Q. perfect grammar.

Q. perfect grammar.

The perfect tense in Quenya indicates an action that has been completed before the present time. In English, the perfect tense is usually expressed with an auxiliary verb “has” or “have”, as in (past) “lived” versus (perfect) “has lived” from the verb “to live”. In Quenya, the perfect tense has its own verbal conjugation: (past) marne versus (perfect) amárië from the verb mar- “to abide, *dwell, live”.

Like English, the Quenya perfect is used when the effects of the completed action are still felt in the present time, as distinct from the past tense, where the action simply occurred at some point in the past. For example, if you said “the man lived in the city”, you only know that at some point in the past the man was in the city. If, however, you say “the man has lived in the city (for many years)”, you imply that he is still living in the city now.

The conjugation for the Quenya perfect has three markers: (1) a vowel prefix (augment), identical to the base vowel of the verb, (2) a lengthening of the base vowel and (3) the suffix -ië (PE22/96, 131). For example, with the perfect amárië from the verb mar-, the initial a- is the augment that matches the base vowel, the base vowel itself is lengthened to á, and the suffix -ië is added. Similarly, the perfect of tul- “to come” is utúlië “has come” (S/190).

Of the three markers, only the third, the suffix -ië is absolutely required (PE22/104). The vowel augment is the most optional of the three markers: it can be omitted merely for aesthetic reasons, especially in verse (WJ/366). For example avánië “has gone” (the perfect form of the irregular verb auta-¹) can also appear without its augment as simply vánië. Compare the Namárië poems in the 1st and 2nd editions of the Lord of the Rings, where this vánië/avánië variation took place (RC/341).

Similarly, the vowel lengthening is prohibited if the base vowel appeared before a pair of consonants, as in the perfect anahtie from the verb nahta-¹ (PE17/77). The suffix -ië by itself is not enough to fully distinguish the perfect form, however, because such a conjugation would be identical in form to the verb’s gerund. At least one of the other two markers (augment or lengthened base vowel) should be used if at all possible.

Perfects of Verbs Beginning with Vowels: In the case of verbs beginning with vowels, any vowel augment would be absorbed by the base vowel of the verb. For example, the verb (ᴹQ.) ulya- “to pour” would have a (strong) perfect form u-úlië, which simply becomes úlië (PE22/112). Since the vowel augment is optional in any case, verbs beginning with vowels effectively omit the augment.

Sometimes, however, particularly in poetic writing, the perfects of verbs beginning with a vowel are formed by duplicating both the vowel and its following consonant, as ulúlië (PE22/112) or orórië from orya- (PE22/133, 157). This is particularly useful in cases where the base vowel cannot be lengthened, as in the perfect (is)istië of the verb ista- (PE22/159).

Perfects of Verbs Beginning with Reduced Consonants: In some cases, the perfect can preserve consonant clusters that were normally reduced at the beginning of words. For example nac- “to hew, slay” from the root √NDAK had an (archaic) perfect form andácië (PE22/112, 133). Over time, however, these perfects tend to normalize and become consistent with their other modern verb forms: anácië.

The Perfect and the Past Tenses: In Old Quenya, the conjugations of the perfect and past tenses were independent of one another. Tolkien stated that as time went on, however, “the forms of past and perfect became progressively more closely associated in Quenya” (WJ/366). This meant that the perfect is often formed using the past tense instead of the verb stem.

@@@ Clean up these examples (some of this is wrong in light of PE22):

For example, the verb mat- has the past tense form mantë. Originally its perfect was formed directly from the verb stem: †amátië. Over time it converged with the past tense, so that its perfect form became amantie (PE22/104). The verb ista- has the irregular past tense (i)sintë, and its perfect became isintië (PE17/77).

The coalescence of the past and perfect is most common with (a) irregular past tenses and (b) weak verbs. Most weak verbs conjugate their past tense with the simple past suffix -në, and their perfects are usually formed by modifying their past tense forms rather than stem. For example, ehentanie from henta- “to examine” (PE17/77) and etengwanie from tengwa- “to read” (VT49/48).

