Q. past grammar.

Q. past grammar.
Examples (past)
únen ← ua- 1st-sg ✧ PE17/144
únen ← ua 1st-sg ✧ PE17/144
alane [← ala-¹] a-stem ✧ PE22/164
orane ← ora (aorist) a-stem ✧ VT41/13
alanen [← ala-¹] a-stem 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
faranen [← fara-] a-stem 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
alden [← ala-¹] a-stem 1st-sg strong-past ✧ PE22/164
farnen [← fara-] a-stem 1st-sg strong-past ✧ PE22/164
alde [← ala-¹] a-stem strong-past ✧ PE22/164
orne ← ora (aorist) a-stem strong-past ✧ VT41/13
karne “did” [← car-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/74
carne “did make” [← car-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/144
karne [← car-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
cante “shaped” ← cat- basic-verb ✧ PE18/90
kense ← kes- basic-verb ✧ PE17/156
kense ← kes- basic-verb ✧ PE17/156
lāve ← LAB basic-verb ✧ PE17/72
**lambe [← lav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/151
láve [← lav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/151
lāve “licked” [← lav-] basic-verb ✧ RGEO/59
maquente [← #maquet-] basic-verb ✧ PM/403
mante “ate” [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ VT39/7
menne “arrived, reached” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/24
nanke [← #nac-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/156
nanquerne “*turned back” [← nanquer-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/20
nemne [← nem-²] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
norne “he ran” [← nor-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE17/58
norne “he ran” [← nor-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE17/58
norne “he ran” [← nor-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE17/59
norne ← nor- basic-verb ✧ PE17/168
okomne ← okom- basic-verb ✧ PE17/157
panne [← #pan-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
panse “smoothed” ← pase (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE19/89
patte “smoothed” ← pase (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE19/89
passe “smoothed” ← pase (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE19/89
querne “turned” [← quer-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/20
Quente [← quet-] basic-verb ✧ PM/401
Quente [← quet-] basic-verb ✧ PM/404
rappe “waved” ← rafe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE19/89
sáme ← samin (aorist 1st-sg) basic-verb ✧ PE17/173
tarne “stood” [← #tar-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/71
tenne “arrived, reached” [← ten-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/23
tūle “*came” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/140
tulde [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
**tyambe [← #tyav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/151
tyáve [← #tyav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/151
undulávë “are drowned” [← undulav-] basic-verb ✧ LotR/377
unduláve “have down-washed” ← undu-lav- basic-verb ✧ PE17/72
undu-láve “submerged” [← undulav-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/72
undu-lāve “are drowned” [← undulav-] basic-verb ✧ RGEO/58
yonde [← yor-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/43
mantelme [← mat-] basic-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE17/76
karnen [← car-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/152
kennen “I saw” [← cen-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/155
mennen “I arrive[d]” [← men-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/24
ninden [← nir-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/165
nirnen [← nir-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/165
quenten “I said” [← quet-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/158
tennen “I arrive[d]” [← ten-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/23
tullenye “I should have come” [← tul-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/139
váquenten ← vā-quet basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ WJ/370
cambelyes ← *cav- basic-verb 2nd-sg-polite with-sg-object ✧ VT47/21
camnelyes ← *cam- basic-verb 2nd-sg-polite with-sg-object ✧ VT47/21
quernes [← quer-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/20
quernesse [← quer-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/20
tūleste “*he came” [← tul-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE22/140
tuldes [← tul-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE22/158
unduláver [← undulav-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE17/72
hrinse ← hríza (present) basic-verb strong-past ✧ PE17/168
?hrisse ← hríza (present) basic-verb strong-past ✧ PE17/168
yóre [← yor-] basic-verb strong-past ✧ PE17/43
vāne ← auta- irregular-verb ✧ PE17/63
vāne ← av|va irregular-verb ✧ PE17/63
vāne ← auta- irregular-verb ✧ WJ/366
aune [← ava-¹] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/151
aune [← ava-¹] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/152
avane [← ava-¹] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/164
avane [← ava-¹] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/164
avane [← ava-¹] irregular-verb ✧ WJ/370
enge [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/147
engne [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/152
enne [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/152
eane ← ea irregular-verb ✧ VT49/30
lāne [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/153
lāne ← lā- irregular-verb ✧ PE22/156
láne “had no, *was not” [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/13
lāne ←  irregular-verb ✧ VT49/13
mange [← mai-²] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/148
manne [← mai-²] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/148
maine [← mai-²] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/148
náne “was” [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/158
náne “was” [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/158
nāne [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
nāne ← nā- irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
náne “was” [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
←  irregular-verb ✧ VT49/28
←  irregular-verb ✧ VT49/30
← nā̆ irregular-verb ✧ VT49/30
au̯ante [← oa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/151
oante [← oa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/151
vante [← oa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/151
tenge “indicated” ← tëa (aorist) irregular-verb ✧ VT39/6
úvane [← úva-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/168
avanen [← ava-¹] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/162
aunen [← ava-¹] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/162
avanen [← ava-¹] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
aunen [← ava-¹] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
avanen ← ava- irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/13
anen ←  (past) irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/28
anel ←  (past) irregular-verb 2nd-sg ✧ VT49/28
nēse ←  (past) irregular-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/28
anes ←  (past) irregular-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/28
nése “he was” [← ná-] irregular-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/29
nēt ←  irregular-verb dual ✧ VT49/30
nāner “were” [← ná-] irregular-verb plural ✧ VT49/9
náner [← ná-] irregular-verb plural ✧ VT49/10
nēr ←  irregular-verb plural ✧ VT49/30
avante ← auta- irregular-verb strong-past ✧ PE17/63
oänte ← auta irregular-verb strong-past ✧ PE17/148
oante [← auta-¹] irregular-verb strong-past ✧ PE22/164
anwe ← auta- irregular-verb strong-past ✧ WJ/366
oantë “went away (to another place)” ← auta- irregular-verb strong-past ✧ WJ/366
oantë ← auta- irregular-verb strong-past ✧ WJ/366
aune “*was not” [← ava-¹] irregular-verb strong-past ✧ VT49/13
enge “*was” [← ëa-] irregular-verb strong-past ✧ VT43/38
enge ← ea irregular-verb strong-past ✧ VT49/29
lendes “he came” [← #lenna-] na-formative 3rd-sg strong-past ✧ PE17/65
lambe ← lamma (present) na-formative strong-past ✧ VT47/21
lende [← #lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ PE16/96
lende [← #lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ PE16/96
(e)lende [← #lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/139
antane ← anta ta-causative ✧ PE17/93
antane [← anta-] ta-causative ✧ PE17/147
caitane ← caita (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
