest stage, these forms are different from the attested Early Quenya past tense forms (which end in -e and tended to use either vowel-lengthening or nasal-infixion/suffixion), and could therefore be genuine perfects. They already had the distinctive -ie suffix of later perfect forms, and possibly vowel-lengthening in the case of antúlien.

The situation is more complicated in the Early Qenya Grammar (EQG) written in the 1920s, however, where -ie is one of the suffixes used for the past tense, not the perfect:

The past stem is obtained by the suffix -ye, (ı̯ie >) -ie, or -ne; but -ie (the commonest) is normally accompanied by stem strengthening consisting of (1) a-infixion, (2) n-infixion, (3) vowel lengthening (PE14/56).

Thus in EQG, túlie is a past form, not a perfect (PE14/57). The EQG perfect is formed, like English, as a compound tense, either using the verb “to be” in combination with the past participle (e tulien “is having come” = “has come”) or by adding the long participle suffix -nde to the past form: tuliende “has come” (PE14/57). The Qenya Conjugations from early 1920s also show past forms with -ie and a similarly formed perfect, distinguishing past and perfect via short vs. long pronominal suffixes: 1st person tūlien (past) vs. tūlienye (perfect), 2nd person tūliel (past) vs. tūlieste (perfect), etc. (PE16/124-127).

Starting later in the 1920s, these ie-past forms started to fall out of Tolkien’s favor. In English-Quenya Dictionary (PE15/67-79) and Quenya word lists (PE16/132-145) written in the mid to late 1920s, some strong past forms appear with only -e along with pasts ending in -ie. Past forms in The Etymologies of the 1930s (LR/347-400) only have past tenses ending in -e, never -ie. Notes from Tengwesta Qenderinwa 1 (TQ1) written in the late 1930s indicated Tolkien still imagined -ie as a possibility for past forms, however, and TQ1 does not describe a distinct perfect tense:

On the other hand n-infixion and n-suffixion remained concurrently in use, and often performed identical functions: as in the strong past tenses formed with either n-infix + suffix ē, yē, or with suffix nē, nyē, as √KAT pa.t. *ka-n-tē beside √KAR pa.t. *kar-nē (PE18/46).

There might be perfects in Fíriel’s Song from the 1930s: kárielto or kárier “they made” from the verb kar-, vs. its past tense káre (LR/72). There are also possible perfect forms in the Lament of Atalante: ullier “poured” (LR/47, SD/247) and lantie(r) “fell” (LR/47, 56), the latter replaced by weak past lantane in later versions of the poem from the 1940s (SD/246, 310). It is hard to tell if these are genuine perfects or are remnants of Early Qenya past forms; based on their glosses they all seem to be the simple past.

There are forms that might be convincingly labeled perfects in the Namárië, draft from Lord of the Rings drafts written in the 1940s, such as tūlier (TI/285). However, the first unambiguous appearance of a perfect in the tales themselves was not until very late in the Lord of the Rings drafts with túvien >> utúvienyes “I have found it” (SD/57). This is roughly contemporaneous with Tolkien’s description of the perfect in Quendian & Common Eldarin Verbal Structure (EVS1) and Quenya Verbal System (QVS), as described above. Thus it seems that Tolkien only made up his mind about the Quenya perfect around 1948, but may have been gradually moving in that direction for a decade or more before that.

In the Quenya Verbal System document from 1948, Tolkien also discussed an alternate “long perfect” syntax based on the perfect participle (PE22/104), used with some derived verbs to be more distinctive from other forms. It is unlikely that this syntax remained valid in Tolkien’s later writing. See the entry on the long perfect for further discussion.

Neo-Quenya: For Neo-Quenya, I would suggest using only the “simple perfect” for basic verbs, as there is no evidence for strong perfects in this class beyond the 1940s. I would also use simple perfects for a-verbs and u-verbs; u-verbs are a bit more phonologically ambiguous, but it’s probably best to follow our only attested u-verb perfect: ehtelu-etekélie. The half-strong verbs (most ya-verbs) would likewise use simple perfects, with the caveat that -yie > -ie, so sirya-isírie, nahta-anahtie-.