The past and perfect forms are one way to distinguish true derived-verbs (with verbal suffixes like -ta) from talat-stem-verbs (from primitive triconsonantal roots). TALAT-stem verbs like talta- can superficially resemble derived verbs, but their past tenses and perfects are different: talantë and †ataltië (later atalantië), as opposed to **taltane and **ataltanie. See the entry on talat-stem-verbs for further discussion.

As a general rule, perfects are only formed directly from the stem in the case of regular strong verbs (basic verbs), though of course this is the majority of verb forms.

Conceptual Development: There are a couple of examples that appear to be perfect forms in the earliest Lost Tales from the 1910s: ᴱQ. tulielto “they have come” and i·Eldar tulier “the Eldar have come” from the verb tulu- “to come” (LT1/114), as well as i·kal’antúlien “light hath returned” from the verb antulu- “to return” (LT1/184). At this earliest stage, these forms are different from the attested Early Quenya past tense forms (which tended to use either either vowel-lengthening or nasal-infixion/suffixion), and are therefore probably genuine perfects. They already had the distinctive -ie suffix of later perfect forms, and possibly vowel-lengthening in the case of antúlien.

The situation is more complicated in the Early Qenya Grammar of the 1920s, however, where -ie is one of the suffixes used for the past tense, not the perfect (PE14/56). As this stage, the perfect is formed using the past active-participle (-ien(d)-) in combination with an auxiliary verb, but “is” instead of English “has”. Thus: e tulien “is having come = has come”, or tuliende “has come” with the verb e “is” as a suffix (PE14/57).

By the 1930s, Tolkien seems to have reverted to -ie as the perfect suffix. There are perfect forms in Fíriel’s Song from the 1930s: kárielto or kárier “they made” from the verb kar-, versus its past tense káre (LR/72). There are several perfect forms in the Lament of Atalante: ullier “poured” (LR/47, SD/247) and lantie(r) “fell” (LR/47, 56). There are also appear to be perfect forms in the Namárië, draft from Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s, such as tūlier (TI/285). At this stage, it seems that the lengthening of the stem vowel (where possible) was also part of the perfect formation.

The first unambiguous appearance of the perfect-augment was not until very late in the Lord of the Rings drafts with túvien >> utúvienyes “I have found it” (SD/57). In Tolkien’s linguistic writings, the perfect-augment was also mentioned in a discussion of Quenya verb from the late 1940s (PE22/96, 112). It seems likely that when Tolkien wrote vánie “has gone” in the 1st edition version of the Namárië poem The Lord of the Rings, that it was in fact a regular perfect form, and Tolkien only decided later than vánië was a poetic variant of the regular augmented avánië.

In the Quenya Verbal System document from the 1940s, Tolkien also discussed an alternate “long perfect” syntax based on the perfect-participle (PE22/104), used with derived verbs to be more distinctive from the past tense. It is unclear whether this syntax remained valid in Tolkien’s later writing. See the long-perfect for further discussion.

This same text also mentioned that stem-reduplication for verbs beginning with a vowel (such as ulúlië) was a poetic-only form (PE22/112). In some very late notes towards the end of the 1960s, Tolkien included quite a few example of stem-reduplication, however: isísië and orórië (PE22/159, 164), so perhaps Tolkien considered making such reduplication a more normal part of perfect formations. Absent further information, it is difficult to be sure.