fintane [← finta-] ta-causative ✧ PE17/17
mahtane [← mahta-] ta-causative ✧ VT49/10
ortani “raised” [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ Let/426
ortanë “has uplifted” [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ LotR/377
ortane ← ortā- ta-causative ✧ PE17/63
ortane “lifted” [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE17/70
ortane “raised” ← orta ta-causative ✧ PE17/70
ortane ← orta ta-causative ✧ PE17/70
ortane ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE17/77
ortane ← ortā ta-causative ✧ PE22/157
ortāne ← ortā ta-causative ✧ PE22/157
ortane ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
ortane ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
ortane ← orta ta-causative ✧ PE22/164
ortane “has uplifted” [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ RGEO/58
ortane “lifted up” [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ RGEO/59
ortane “has uplifted” [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ RGEO/60
tultane [← tulta-] ta-causative ✧ PE22/157
tultanen [← tulta-] ta-causative ✧ PE22/164
vistane ← vista- ta-causative ✧ PE17/189
antanen “I gave” [← anta-] ta-causative 1st-sg ✧ PE17/91
antanen “I gave” ← anta- ta-causative 1st-sg ✧ VT49/14
antanenyes “I presented him” [← anta-] ta-causative 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ PE17/91
lentanelyes [← #lelta-] ta-causative 2nd-pl-polite with-sg-object ✧ VT47/22
leltanelyes [← #lelta-] ta-causative 2nd-pl-polite with-sg-object ✧ VT47/22
tultanelyes [← tulta-] ta-causative 2nd-pl-polite with-sg-object ✧ VT47/22
leltanelyes “you sent him” [← #lelta-] ta-causative 2nd-sg-polite with-sg-object ✧ VT47/21
āne [← anta-] ta-causative strong-past ✧ PE17/147
aptane “refused, denied, said nay” ← apta ta-formative ✧ PE19/90
apsane ← apsa ta-formative ✧ PE19/90
fantanē- ← fanta- ta-formative ✧ PE17/180
ninquinte [← #ninquita-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
tankante [← tancata-] ta-formative ✧ PE17/76
tentane “pointed” ← tenta ta-formative ✧ VT49/23
kainen “I lay” [← caita-¹] ta-formative 1st-sg strong-past ✧ VT48/12
tentanes “it pointed” [← tenta-] ta-formative 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/26
fantaner “cloaked” [← fanta-] ta-formative plural ✧ PE17/174
fantaner “veiled” [← fanta-] ta-formative plural ✧ PE17/175
oronter “arose” [← orta-²] ta-formative plural strong-past ✧ PE21/77
avante “refused, denied, said nay” ← apta ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE19/90
caine ← caita (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/72
keante [← caita-¹] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/157
kaine [← caita-¹] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/157
caine ← caita (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
caine ← caita (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
caine ← †cea (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
kayante ← kaita (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/164
keante ← kaita (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/164
keante [← caita-¹] ta-formative strong-past ✧ VT48/12
koine [← #coita-] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/152
fāne- ← fanta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/180
sinte ← ista (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/77
īse [← ista-] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/157
sīne [← ista-] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/157
sīne ← istā (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
inse ← ista (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
inse ← ista (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
isinte ← ista (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
(i)sinte [← ista-] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/164
(i)sinte ← ista (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/164
sinte “knew” ← is-ta ta-formative strong-past ✧ VT48/25
isinte ← is-ta ta-formative strong-past ✧ VT48/25
lenwente ← lenweta ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/51
mennē- ← menta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/93
menē- ← menta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/93
nakante ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/77
nakante “slew” [← nahta-¹] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/156
nanke [← nahta-¹] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/157
nakante [← nahta-¹] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/157
nakante ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
nanke ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
nakante ← nahta ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/164
oronte ← órta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/64
oronte ← ortă ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/157
oronte ← orta (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
oronte ← orta (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
oronte ← orta ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/164
oronte ← orta (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/164
raine ← raita- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
rëante ← raita ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/182
tente “pointed” [← tenta-] ta-formative strong-past ✧ VT49/23
tenante “*directed toward” ← tenta ta-formative strong-past ✧ VT49/23
taltane ← talta (aorist) talat-stem ✧ PE17/186
karampe- ← karpa- talat-stem strong-past ✧ PE17/126
talante ← talta (present) talat-stem strong-past ✧ PE17/186
talante ← †talat- talat-stem strong-past ✧ PE22/164
indune ← indu- u-stem ✧ PE22/165
nicune “it snowed, froze” ← niku- u-stem ✧ PE17/168
indunenyes “I willed it, I did it on purpse” ← indu- u-stem 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ PE22/165
airitáne “hallowed” [← #airita-] weak-verb ✧ VT32/7
canyane ← canya weak-verb ✧ PE17/113
kesyane ← kesya weak-verb ✧ PE17/156
komyane [← comya-] weak-verb ✧ PE17/157
contane [← conta-] weak-verb ✧ PE17/157
hehtane ← hehta- weak-verb ✧ WJ/365
hentăne ← henta weak-verb ✧ PE17/77
huntane ← húta- weak-verb ✧ PE17/149
pendane ← penda weak-verb ✧ PE17/171
tengwane ← tengwa- weak-verb ✧ VT49/48
onortanen “I rode” [← norta-] weak-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/168
nortanen “I rode” [← norta-] weak-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/168
ūpa-nēn [← úpa-] weak-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/126
veryanen ← verya weak-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/45
kestanellan “you had asked me!” [← cesta-] weak-verb 2nd-sg with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/139
ūpa-nēs [← úpa-] weak-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE17/126
hunte ← húta- weak-verb strong-past ✧ PE17/149
oryane [← orya-²] ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
tulyane ← tulya (aorist) ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
oryane [← orya-¹] ya-formative ✧ PE22/157
oryane [← orya-¹] ya-formative ✧ PE22/157
siryane [← sirya-] ya-formative ✧ PE22/157
ahyanë “did ... change” [← #ahya-] ya-formative strong-past ✧ PM/395
amanye [← amya-²] ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/157
hrinte ← hrisya (aorist) ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/168
hrisinye ← hrisya (aorist) ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/168
lende ← lelya- ya-formative strong-past ✧ WJ/363
lēline ← lelya ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/151
melenye ← melya (aorist) ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/77
oronye ← óryă ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/64
(o)rony[e] ← orya (aorist) ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/77
óreáne [← orya-¹] ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/157
oronye [← orya-¹] ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/164
oronye ← orya (aorist) ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/164
sirinye ← sirya (aorist) ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/77
sirinye ← sirya (aorist) ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/164
tenne ← †tenya ya-formative strong-past ✧ VT49/24
virne ← virya- ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/189
virinye ← virya- ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/189

References ✧ PE22/131, 151-152, 157

Elements

strong-past
past-imperfect
consuetudinal-past
past-future
past-future-perfect

Element In


ᴹQ. past grammar.