On the other hand, most verbs with a weak past should likewise have a weak perfect: tengwa- → past tengwane, perfect etengwanie; tulta- → past tultane, perfect utultanie. Some of these (especially causatives) may have alternate simple perfects: utultie. Finally, any verb with an irregular strong past can have a strong perfect: ista- → past sinte, perfect isintie; caita- → past caine, perfect acainie; talta- → past talante, perfect atalantie. Again, most of these verbs can form simple perfects as well: (is)istie, acaitie, ataltie.

I find the “root perfects” problematic. It is hard to establish a clear pattern for them. I would only use them when there is a similar (generally irregular) strong past formed from the root: fanta- → (archaic) past †fáne, perfect afánie. Even in those cases I’d treat them as archaic and favor a simple perfect or a weak perfect: later weak past fantane, hypothetical perfects *afantanie or *afantie.

To summarize, most verbs form simple perfects:

  1. By adding the base vowel as augment or (less frequently) reduplicating the first two letters if the verb begins with a vowel; the augment is optional in poetry.
  2. By lengthening the base vowel, if possible: unless it is before a consonant cluster or in a diphthong.
  3. By suffixing -ie and replacing the last vowel of the stem if there is one, with the caveat that -yie > -ie: sirya- → perfect isírie.

The major exceptions are verbs which form their perfect from the past tense rather than the verb stem:

Of these two groups, weak verbs are the one least likely to form simple perfects. Verbs with irregular strong pasts can often form simple perfects as well: (is)istie. Finally, verbs with recognized prefixes tend insert the augment between the prefix and the stem: entul- “return” → [hypothetical] enutúlie “has returned”, though augmentless perfect are also allowed and probably fairly common: entúlie.