Examples (perfect)
alālie [← ala-¹] a-stem ✧ PE22/164
orórie ← ora (aorist) a-stem ✧ VT41/13
ohór[i]e [← or-] a-stem ✧ VT41/13
alālien [← ala-¹] a-stem 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
afārien [← fara-] a-stem 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
ālien [← ala-¹] a-stem 1st-sg augmentless ✧ PE22/164
orie ← ora (aorist) a-stem augmentless ✧ VT41/13
ālie [← ala-¹] a-stem strong-perfect ✧ PE22/164
(a)mátie “have eaten” [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/13
emēnie “has just arrived” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/24
andákie ← nak- basic-verb ✧ PE22/133
ókómie ← okom- basic-verb ✧ PE17/157
olōlie “has become” [← ol-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/133
iríkie “has twisted” [← #ric-²] basic-verb ✧ VT39/7
asálie [← sal-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/133
etēnie “has just arrived” [← ten-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/23
athárie ← thar basic-verb ✧ PE22/133
Utúlie’n “has come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ S/190
utúlie’n “has come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ S/190
Utulie’n “has come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ WJ/166
utulie’n “has come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ WJ/166
atyā́vie [← #tyav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
oiórie [← yor-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/43
amātielmi [← mat-] basic-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE17/76
akárienye [← car-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/152
inírien [← nir-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/165
apārien “I have learnt” ← paranye (present 1st-sg) basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/180
utúlien “I am come” [← tul-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ LotR/967
utúlien “I have come” [← tul-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/103
utúvienyes “I have found it” [← #tuv-] basic-verb 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ LotR/971
utuvienyes “I have found it” [← #tuv-] basic-verb 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ PE17/110
túlielde “you had come” [← tul-] basic-verb 2nd-pl augmentless ✧ PE22/140
fírië “she hath breathed forth” [← fir-] basic-verb augmentless ✧ MR/250
fírië “has breathed forth” ← fírë (aorist) basic-verb augmentless ✧ MR/470
(a)vánie ← auta- irregular-verb ✧ PE17/63
avánie “have gone, past away” ← auta- irregular-verb ✧ PE17/63
avānie ← av|va irregular-verb ✧ PE17/63
awāwe [← auta-¹] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/164
avānie ← auta- irregular-verb ✧ WJ/366
avānie ← auta- irregular-verb ✧ WJ/366
avāvie [← ava-¹] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/164
engie ← enge (past) irregular-verb ✧ VT49/29
alaie [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/153
alaie ← lā- irregular-verb ✧ PE22/156
alaie ←  irregular-verb ✧ VT49/13
amáye [← mai-²] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/148
anaie [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
anáye [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
anaie ← nā- irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
avávien [← ava-¹] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/162
avavien [← ava-¹] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
avāvien [← ava-¹] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
avāvien ← ava- irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/13
uien ← ua irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/144
vānie ← auta- irregular-verb augmentless ✧ PE17/63
vánie- ← auta- irregular-verb augmentless ✧ PE17/63
vánie [← auta-¹] irregular-verb augmentless ✧ PE17/63
vānie [← auta-¹] irregular-verb augmentless ✧ WJ/366
avánier “have passed” [← auta-¹] irregular-verb plural ✧ LotR/377
avāniër “have passed” [← auta-¹] irregular-verb plural ✧ RGEO/58
avānier “have passed away (pl.)” [← auta-¹] irregular-verb plural ✧ RGEO/58
vánier “have passed away” [← auta-¹] irregular-verb plural augmentless ✧ PE17/63
vānier “have passed away” ← auta- irregular-verb plural augmentless ✧ PE17/63
vánier “have departed” [← auta-¹] irregular-verb plural augmentless ✧ PE17/63
vánier [← auta-¹] irregular-verb plural augmentless ✧ RC/341
öávie ← auta irregular-verb strong-perfect ✧ PE17/148
oávie [← auta-¹] irregular-verb strong-perfect ✧ PE22/164
oantië ← auta- irregular-verb strong-perfect ✧ WJ/366
éye ← ea irregular-verb strong-perfect ✧ VT49/29