Examples (past)
lhinte “sped” [← #lhit-] ✧ PE22/127
alane [← ala-] a-stem ✧ PE22/116
olane “grew, were growing” [← ola-] a-stem ✧ PE22/116
alle [← ala-] a-stem strong-past ✧ PE22/116
óle “grew, finished growing, grew up, became” [← ola-] a-stem strong-past ✧ PE22/116
sakkante “rent” [← #askat-] basic-verb ✧ SD/246
askante “sunder-broke” [← #askat-] basic-verb ✧ SD/310
karne ← karin (aorist 1st-sg) basic-verb ✧ Ety/KAR
kāre “made” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ LR/47
káre “made” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ LR/72
karne “made” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
karne [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/109
karne [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/109
káre “made” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ SD/246
kāre “made” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ SD/310
kenne [← #ken-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
kenne “saw” [← #ken-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
empe [← ef-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
emphe [← ef-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
?kusse “camp up, emerged” [← khus-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
hamme ← hame (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
hante ← hat- basic-verb ✧ Ety/SKAT
himne ← hime (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
hyande ← hyare (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
hyarne ← hyare (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
kampe [← kap-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
kampe [← kap-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/104
kambe “could” [← #kav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
kimme “found” [← kim-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/108
lahte ← lahe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
lakke ← lahe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
lante “did ... lie” [← lat-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/126
láve ← lave (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
láve [← lav-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/104
lunge ← lue (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
kumbe ← kuve (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
mante [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
mante [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/119
menne [← men-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
mende “wished” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/118
mene “wish” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/118
merne [← mer-] basic-verb ✧ Ety/MER
mende ← mere (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
merne “wish for, want” [← mer-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
merne “wished” [← mer-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/118
múne ← mune (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
ndanne “went back” [← #nan-²] basic-verb ✧ PE22/96
nurne ← nure (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
oine “live” [← oi-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/125
olle “became” [← ol-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
orhalde ← orhale (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
orhalle ← orhale (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
pitte ← pise (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
qente “said” [← qet-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/119
rappe “seized” [← raf-] basic-verb ✧ PE19/44
rappe ← rafe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
rampe ← rafe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
rende ← rerin (aorist 1st-sg) basic-verb ✧ Ety/RED
rimpe “hurled” [← #rip-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
ruñke [← ruk-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
sére ← sere (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
sumbe [← #suv-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
tanke ← take (aorist) basic-verb ✧ Ety/TAK
tamne ← tamin (aorist 1st-sg) basic-verb ✧ Ety/TAM
tampe ← tape (aorist) basic-verb ✧ Ety/TAP
terhante “broke” [← terhat-] basic-verb ✧ LR/47
terhante “broke” [← terhat-] basic-verb ✧ LR/56
terhante “sunder-broke” [← terhat-] basic-verb ✧ SD/310
tirne ← tirin (aorist 1st-sg) basic-verb ✧ Ety/TIR
tonne ← tone (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
tunne ← tune (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
tūle “came” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ LR/47
tulle ← tule (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
tulle “came” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/108
tulle “came” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/119
tulle “came” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/121
túle “came” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ SD/246
túle “came” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ SD/310
tompe ← tope (aorist) basic-verb ✧ Ety/TOP
turne ← turin (aorist 1st-sg) basic-verb ✧ Ety/TUR
túve “found” [← #tuv-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/108
tyambe ← tyave (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
tyáve ← tyave (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
ville ← vilin (aorist 1st-sg) basic-verb ✧ Ety/WIL
kampelle [← kap-] basic-verb ? ✧ PE22/104
karner [← kar-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/109
kenner “saw” [← #ken-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/124
mender “wished” [← men-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/118
merner “wished” [← mer-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/118
karnen [← kar-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/109
kampen [← kap-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/104
láven [← lav-¹] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/104
lungen “I was sad” [← lu-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/104
karnéte “had made (lit. made) it” [← kar-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/118
karnet [← kar-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/121
karnes [← kar-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/121
← ea irregular-verb ✧ PE19/48
eñge [← ea-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/122
eñge [← ea-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/122
“was” ← ëa irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
ëane “existed” ← ëa irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
“was” [← ea-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/124
ëane [← ea-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/124
yene [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
[← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
láne [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/126
lane [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/126
alle [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/126
láne “did not” [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/127
“was” [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/96
ne “was” [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/119
úme ← umin (aorist 1st-sg) irregular-verb ✧ Ety/UGU
hūme ← humin (aorist 1st-sg) irregular-verb ✧ EtyAC/ƷŪ
ener [← ye-] irregular-verb plural ✧ PE22/123
nér [← ye-] irregular-verb plural ✧ PE22/123
láner “were not” [← lá-] irregular-verb plural ✧ PE22/119
lende “went, departed” ← lenna na-formative strong-past ✧ Ety/LED
lende “went” [← lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ LR/47
lende “came” [← lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ LR/56
lende “went” [← lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ LR/56
lende “has gone” [← lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ LR/72
lende “went” [← lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ SD/310
lūve [← lumna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ EtyAC/DUB
kaltane [← kalta-] ta-causative ✧ PE22/117
ontane ← onta- ta-causative ✧ Ety/ONO
ortane “raised” ← orya- ta-causative ✧ PE22/115
ortane [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE22/117
tultane [← tulta-] ta-causative ✧ PE22/117
óne ← onta- ta-causative strong-past ✧ Ety/ONO
nahtane [← nahta-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/102
naktane “slew” [← nahta-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/115
ununte “came/went down” [← unta-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/127
vintane ← vinta- ta-formative ✧ Ety/WIN
vindane ← vinda- ta-formative ✧ EtyAC/WIN
lantaner “fell” [← lanta-] ta-formative plural ✧ SD/246
lantaner “they-fell” [← lanta-] ta-formative plural ✧ SD/310
lantaner “they fell” [← lanta-] ta-formative plural ✧ VT24/7
avante [← auta-¹] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE19/45
koine ← koita- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
sinte ← ista- ta-formative strong-past ✧ Ety/IS
sinte “knew” ← ista ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/115
lanne “heard” ← hlasta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
hlasse ← hlasta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
hlanne ← hlasta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
lasse ← lasta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
lanne ← lasta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
lasse ← lasta ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/115
laune ← lauta ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
lende ← lesta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ Ety/ELED
nahante [← nahta-] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/115
nusse ← nusta ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
oronte “rose” [← orta-²] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/100
rontē “rose” ← orta ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/115
oronte “rose” ← orta ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/115
vinte ← vinta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ Ety/WIN
ataltane “down-fell” [← atalta-] talat-stem ✧ LR/47
ataltane “fell down” [← atalta-] talat-stem ✧ SD/247
ataltane “slip down in ruin” [← atalta-] talat-stem ✧ SD/249
ataltane “down-fell” [← atalta-] talat-stem ✧ SD/310
sulpane [← sulpa-] talat-stem ✧ PE22/115
taltane ← talta talat-stem ✧ PE22/115
atalante “down-fell” [← atalta-] talat-stem strong-past ✧ LR/56
**sulumpe [← sulpa-] talat-stem strong-past ✧ PE22/115
talante “was slipping down” [← talta-] talat-stem strong-past ✧ PE18/35
talante ← talta talat-stem strong-past ✧ PE22/115
kelŭne ← kelu u-stem ✧ PE22/117
lirŭne ← liru u-stem ✧ PE22/117
ehtelle ← ehtelu- u-stem strong-past ✧ PE22/103
ehtelle ← ehtelu u-stem strong-past ✧ PE22/117
hamme “sat” [← hamu-] u-stem strong-past ✧ PE22/117
kelle ← kelu u-stem strong-past ✧ PE22/117
tolle “stood” [← tolu-] u-stem strong-past ✧ PE22/117
ampanótane [← ampanóta-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/118
apsane [← apsa-] weak-verb ✧ PE19/45
kestane “asked” [← kesta-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/118
kakarrane [← kakarra-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/100
kakarrane [← kakarra-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/109
lingane ← linga weak-verb ✧ PE22/103
niñkwityóne ← niñqityo (infinitive) weak-verb ✧ PE22/117
sintane ← sinta- weak-verb ✧ Ety/THIN
tangane ← tanga weak-verb ✧ PE22/103
tatallaner “marveled” [← tatalla-] weak-verb plural ✧ PE22/108
linge “rang” ← linga weak-verb strong-past ✧ PE22/103
tange “twanged” ← tanga weak-verb strong-past ✧ PE22/103
kestanen “asked me” [← kesta-] weak-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/121
kestanen [← kesta-] weak-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/122
tatallanes “marveled” [← tatalla-] weak-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/108
oryane “rose” ← orya- ya-formative ✧ PE22/115
ulyane ← ulya- ya-formative ✧ Ety/ULU
sirinyella ← sirya ya-formative ? strong-past ✧ PE22/115
farne ← farya- ya-formative strong-past ✧ Ety/PHAR
farne ← farya- ya-formative strong-past ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
farinye ← farya- ya-formative strong-past ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
kenne ← kenya ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/115
sirinye “flowed” ← sirya ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/115
síre ← sirya ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/115
ulle ← ulya- ya-formative strong-past ✧ Ety/ULU
ulle “poured” [← ulya-] ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/112
vanne ← vanya- ya-formative strong-past ✧ Ety/WAN