Examples (perfect)
alālie [← ala-¹] a-verb ✧ PE22/164
avāvie [← ava-¹] a-verb ✧ PE22/164
orórie ← ora (aorist) a-verb ✧ VT41/13
ohór[i]e [← ora-] a-verb ✧ VT41/13
alālien [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
avávien [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/162
avavien [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
avāvien [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
avāvien ← ava- a-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/13
afārien [← fara-] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
ālien [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-sg augmentless ✧ PE22/164
ālie [← ala-¹] a-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/164
orie ← ora (aorist) a-verb augmentless ✧ VT41/13
(a)mátie “have eaten” [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/13
emēnie “has just arrived” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/24
andákie ← nak- basic-verb ✧ PE22/133
ókómie ← okom- basic-verb ✧ PE17/157
olōlie “has become” [← ol-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/133
iríkie “has twisted” [← #ric-²] basic-verb ✧ VT39/7
asálie [← sal-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/133
etēnie “has just arrived” [← ten-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/23
athárie ← thar basic-verb ✧ PE22/133
Utúlie “has come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ S/190
utúlie “has come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ S/190
Utulie “has come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ WJ/166
utulie “has come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ WJ/166
atyā́vie [← tyav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
oiórie [← yor-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/43
amātielmi [← mat-] basic-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE17/76
akárienye [← car-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/152
inírien [← nir-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/165
apārien “I have learnt” ← paranye (present 1st-sg) basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/180
utúlien “I am come” [← tul-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ LotR/967
utúlien “I have come” [← tul-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/103
utúvienyes “I have found it” [← #tuv-] basic-verb 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ LotR/971
utuvienyes “I have found it” [← #tuv-] basic-verb 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ PE17/110
túlielde “you had come” [← tul-] basic-verb 2nd-pl augmentless ✧ PE22/140
fírië “she hath breathed forth” [← fir-] basic-verb augmentless ✧ MR/250
fírië “has breathed forth” ← fírë (infinitive) basic-verb augmentless ✧ MR/470
(a)vánie ← auta- irregular-verb ✧ PE17/63
avánie “have gone, past away” ← auta- irregular-verb ✧ PE17/63
avānie ← av|va irregular-verb ✧ PE17/63
awāwe [← auta-¹] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/164
avānie ← auta- irregular-verb ✧ WJ/366
avānie ← auta- irregular-verb ✧ WJ/366
éye ← ea irregular-verb ✧ VT49/29
engie ← enge (past) irregular-verb ✧ VT49/29
alaie [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/153
alaie ← lā- irregular-verb ✧ PE22/156
alaie ←  irregular-verb ✧ VT49/13
amáye [← mai-²] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/148
anaie [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
anáye [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
anaie ← nā- irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
uien ← ua irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/144
vānie ← auta- irregular-verb augmentless ✧ PE17/63
vánie- ← auta- irregular-verb augmentless ✧ PE17/63
vánie [← auta-¹] irregular-verb augmentless ✧ PE17/63
vānie [← auta-¹] irregular-verb augmentless ✧ WJ/366
avánier “have passed” [← auta-¹] irregular-verb plural ✧ LotR/377
avā́nië̀r “have passed” [← auta-¹] irregular-verb plural ✧ RGEO/58
avānier “have passed away (pl.)” [← auta-¹] irregular-verb plural ✧ RGEO/58
vánier “have passed away” [← auta-¹] irregular-verb plural augmentless ✧ PE17/63
vānier “have passed away” ← auta- irregular-verb plural augmentless ✧ PE17/63
vánier “have departed” [← auta-¹] irregular-verb plural augmentless ✧ PE17/63
vánier [← auta-¹] irregular-verb plural augmentless ✧ RC/341
öávie ← auta irregular-verb root-perfect ✧ PE17/148
oávie [← auta-¹] irregular-verb root-perfect ✧ PE22/164
oantië ← auta- irregular-verb strong-perfect ✧ WJ/366
lāmie ← lamma (present) na-formative augmentless root-perfect ✧ VT47/21
lambie ← lambe (past) na-formative augmentless strong-perfect ✧ VT47/21
acaitie ← caita (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
orortie ← ortā ta-causative ✧ PE22/157
[orort]ie ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
orortie ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
orortaye ← orta ta-causative ✧ PE22/164
orotaye ← orta ta-causative ✧ PE22/164
utultien [← tulta-] ta-causative ✧ PE22/164
ānie ← †āne (past) ta-causative augmentless root-perfect ✧ PE17/147
ortanie ← orta (aorist) ta-causative augmentless weak-perfect ✧ PE17/77
orort{anie} ← ortā ta-causative weak-perfect ✧ PE22/157
utultanie [← tulta-] ta-causative weak-perfect ✧ PE22/157
akaitie [← caita-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
acaitie ← caita (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
acaitie ← †cea (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
akaitie ← kaita (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
isistie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
isistie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
isistie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
anahtie ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE17/77
anahtie [← nahta-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
anahtie ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
anahtie ← nahta ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
ininquitie [← #ninquita-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
orórtie ← ortă ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
orortie ← orta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
orortie ← orta ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
(or)ortie ← orta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
orortaye ← orta ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
istie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative augmentless ✧ PE22/164
ōrtie ← orta (aorist) ta-formative augmentless ✧ PE22/164
īsie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative augmentless root-perfect ✧ PE17/77
akáyie [← caita-¹] ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/157
acáye ← caita (aorist) ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/159
acáye ← caita (aorist) ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/159
afāniē- ← fanta- ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE17/180
isísie ← istā (aorist) ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/159
isísie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/159
isísie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/159
isísie [← ista-] ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/164
isísie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/164
emēnie ← menta- ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE17/93
anākie [← nahta-¹] ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/157
anákie ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/159
anākie ← nahta ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/164
orórie ← ortă ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/157
orórie ← orta (aorist) ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/159
orórie ← orta (aorist) ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/159
orórie ← orta (aorist) ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/164
akainie [← caita-¹] ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/157
akaine[?] [← caita-¹] ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/157
isintie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE17/77
ataltie ← talta (present) talat-stem ✧ PE17/186
atalatie ← †talat- talat-stem ✧ PE22/164
atalantie ← †talat- talat-stem strong-perfect ✧ PE22/164
ehentănie ← henta weak-verb weak-perfect ✧ PE17/77
etengwanie ← tengwane (past) weak-verb weak-perfect ✧ VT49/48
ororyaye [← orya-²] ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
utulye ← tulya (aorist) ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
utulya ← tulya (aorist) ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
(or)oryanie [← orya-²] ya-causative weak-perfect ✧ PE22/164
emēlie ← melya (aorist) ya-formative ✧ PE17/77
orōrie “has arisen” [← orya-¹] ya-formative ✧ PE22/133
orórie [← orya-¹] ya-formative ✧ PE22/157
ororie [← orya-¹] ya-formative ✧ PE22/164
orōrie ← orya (aorist) ya-formative ✧ PE22/164
isīrie ← sirya (aorist) ya-formative ✧ PE17/77
isírie ← sirya (aorist) ya-formative ✧ PE22/164
ōrie ← orya (aorist) ya-formative augmentless ✧ PE17/77