lambie ← lambe (past) na-formative augmentless strong-perfect ✧ VT47/21
lāmie ← lamma (present) na-formative augmentless strong-perfect ✧ VT47/21
orotie ← ortā ta-causative ✧ PE22/157
orort{anie} ← ortā ta-causative ✧ PE22/157
[orort]ie ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
orortie ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
orortaye ← orta ta-causative ✧ PE22/164
orotaye ← orta ta-causative ✧ PE22/164
utultanie [← tulta-] ta-causative ✧ PE22/157
utultien [← tulta-] ta-causative ✧ PE22/164
ortanie ← orta (aorist) ta-causative augmentless ✧ PE17/77
ānie ← †āne (past) ta-causative augmentless strong-perfect ✧ PE17/147
akainie [← caita-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
akaine[?] [← caita-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
akaitie [← caita-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
akáyie [← caita-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
acáye ← caita (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
acaitie ← caita (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
acáye ← caita (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
acaitie ← †cea (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
acaitie ← caita (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
akaitie ← kaita (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
isísie ← istā (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
isistie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
isistie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
isistie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
istie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
isísie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
anaktane ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE17/77
anahtie ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE17/77
anākie [← nahta-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
anahtie [← nahta-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
anahtie ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
anahtie ← nahta ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
anākie ← nahta ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
ininquitie [← #ninquita-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
orórtie ← ortă ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
orortie ← orta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
orortie ← orta ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
(or)ortie ← orta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
orortaye ← orta ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
ōrtie ← orta (aorist) ta-formative augmentless ✧ PE22/164
īsie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative augmentless strong-perfect ✧ PE17/77
afāniē- ← fanta- ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE17/180
isintie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE17/77
isisie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/159
isísie ← ista (aorist) ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/159
isísie [← ista-] ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/164
emēnie ← menta- ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE17/93
anákie ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/159
orórie ← ortă ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/157
orórie ← orta (aorist) ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/159
orórie ← orta (aorist) ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/159
orórie ← orta (aorist) ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/164
atalatie ← †talat- talat-stem ✧ PE22/164
ataltie ← talta (present) talat-stem strong-perfect ✧ PE17/186
atalantie ← †talat- talat-stem strong-perfect ✧ PE22/164
ehentănie ← henta weak-verb ✧ PE17/77
etengwanie ← tengwane (past) weak-verb ✧ VT49/48
(or)oryanie [← orya-²] ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
ororyaye [← orya-²] ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
utulye ← tulya (aorist) ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
utulya ← tulya (aorist) ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
orōrie “has arisen” [← orya-] ya-formative ✧ PE22/133
orórie [← orya-] ya-formative ✧ PE22/157
ororie [← orya-] ya-formative ✧ PE22/164
orōrie ← orya (aorist) ya-formative ✧ PE22/164
isīrie ← sirya (aorist) ya-formative ✧ PE17/77
isírie ← sirya (aorist) ya-formative ✧ PE22/164
ōrie ← orya (aorist) ya-formative augmentless strong-perfect ✧ PE17/77
emēlie ← melya (aorist) ya-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE17/77