References ✧ PE22/96, 101-104

Elements

strong-past
past-imperfect
consuetudinal-past
past-future
past-future-perfect

Element In


ᴱQ. past grammar.

Examples (past)
allune ← allu- ✧ QL/30
mapant- ← maitha- ✧ PE13/163
angaisine ← angaitya- ✧ QL/34
áne “gave” ← anir (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/31
āne ← anta- ✧ QL/31
apaiksine ← apaitya ✧ QL/34
apante ← apanta- ✧ QL/34
[apant]ane ← apanta- ✧ QL/34
anqe “seized” [← #aqa-] ✧ QL/31
arme ← arm- ✧ QL/32
kaine [← kaita-] ✧ PE14/58
kálie “shone” [← kala-] ✧ PE14/46
kale “shone” [← kala-] ✧ PE14/46
kallie [← kala-] ✧ PE16/75
kalle “shone” ← kal- ✧ PE16/143
kāle ← kala- ✧ QL/44
kalante ← kalta- ✧ QL/44
kalante ← kalta- ✧ QL/44
kāpe ← ‽kapta- ✧ QL/45
kampie ← kapta ✧ PE14/56
kampie [← kapta-²] ✧ PE14/58
kampie- ← kapta- ✧ PE14/66
karne [← kara-] ✧ PE14/58
karne “did” [← kara-] ✧ PE14/84
kare ← kara ✧ PE15/71
kārie ← kara ✧ PE15/71
karne ← kara ✧ PE15/71
káre ← karin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/45
sie ← sehta ✧ QL/82
sāke ← saka- ✧ QL/81
kalka ← kilkin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/47
ekitsine ← kitya- ✧ QL/47
tāle ← talta ✧ QL/88
talante ← talta ✧ QL/88
kōme ← konta- ✧ QL/47
ie ← e (present) ✧ PE14/57
ye ← e (present) ✧ PE14/57
hye ← e (present) ✧ PE14/57
ie [← e-²] ✧ PE16/66
inye [← e-²] ✧ PE16/141
ie “was” [← e-²] ✧ PE16/143
elle “came” [← #ele-] ✧ MC/215
Elle “came” [← #ele-] ✧ PE16/90
elle “came” [← #ele-] ✧ PE16/90
Elle “came” [← #ele-] ✧ PE16/92
elle “came” [← #ele-] ✧ PE16/92
elle [← #ele-] ✧ PE16/133
elle [← #ele-] ✧ PE16/146
éle “drove” ← elin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/35
ēre ← erin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/36
erne “went” [← ere-²] ✧ PE16/133
palastine ← palasya- ✧ QL/72
fūme- ← fum- ✧ QL/39
fūmbe ← fum- ✧ QL/39
halle ← halta- ✧ QL/39
ehalle ← halta- ✧ QL/39
hāre ← harin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/39
hande ← harin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/39
harīne ← hari ✧ PE14/58
hărie ← hari ✧ PE14/58
sōre ← sosta- ✧ QL/85
malke ← milk- ✧ QL/62
hante ← hatin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/39
avaltane ← avalta ✧ QL/34
avalante ← avalta ✧ QL/34
hepsine “bound” [← hepe-] ✧ PE14/56
hempe ← hepin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/40
anqe ← †unqu-² ✧ QL/98
qisse ← qisi- ✧ QL/77
qīse ← qisi- ✧ QL/77
hontye ← hotin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/41
hue ← hūta- ✧ QL/41
hyalle “resounded” ← hyal ✧ PE16/144
alke ← ilkin- (present 3rd-sg) ✧ QL/42
īne ← inta ✧ GL/51
íse [← ista-] ✧ PE16/133
sinte ← ista ✧ QL/43
sinte “he knew” [← ista-] ✧ QL/85
kallune- ← kal(l)u- ✧ QL/44
kandane ← kanda- ✧ QL/47
kande ← kanda- ✧ QL/47
kampe ← kapin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/45
karpie [← karp-] ✧ PE14/58
kelūne ← kelu ✧ PE14/58
kelwie ← kelu ✧ PE14/58
ekinkatte ← †kinka- ✧ QL/47
ekinkatande ← kinkata- ✧ QL/47
kōse ← kosta- ✧ QL/48
kalpe ← kulpin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/47
kúme ← kumin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/49
kumbe ← kumin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/49
lahante ← lahta- ✧ QL/50
lampane ← lampa- ✧ QL/51
lante ← lant- ✧ QL/51
laptăne ← lapta ✧ PE14/58
lapsine ← tantya ✧ PE14/58
lanqe ← laqa- ✧ QL/51
lāqe ← laqa- ✧ QL/51
lante ← lata ✧ PE15/67
lāve ← lava- ✧ QL/52
lenge ← LEHE ✧ QL/52
lehtane ← lehta ✧ PE15/76
leqente- ← lekte- ✧ QL/53
līsine ← lia- ✧ QL/53
likindane ← likinda- ✧ QL/54
lalsie [← lilt-] ✧ PE14/58
laltye [← lilt-] ✧ PE14/58
lalsie ← lilte (present) ✧ PE15/71
laltye ← lilte (present) ✧ PE15/71
līme ← limin (present 3rd-sg) ✧ QL/54
līne ← linta- ✧ QL/54
lintine ← linya- ✧ QL/54
līre ← liri- ✧ QL/54
linde ← liri- ✧ QL/54
suksine- ← sutya- ✧ QL/87
listine ← listya- ✧ QL/55
lokante ← lokta ✧ PE14/58
loktane ← lokta- ✧ QL/55
lombe ← lomir (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/55
lombe ← lomir (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/55
lopetāne ← lopeta- ✧ QL/56
lōqe ← loqo- ✧ QL/56
lonqe ← loqo- ✧ QL/56
lōre ← lor- ✧ QL/56
fantane ← fanta- ✧ QL/37
fante ← fanta- ✧ QL/37
lonte ← lōto- ✧ QL/55
lunte [← lutu-] ✧ PE16/56
lunte [← lutu-] ✧ PE16/57
lūte [← lutu-] ✧ PE16/60
lūte [← lutu-] ✧ PE16/60
lunte [← lutu-] ✧ PE16/60
lunte [← lutu-] ✧ PE16/61
lūte ← lutta- ✧ QL/57
lue ← lūta- ✧ QL/56
yansine ← yantya ✧ PE15/69
yante- ← ’yanta- ✧ QL/106
māke ← mak- ✧ QL/57
manke ← mak- ✧ QL/57
māke ← makta- ✧ QL/58
maksine ← maktya ✧ PE14/58
māle ← mal- ✧ QL/58
malle ← mala- ✧ PE15/67
malde ← mald- ✧ QL/62
malde ← mild- ✧ QL/62
maltune ← ‽malu- ✧ QL/58
malūne ← ‽malu- ✧ QL/58
nampie [← mapa-] ✧ PE14/58
nampie ← mapa- ✧ PE15/76
nampe ← map- ✧ QL/59
māre ← mar- ✧ QL/59
māse ← mas- ✧ QL/59
mansie ← mat- ✧ PE14/57
mante [← mata-] ✧ PE14/57
mansie [← mata-] ✧ PE14/58
mantye [← mata-] ✧ PE14/58
mante “ate” [← mata-] ✧ PE14/85
mante ← mat- ✧ QL/59
mekente ← mekte- ✧ QL/60
mēle ← mel- ✧ QL/60