References ✧ PE18/88; PE22/131, 164; WJ/366

Elements

long perfect

Element In


ᴹQ. perfect grammar.

Examples (perfect)
(al)álie [← ala-] a-verb ✧ PE22/116
(ol)ólie “it has grown up, it has reached its prime, become” [← ola-] a-verb ✧ PE22/116
kárie “made” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ LR/56
akárie [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
akárie [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/109
akárie [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/109
ekénie [← #ken-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
ahámie ← hame (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
ihímie ← hime (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
illīk[ie] [← hlik-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/113
ihlíkie “has crept” [← hlik-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/113
ahyárie ← hyare (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
akápie [← kap-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
alahie/alakkie ← lahe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
alávie ← lave (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
uluiye ← lue (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
ukúvie ← kuve (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
amátie [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
amantie [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/104
emérie [← mer-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
umúnie ← mune (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
andákie [← nak-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/112
anákie [← nak-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/112
unúrie ← nure (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
oine “have lived” [← oi-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/125
olólie [← ol-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
ólie [← ol-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
orhálie ← orhale (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
ipísie ← pise (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
aráfie ← rafe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
urúkie [← ruk-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
esérie ← sere (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
isílie “has shone (white)” [← sil-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/113
astárie [← †thar-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/112
otónie ← tone (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
utúnie ← tune (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
utúlie ← tule (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
utúlie [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/108
utúlie “had come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/119
utúlie “have just come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/119
utúvie “has found” [← #tuv-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/108
atyávie ← tyave (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
túvien “I have found it” [← #tuv-] basic-verb 1st-sg augmentless ✧ SD/57
[?in]túviet “I have found it” [← #tuv-] basic-verb 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ PE22/84
nitúviet “I have found it” [← #tuv-] basic-verb 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ SD/57
utúvienyes “I have found it” [← #tuv-] basic-verb 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ SD/57
kárielto “they made” [← kar-] basic-verb 3rd-pl augmentless ✧ LR/72
lávielle [← lav-¹] basic-verb ? ✧ PE22/104
kárie “finishes” [← kar-] basic-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/121
kímie “has found” [← kim-] basic-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/108
túlie [← tul-] basic-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/121
túlie [← tul-] basic-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/122
ăkárier [← kar-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/109
kárier “they made” [← kar-] basic-verb plural augmentless ✧ LR/72
amantier [← mat-] basic-verb plural strong-perfect ✧ PE22/104
amantielti [← mat-] basic-verb plural with-pl-object strong-perfect ✧ PE22/104
ekennie [← #ken-] basic-verb strong-perfect ✧ PE22/103
ahammie ← hame (aorist) basic-verb strong-perfect ✧ PE22/103
akampie ← kampe (past) basic-verb strong-perfect ✧ PE22/102
alahtie ← lahe (aorist) basic-verb strong-perfect ✧ PE22/103
ulungie ← lue (aorist) basic-verb strong-perfect ✧ PE22/102
amantie ← mante (past) basic-verb strong-perfect ✧ PE22/102
orahallie ← orhale (aorist) basic-verb strong-perfect ✧ PE22/103
uruñkie ← ruñke (past) basic-verb strong-perfect ✧ PE22/102
otonnie ← tone (aorist) basic-verb strong-perfect ✧ PE22/103
utunnie ← tune (aorist) basic-verb strong-perfect ✧ PE22/103
akárin [← kar-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/109
ulungien “I have been sad” [← lu-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object strong-perfect ✧ PE22/104
ēne “existed” ← ëa irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
enie [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
yénie [← ye-] irregular-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/123
lálie [← lá-] irregular-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/126
lánie [← lá-] irregular-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/126
nilendie “I have come” [← lenna-] na-formative strong-perfect pronoun-prefix ✧ SD/56
ortanie [← orta-¹] ta-causative weak-perfect ✧ PE22/117
ortánie [← orta-¹] ta-causative weak-perfect ✧ PE22/117
lantier “they-fell” [← lanta-] ta-formative augmentless ✧ LR/47
lantie “fell” [← lanta-] ta-formative augmentless ✧ LR/56
lantier “fell” [← lanta-] ta-formative augmentless ✧ LR/56
lantier “they-fell” [← lanta-] ta-formative plural augmentless ✧ SD/310
ahlázie ← hlasta- ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/103
alázie ← lasta- ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/103
unúzie ← nusta ta-formative root-perfect ✧ PE22/103
okoine ← koita- ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/103
alaunie ← lauta ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/103
orontie ← órta ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/115
etekélie ← ehtelu- u-verb ✧ PE22/103
niñqitánie [← ninqita-] weak-verb augmentless weak-perfect ✧ PE22/117
(a)karanyanie [← karanya-] weak-verb weak-perfect ✧ PE22/117
(i)niñqitanie [← ninqita-] weak-verb weak-perfect ✧ PE22/117
orórie “has arisen” ← orya- ya-formative ✧ PE22/115
isírie ← sirya ya-formative ✧ PE22/115
ulúlie [← ulya-] ya-formative ✧ PE22/112
úlie “has poured” [← ulya-] ya-formative augmentless ✧ PE22/112
ullier “poured” [← ulya-] ya-formative plural strong-perfect ✧ LR/47
ullier “should flow” [← ulya-] ya-formative plural strong-perfect ✧ SD/247
ullier “they-should-flow” [← ulya-] ya-formative plural strong-perfect ✧ SD/310
ullier “should pour” [← ulya-] ya-formative plural strong-perfect ✧ VT24/7
**isirinie ← sirya ya-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/115