References ✧ PE18/88; PE22/131, 164; WJ/366

Elements

strong-perfect
long-perfect
pluperfect

Element In


ᴹQ. perfect grammar.

Examples (perfect)
(al)álie [← ala-] a-stem ✧ PE22/116
(ol)ólie “it has grown up, it has reached its prime, become” [← ola-] a-stem ✧ PE22/116
kárie “made” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ LR/56
akárie [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
akárie [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/109
akárie [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/109
ekénie [← #ken-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
ekennie [← #ken-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
ahámie ← hame (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
ahammie ← hame (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
ihímie ← hime (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
illīk[ie] [← hlik-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/113
ihlíke “has crept” [← hlik-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/113
ahyárie ← hyare (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
akápie [← kap-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
akampie ← kampe (past) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
aláhtie ← lahe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
alahie/alakkie ← lahe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
alávie ← lave (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
ulungie ← lue (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
uluiye ← lue (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
ukúvie ← kuve (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
amátie [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
amantie ← mante (past) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
amantie [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/104
emérie [← mer-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
umúnie ← mune (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
andákie [← nak-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/112
anákie [← nak-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/112
unúrie ← nure (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
oine “have lived” [← oi-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/125
olólie [← ol-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
ólie [← ol-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
orahallie ← orhale (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
orhálie ← orhale (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
ipísie ← pise (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
aráfie ← rafe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
urúkie [← ruk-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
uruñkie ← mante (past) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
esérie ← sere (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
isílie “has shone (white)” [← sil-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/113
astárie [← †thar-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/112
otonnie ← tone (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
otónie ← tone (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
utunnie ← tune (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
utúnie ← tune (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
utúlie ← tule (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
utúlie [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/108
utúlie “had come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/119
utúlie “have just come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/119
utúvie “has found” [← #tuv-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/108
atyávie ← tyave (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
túvien “I have found it” [← #tuv-] basic-verb 1st-sg augmentless ✧ SD/57
[?in]túviet “I have found it” [← #tuv-] basic-verb 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ SD/57
utúvienyes “I have found it” [← #tuv-] basic-verb 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ SD/57
kárielto “they made” [← kar-] basic-verb 3rd-pl augmentless ✧ LR/72
lávielle [← lav-¹] basic-verb ? ✧ PE22/104
kárie “finishes” [← kar-] basic-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/121
kímie “has found” [← kim-] basic-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/108
túlie [← tul-] basic-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/121
túlie [← tul-] basic-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/122
ăkárier [← kar-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/109
amantier [← mat-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/104
kárier “they made” [← kar-] basic-verb plural augmentless ✧ LR/72
amantielti [← mat-] basic-verb plural with-pl-object ✧ PE22/104
akárin [← kar-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/109
ulungien “I have been sad” [← lu-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/104
ēne “existed” ← ëa irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
enie [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
yénie [← ye-] irregular-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/123
lálie [← lá-] irregular-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/126
lánie [← lá-] irregular-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/126
nilendie “I have come” [← lenna-] na-formative strong-perfect pronoun-prefix ✧ SD/56
ortanie [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE22/117
ortánie [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE22/117
lantier “they-fell” [← lanta-] ta-formative augmentless ✧ LR/47
lantie “fell” [← lanta-] ta-formative augmentless ✧ LR/56
lantier “fell” [← lanta-] ta-formative augmentless ✧ LR/56
lantier “they-fell” [← lanta-] ta-formative plural augmentless ✧ SD/310
okoine ← koita- ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/103
ahlázie ← hlasta- ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/103
alázie ← lasta- ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/103
alaunie ← lauta ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/103
unúzie ← nusta ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/103
orontie ← órta ta-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/115
etekélie ← ehtelu- u-stem ✧ PE22/103
(a)karanyanie [← karanya-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/117
(i)niñqitanie [← ninqita-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/117
niñqitánie [← ninqita-] weak-verb augmentless ✧ PE22/117
orórie “has arisen” ← orya- ya-formative ✧ PE22/115
isírie ← sirya ya-formative ✧ PE22/115
ulúlie [← ulya-] ya-formative ✧ PE22/112
úlie “has poured” [← ulya-] ya-formative augmentless ✧ PE22/112
ullier “poured” [← ulya-] ya-formative plural strong-perfect ✧ LR/47
ullier “should flow” [← ulya-] ya-formative plural strong-perfect ✧ SD/247
ullier “they-should-flow” [← ulya-] ya-formative plural strong-perfect ✧ SD/310
ullier “should pour” [← ulya-] ya-formative plural strong-perfect ✧ VT24/7
**isirinie ← sirya ya-formative strong-perfect ✧ PE22/115

References ✧ PE22/96, 104, 112

Elements

strong-perfect
long-perfect
pluperfect

Element In


ᴱQ. imperfect grammar.

Examples (imperfect)

ᴱQ. perfect grammar.

Examples (perfect)
ie “had ... been” [← e-²] ✧ PE14/54
tūlie [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/124
túlie [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/126
tuliembo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
túliembo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]engo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
túliengo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/126
tulielme [← tulu-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
túlielme [← tulu-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE16/126
túliengwe [← tulu-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE16/126
tūlienye [← tulu-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/124
túlienye [← tulu-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]ello [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/124
túliello [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/126
túlielle [← tulu-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE16/126
tūlieste [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/124
túlielye [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/126
[túl]ieste [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/126
túliesse [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/126
[túliess]ir [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/126
túliesso [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/126
[túliess]ur [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/126
túliettar [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-neut ✧ PE16/126
tulielto “they have come” [← tulu-] 3rd-pl ✧ LT1/114
túliende(n) [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/126
túliendo(n) [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/126
túlienta(n) [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-neut ✧ PE16/126
tulia [← tulu-] 3rd-sg ✧ PE16/124
tūliesse [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/124
túliende [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/126
[túli]ére [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/126
tūliendo [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/124
túliendo [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/126
[túli]éro [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/126
tuliēta [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/124
túliéta [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/126
tulier “have come” [← tulu-] plural ✧ LT1/114
antúlien “hath returned” [← #antulu-] singular ✧ LT1/184
antúlien “returned” [← #antulu-] singular ✧ LT1A/tulielto

Reference ✧ PE16/128

Element In