mantye ← minty- ✧ QL/62
minqe ← miq- ✧ QL/61
mirtine ← mirtya- ✧ QL/61
mausine ← mauya- ✧ QL/60
mōke ← mokir (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/62
mūke ← mukta- ✧ QL/63
mūle ← mul- ✧ QL/63
nanye “it was” [← ná-] ✧ PE16/141
nyenne ← nyēna- ✧ QL/68
naïksine ← naitya- ✧ QL/65
nanke ← naka- ✧ QL/64
nāke ← naka- ✧ QL/64
nange ← nang- ✧ QL/66
nanqe ← naqa- ✧ QL/64
nāre ← nara- ✧ QL/64
natse ← nasa- ✧ QL/64
nāve ← nauta- ✧ QL/65
nāye ← naẏa- ✧ QL/65
nēme ← neme- ✧ QL/65
nēse ← nesta- ✧ QL/66
nesse ← nesta- ✧ QL/66
nente ← nete- ✧ QL/66
niqente ← nikte- ✧ QL/66
niqistine ← niqisya ✧ QL/66
niqistane ← niqista- ✧ QL/66
nōte ← nō- ✧ QL/66
nonte ← nohto- ✧ QL/67
nōle ← nolo- ✧ QL/67
nornoronte ← nornoro- ✧ QL/67
nŏrnōre ← nornoro- ✧ QL/67
nurūne ← nūru- ✧ QL/68
nūve ← nuvu- ✧ QL/68
nyande ← NYAŘA ✧ QL/68
nyāre ← NYAŘA ✧ QL/68
nyatse ← nyasa- ✧ QL/68
oa- ← ohta ✧ QL/69
oionte ← oito ✧ QL/71
oltane ← olta- ✧ QL/69
olonte- ← olto- ✧ QL/69
ōle “waxed” ← olto- ✧ QL/69
oronte ← orto- ✧ QL/70
orīne ← orya- ✧ QL/70
ōre ← oro- ✧ QL/70
otonte ← otto- ✧ QL/71
paisine ← paitya- ✧ QL/72
palle “shook” ← pal- ✧ PE16/143
palaute ← palava- ✧ QL/71
paltune ← palwa- ✧ QL/71
pante ← panta- ✧ QL/72
pantine ← panya- ✧ QL/72
pampe ← papa- ✧ QL/72
patte ← pata- ✧ QL/72
pante ← pata- ✧ QL/72
peane ← peanta- ✧ QL/72
peantane ← peanta- ✧ QL/72
pelle- ← pele- ✧ QL/73
pelenke- ← pelekta- ✧ QL/73
pelektane- ← pelekta- ✧ QL/73
pelente- ← pelte- ✧ QL/73
penqe- ← peqe- ✧ QL/73
pēre- ← pere- ✧ QL/73
pente ← pete- ✧ QL/73
mindane ← minda- ✧ QL/61
pieksine- ← pietya- ✧ QL/73
piektane- ← piekta- ✧ QL/73
pīle ← pili- ✧ QL/74
paltye ← pilty- ✧ QL/74
paltien ← pilty- ✧ QL/74
pirpinde ← pipiři- ✧ QL/74
pirpirinte ← pipiři- ✧ QL/74
pipente ← pipte- ✧ QL/74
pīre ← piri- ✧ QL/74
pastie [← pist-] ✧ PE14/58
pastye [← pist-] ✧ PE14/58
rentye- ← retye- ✧ QL/79
poine ← poita ✧ QL/75
poiksine ← poitya ✧ QL/75
wāre ← ’warin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/103
pue- ← pukta- ✧ QL/75
pūke ← pukta- ✧ QL/75
pūle ← pulu- ✧ QL/75
pūre- ← puru- ✧ QL/75
purīne ← purya- ✧ QL/75
pustine ← purya- ✧ QL/75
pūse ← pus- ✧ QL/76
pūsule ← pusulta ✧ QL/76
qelūne ← qelu- ✧ QL/76
qīle ← qilya- ✧ QL/77
qīlline ← qilya- ✧ QL/77
qiltane ← qilta- ✧ QL/77
qange ← qingi- ✧ QL/77
qinqe ← qiqi- ✧ QL/77
qisqīre ← qisqiri- ✧ QL/78
qirqisse ← qirqisi- ✧ QL/78
qonte ← qoto- ✧ QL/78
qalle “died” ← qal- ✧ PE16/143
qame ← qama- ✧ QL/76
qante ← qanta- ✧ QL/78
qantane ← qanta- ✧ QL/78
qampe ← qapa- ✧ QL/76
qapante ← qapta- ✧ QL/76
qanqe- ← qaqa- ✧ QL/76
qāqe ← qaqa- ✧ QL/76
qasse ← qasa- ✧ QL/76
qēle ← qele- ✧ QL/76
qeleksine- ← qeletya ✧ QL/76
qentë ← qet- ✧ LT2A/Tôn a Gwedrin
qensie “were told” [← qet-] ✧ PE14/54
qense [← qet-] ✧ PE14/54
qente “*said” [← qet-] ✧ PE15/32
qente ← qet- ✧ QL/77
qalde ← qildi- ✧ QL/78
qalte ← qilti- ✧ QL/78
qīnine- ← qīni- ✧ QL/77
qīne- ← qīni- ✧ QL/77
qinde- ← qiri- ✧ QL/77
qintye ← qity- ✧ QL/78
qōle ← qolo- ✧ QL/78
qonde- ← qoro- ✧ QL/78
qōre ← qosta- ✧ QL/78
qōse ← qosta- ✧ QL/78
rai ← rakta¹ ✧ QL/78
← rakta¹ ✧ QL/78
rakante- ← rakta-² ✧ QL/78
rāme ← rama- ✧ QL/78
rāre ← rara- ✧ QL/79
rande ← rara- ✧ QL/79
rāve ← rauta- ✧ QL/79
laustane [← lausta-²] ✧ PE16/75
rangwe ← rawa- ✧ QL/79
rinqe ← riqi- ✧ QL/80
rīme ← rim- ✧ QL/80
rīpe ← ripta- ✧ QL/80
ristane ← rista- ✧ QL/80
roa ← rōna- ✧ QL/80
roi ← rōna- ✧ QL/80
ruktane ← rukta- ✧ QL/80
rūke ← ruku- ✧ QL/80
sai ← sahta- ✧ QL/81
sanye ← saita ✧ QL/82
sāye ← saita ✧ QL/82
saikeltane ← saikelta ✧ QL/82
saiksine ← saitya ✧ QL/82
saitune ← saiwa- ✧ QL/72
salle “?remained (or ?removed)” ← sal- ✧ PE16/143
salke ← silki- ✧ QL/84
salpane- ← salpa- ✧ QL/84
salle ← salta ✧ PE15/77
sange ← sanga- ✧ QL/81
sampe- ← sapa- ✧ QL/82
sāre ← sara- ✧ QL/82
sande ← sara- ✧ QL/82
sēre ← serta- ✧ QL/83
sestane ← (a)sesta- ✧ QL/82
sīle ← sili- ✧ QL/83
salsie [← silt-] ✧ PE14/58
salte- ← silt- ✧ QL/84
silinte ← silte- ✧ QL/83
santye ← sinty- ✧ QL/85
simpe- ← sipi- ✧ QL/84
sīqe ← siqi- ✧ QL/84
sinde ← siri- ✧ QL/84
sīre ← siri- ✧ QL/84
sisse ← sisi- ✧ QL/84
sokonte ← sokto- ✧ QL/85
sōrie “sat” [← soro-] ✧ PE14/46
sōre “sat” [← soro-] ✧ PE14/46
sórie “sat” [← soro-] ✧ PE14/78
sōrie ← soro ✧ PE15/77
sōre ← soro- ✧ QL/85
sonde ← soro- ✧ QL/86
sonde ← soro ✧ QL/86
soronte ← sorto- ✧ QL/85
soronte ← sosto ✧ QL/86
sōve ← sovo- ✧ QL/86
sovallune ← sovallu- ✧ QL/86
sōke ← soko- ✧ QL/85
salpe ← sulpe (present) ✧ PE13/149
salpie [← sulp-] ✧ PE14/58
salpe ← sulp- ✧ QL/84
sunqe ← suq- ✧ QL/87
tanke ← taka- ✧ QL/88
talle ← tala- ✧ QL/88
talte ← tilt- ✧ QL/93
tangane ← tanga ✧ PE14/58
tansie [← tanta-¹] ✧ PE14/58
tantye [← tanta-¹] ✧ PE14/58
tante ← tanta- ✧ QL/93
tantye ← tanta ✧ PE15/71
tantane ← tanta- ✧ QL/94
tantilane ← tantila ✧ PE14/58
tantille ← tantila ✧ PE14/58
tantiltane ← tantilta ✧ PE14/58
tansĭne ← tantya ✧ PE14/58
tansīne ← tantya ✧ PE14/58
tapīne ← tapa- ✧ QL/89
tanqe ← taqa- ✧ QL/89
tāqe ← taqa- ✧ QL/89
tāre ← tara- ✧ QL/89
tarqe ← tarqa- ✧ QL/94
tapsine ← tatya ✧ QL/89
tenke ← teke- ✧ QL/90