References ✧ PE22/96, 104, 112

Elements

long perfect

Element In


ᴱQ. imperfect grammar.

Examples (imperfect)


ᴱQ. perfect grammar.

Examples (perfect)
ie “had ... been” [← e-²] ✧ PE14/54
tūlie [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/124
túlie [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/126
tuliembo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
túliembo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]engo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
túliengo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/126
tulielme [← tulu-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
túlielme [← tulu-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE16/126
túliengwe [← tulu-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE16/126
tūlienye [← tulu-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/124
túlienye [← tulu-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]ello [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/124
túliello [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/126
túlielle [← tulu-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE16/126
tūlieste [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/124
túlielye [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/126
[túl]ieste [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/126
túliesse [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/126
[túliess]ir [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/126
túliesso [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/126
[túliess]ur [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/126
túliettar [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-neut ✧ PE16/126
tulielto “they have come” [← tulu-] 3rd-pl ✧ LT1/114
túliende(n) [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/126
túliendo(n) [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/126
túlienta(n) [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-neut ✧ PE16/126
tulia [← tulu-] 3rd-sg ✧ PE16/124
tūliesse [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/124
túliende [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/126
[túli]ére [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/126
tūliendo [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/124
túliendo [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/126
[túli]éro [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/126
tuliēta [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/124
túliéta [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/126
tulier “have come” [← tulu-] plural ✧ LT1/114
antúlien “hath returned” [← #antulu-] singular ✧ LT1/184
antúlien “returned” [← #antulu-] singular ✧ LT1A/tulielto

Reference ✧ PE16/128

Element In