telyansine [← telyanta-] ✧ PE15/69
telyansine ← telyanta ✧ PE15/69
telyansine ← telyanta ✧ QL/90
tenge- ← tenge- ✧ QL/91
tentine ← tenya- ✧ QL/91
tēne ← tela ✧ PE15/69
téne ← teta ✧ QL/90
tembe ← teve- ✧ QL/90
tēve ← teve- ✧ QL/90
talde ← tildir (1st-sg) ✧ QL/93
tintine ← tintya- ✧ QL/92
tinqie [← tiqi-] ✧ PE14/58
tíqie [← tiqi-] ✧ PE14/58
tinqe ← tiqi- ✧ QL/92
tīre ← tiri- ✧ QL/93
tartye- ← tirty- ✧ QL/94
tīwe ← tiuta- ✧ QL/93
tiutane ← tiuta- ✧ QL/93
piwente ← piute- ✧ QL/74
pivente ← piute- ✧ QL/74
tōke ← toko- ✧ QL/94
tompone ← tompo- ✧ QL/94
tōqe ← toqo- ✧ QL/94
tōre ← tori- ✧ QL/94
tūye ← tuita- ✧ QL/96
tūle [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/28
túlie ← tul- ✧ PE14/57
túlie “have come” [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/59
túlie [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/59
tūlie [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/124
túlie [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/126
túlie [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/133
talpe ← tulpu- ✧ QL/93
tulĭne ← tulya ✧ PE14/58
tulīne ← tulya ✧ PE14/58
tampie [← tump-¹] ✧ PE14/58
tampe ← tump- ✧ QL/93
tunde ← †turu- ✧ QL/96
tundane ← tunda- ✧ QL/96
tanqie [← tunq-] ✧ PE14/58
tanqe- ← tunq- ✧ QL/93
tūne ← tunta- ✧ QL/95
tūpe ← tupu- ✧ QL/95
tūre- ← turu- ✧ QL/95
tustine ← turya- ✧ QL/96
tūke ← tuku ✧ QL/95
túvie [← tuvu-] ✧ PE14/58
tūve ← tuvu- ✧ QL/96
tyalūne ← tyalu ✧ PE15/76
tyāse ← tyasa- ✧ QL/49
tyasante ← tyasta- ✧ QL/49
tyastāve ← tyastava- ✧ QL/49
tyāve ← tyava- ✧ QL/49
tyostone ← tyosto ✧ QL/50
tyūke ← tyuku- ✧ QL/50
tyunke ← tyuku- ✧ QL/50
tyūle ← tyulta- ✧ QL/50
tyustyūke ← tyus ✧ QL/50
ūme ← umin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/98
unye “was not” [← úya-] ✧ PE16/141
úqe ← uqin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/98
alqe ← ulqin ✧ QL/97
ulunte ← ulto- ✧ QL/97
ūle ← ulu- ✧ QL/97
anqe ← unq-¹ ✧ QL/98
usse ← usin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/98
ūse ← usin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/98
vanye ← vana ✧ PE15/76
“went” [← #ava-] ✧ LT1A/Qalvanda
ambe ← avin (present 3rd-sg) ✧ QL/33
“went” [← #ava-] ✧ QL/99
“went” [← #ava-] ✧ QL/99
vāse ← vasin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/100
vasse ← vastan (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/100
vartya ← virtir (1st-sg) ✧ QL/102
valke ← vilkin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/101
wastane ← wastar (1st-sg) ✧ QL/102
welle- ← ’wele- ✧ QL/103
wīle- ← ’wili- ✧ QL/104
’wintine- ← ’winya- ✧ QL/104
yāme ← yamin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/105
yambe ← yamin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/105
yāve ← yavin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/105
astūve ← astuvu- ✧ QL/33
yōle ← yolo- ✧ QL/106
yolle ← yolo- ✧ QL/106
yūre ← yurin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/106
tuliēmur [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
túliémur [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/126
muyanyet [← anta-] 1st-dual-exclusive dual pronoun-prefix ✧ PE14/86
muanyet [← anta-] 1st-dual-exclusive dual pronoun-prefix ✧ PE14/86
[tuli]ēvur [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
[tuli]ēvo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
túliévur [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/126
tuliēmen [← tulu-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
túliémen [← tulu-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]ēven [← tulu-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
[túli]éven [← tulu-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE16/126
linganen [← linga-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/100
qentien “*I said” [← qet-] 1st-sg ✧ PE15/32
tūlien [← tulu-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/124
túlien [← tulu-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]ēlur [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/124
[tuli]ēlo [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/124
túliélur [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]ēlen [← tulu-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE16/124
[túli]élen [← tulu-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE16/126
tūliet [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/124
túliel [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]ēris [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/124
túliéris [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]ētur [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/124
túliérus [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/126
tuliētar [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-neut ✧ PE16/124
túliétar [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-neut ✧ PE16/126
listanelto “*blessed” [← listya-] 3rd-pl ✧ PE15/32
royenta ← rōna- 3rd-pl ✧ QL/80
tūkielto “*they have looked for” [← tuku-] 3rd-pl ✧ PE15/32
alkantaméren “made it shine” [← alkanta-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ MC/216
alkantaniéren “made it shine” [← alkanta-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/100
alkantaniéren [← alkanta-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/100
alkantanéren [← alkanta-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/100
alkantanieeren [← alkanta-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/104
lótanéren [← lóto-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/57
[tuli]ēden [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/124
[túli]éren [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/126
ninqanéron “lay white” [← ninqa-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ MC/220
ninqanéron [← ninqa-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/74
[tuli]ēton [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/124
[túli]éron [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]ētan [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-neut ✧ PE16/124
[túli]étan [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-neut ✧ PE16/126
kainer [← kaya-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/65
kalliére “shown” [← kala-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ MC/220
kallíere [← kala-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/57
kallíere [← kala-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/60
kalliére “was shining” [← kala-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/62
kallieere [← kala-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/72
kalliére [← kala-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/74
falastanére [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/57
falastanēre [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/60
falastanére “was surging” [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/62
fälästänēre [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/72
falastanére [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/74
tūlier [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/124
túliér(e) [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/126
kírier “clove” [← kiri-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ MC/216
kírier “clove” [← kiri-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/100
kiirier [← kiri-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/104
falastanéro “with loud surf” [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ MC/220
falassiéro [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/58
falastanéro [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/58
linganer “hummed like a harp-string” [← linga-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ MC/216
linganer “hummed like a harp-string” [← linga-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/100
linganer [← linga-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/104
lótanéro [← lóto-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/58
lútier “sailed” [← lutu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ MC/216
lútier “sailed” [← lutu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/100
luutier [← lutu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/104
laustaner “lausted (made a windy noise)” [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ MC/216
laustanéro “rushed” [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ MC/220
laustanéro “was roaring” [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/62
laustaneero [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/72
laustanéro [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/74
laustaner [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/100
laustaner “rushed” [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/104
tūlient [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/124
túliér(o) [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/126
tūlie [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/124
túliet [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/126
unlunke [← luk-] ? ✧ PE16/146
ien ← e (present) active-participle ✧ PE14/57
yen ← e (present) active-participle ✧ PE14/57
yenda ← e (present) active-participle ✧ PE14/57
ien “it was” [← e-²] active-participle ✧ PE16/62
lutilya [← lutu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/56
lutsilya [← lutu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/57
lutsilya [← lutu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/60
lutsilya [← lutu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/60
lutsilya “sailing” [← lutu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/62
lutsilja [← lutu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/72
lutsilya [← lutu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/74
tulienwa [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/28
túliéla/túlielya [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/28
tuliemba [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/28
túlien(d-) ← tul- active-participle ✧ PE14/57
tulien “having come” [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/57
tulilya [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/128
tulíla [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/128
tūliet [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE14/28
tūlie(n)t [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE14/28
tulier [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE16/124
túlier [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE16/126
tūliesset [← tulu-] dual fem ✧ PE14/28
tūliendon [← tulu-] dual masc ✧ PE14/28
tūliesta [← tulu-] dual neut ✧ PE14/28
tūlier [← tulu-] fem ✧ PE14/28
tūliesse [← tulu-] fem ✧ PE14/28
iesta ← e (present) gerund ✧ PE14/57
yesta ← e (present) gerund ✧ PE14/57
túliento [← tulu-] gerund ✧ PE14/28
túliesta ← tul- gerund ✧ PE14/57
killer [← kili-] impersonal ✧ PE16/56
kílier [← kili-] impersonal ✧ PE16/56
ier ← e (present) impersonal ✧ PE14/57
mansier ← mat- impersonal ✧ PE14/57
túlier ← tul- impersonal ✧ PE14/57
túlient [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
túlienqe [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
túliesta [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
túlient [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE16/128
tūlien(do) [← tulu-] masc ✧ PE14/28
tūlie [← tulu-] neut ✧ PE14/28
tūliiēta [← tulu-] neut ✧ PE14/28
túlielqe [← tulu-] passive ✧ PE14/30
túlielwe [← tulu-] passive ✧ PE14/30
túlieldo [← tulu-] passive ✧ PE14/30
túlielqet [← tulu-] passive dual ✧ PE14/30
túlielwet [← tulu-] passive dual ✧ PE14/30
túlieldon [← tulu-] passive dual ✧ PE14/30
túliellet [← tulu-] passive dual fem ✧ PE14/30
túlielmut [← tulu-] passive dual masc ✧ PE14/30
túlieltan [← tulu-] passive dual neut ✧ PE14/30
túlieltat [← tulu-] passive dual neut ✧ PE14/30
túlielle [← tulu-] passive fem ✧ PE14/30
túlielse [← tulu-] passive fem ✧ PE14/30
túlieldo [← tulu-] passive gerund ✧ PE14/30
túliel(de) [← tulu-] passive infinitive ✧ PE14/30
túlielmo [← tulu-] passive masc ✧ PE14/30
túlielta [← tulu-] passive neut ✧ PE14/30
túlielqi(r) [← tulu-] passive plural ✧ PE14/30
túlielwi [← tulu-] passive plural ✧ PE14/30
túlieldu [← tulu-] passive plural ✧ PE14/30
túliellir [← tulu-] passive plural fem ✧ PE14/30
túlielmur [← tulu-] passive plural masc ✧ PE14/30
túlieltai [← tulu-] passive plural neut ✧ PE14/30
túlieltar [← tulu-] passive plural neut ✧ PE14/30
qetsime “were told” [← qet-] passive-participle ✧ PE14/54
qensiēma [← qet-] passive-participle ✧ PE14/54
rautanēma “stolen” [← rauta-] passive-participle ✧ PE14/54
tuliēla [← tulu-] passive-participle ✧ PE14/30
tulielya(nt) [← tulu-] passive-participle ✧ PE14/30
tulinwa [← tulu-] passive-participle ✧ PE16/128
tulīna [← tulu-] passive-participle ✧ PE16/128
iel ← e (present) plural ✧ PE14/57
eller “came” [← #ele-] plural ✧ MC/215
īsier “*was known” [← ista-] plural ✧ PE15/32
mansiel ← mat- plural ✧ PE14/57
méliel “loved” [← mel-] plural ✧ PE14/57
qentier “*was said” [← qet-] plural ✧ PE15/32
tūlier [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/28
tūlieu [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/28
túliel ← tul- plural ✧ PE14/57
túliel [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/59
[tuli]el [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE16/124
túlient [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE16/126
túliessir [← tulu-] plural fem ✧ PE14/28
túliendio [← tulu-] plural masc ✧ PE14/28
túlienta [← tulu-] plural neut ✧ PE14/28
túlier [← tulu-] plural neut ✧ PE14/28
iekto ← e (present) reflexive ✧ PE14/57
túliesta [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
[tul]ies [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
túliekto [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
túliesto [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
túliekto ← tul- reflexive ✧ PE14/57
túliestan [← tulu-] reflexive dual ✧ PE14/29
tuliston [← tulu-] reflexive dual ✧ PE14/29
túlieksin [← tulu-] reflexive dual fem ✧ PE14/29
túliekson [← tulu-] reflexive dual masc ✧ PE14/29
túliektan [← tulu-] reflexive dual neut ✧ PE14/29
túliekse [← tulu-] reflexive fem ✧ PE14/29
túlietsa [← tulu-] reflexive gerund ✧ PE14/29
(túlieksa(nt)) [← tulu-] reflexive gerund ✧ PE14/29
túlies(te) [← tulu-] reflexive infinitive ✧ PE14/29
tulies “arrived” [← tulu-] reflexive infinitive ✧ PE14/32
túliekso [← tulu-] reflexive masc ✧ PE14/29
túliekta [← tulu-] reflexive neut ✧ PE14/29
ielko ← e (present) reflexive plural ✧ PE14/57
mélielko “loved themselves” [← mel-] reflexive plural ✧ PE14/57
túliestu [← tulu-] reflexive plural ✧ PE14/29
túliestoi [← tulu-] reflexive plural ✧ PE14/29
túlieksi [← tulu-] reflexive plural fem ✧ PE14/29
túlieksoi [← tulu-] reflexive plural masc ✧ PE14/29
túliektai [← tulu-] reflexive plural neut ✧ PE14/29
túlieska [← tulu-] reflexive-participle ✧ PE14/29

Reference ✧ PE14/56

Element In