Q. present grammar.

Q. present grammar.

The present tense is used to describe ongoing actions occurring in the present moment: “the man is eating, I am eating”, i atan máta, mátan. Anything occurring in the present moment is generally an ongoing action, and the Quenya present tense can be more accurately labeled the present continuous or the present imperfect. As Tolkien described it Quendian & Common Eldarin Verbal Structure (EVS1) from the late 1940s and Common Eldarin: Verb Structure (EVS2) from the early 1950s:

Present. This is a genuine “tense”, can only be used of what is happening “now” — or of course what is regarded as “now” in narrative or supposition; and usually also implies a fairly continued action (that began before the immediate moment and is likely to continue for some time) (EVS1, PE22/95).
Present. This is a genuine tense, and can only be used of what is happening now, or of what is regarded as “now” in narrative or supposition. This tense also as a rule describes a fairly continuous action or event or process (that began before the immediate moment and is likely to go on for some time) (EVS2, PE22/129).

Contrast this with the Quenya aorist tense, which is not tied to any particular time and is used for habitual or timeless actions, much like the English simple present: “I eat eggs daily [habitual = aorist], it is good that you eat eggs [timeless = aorist], I am eating eggs now [present]”: matin ohti ilaurea, nás mára i matilye ohti, mátan ohti sí. The Quenya present tense (such as síla) can generally be translated using the English present continuous construction (“is/am/are shining”), but Tolkien sometimes translated it as the English simple present where that was more natural:

Forming the Present: For basic and u-verbs, the present tense is formed by lengthening the stem vowel and adding an -a: cen-i atan céna, cénan “the man is seeing, I am seeing”, liru-i atan lírua, líruan “the man is singing, I am singing”. For derived verbs ending in a the rules are more complex, but the most common pattern is to lengthen the stem vowel if possible (not in diphthongs or before consonant clusters) and change the final a to ea: laita-laitea “is praising”, henta-hentea “is reading”, fara-fárea “is hunting”. This basis for the present tense dates back to Common Eldarin:

The suffix of this tense is [ā]. The stem was in Eldarin made in various ways. One feature was lengthening or fortification of the base: so māt-ā; tūlā or taulā = “am eating”; “am coming” (EVS1, late 1940s, PE22/95).
Basic form kā́rā (i.e. the ending ā only appears as long when final in dissyllables in OQ or in polysyllables where separated from the initial syllable by an unstressed syllable: see Phonology). Q kāra “be doing”; ōla “is becoming”; nēma “is appearing”; māta “be eating” etc. (Quenya Verbal System, QVS, late 1940s, PE22/100).
The tense-vowel in this case is ā. The stem was in Eldarin constructed in various ways. One feature was the lengthening or fortification of the base-vowel: thus mātā, tūla/taula = “is eating, is coming” (EVS2, early 1950s, PE22/130).

At no point were forms like taula used for Quenya present tense, and Tolkien eventually abandoned them in Common Eldarin as well. In the last text (EVS2), Tolkien wrote “get rid of a-fortification in tense-system” in the margin (PE22/130 note #7), a change that was reiterated in later notes:

Eliminate[?] a-infixion as part of conjugation. So present continuative of √TUL is tūlā (not taula) but u > au, i > ai frequent in derivation (linguistic notes from the late 1950s or early 1960s, PE17/99).

A distinct present tense form for derived verbs ending in a was not established until later in Tolkien’s writing, from a different ancient suffix -(a)yā > -ea:

hentea (from -ayā), present continuative [followed by similar forms istea, nahtea, melyea, ortea, orea, the last from orya-] (linguistic notes from 1964, PE17/77).

The last few examples indicate a certain amount of vacillation on the present tense forms of ya-verbs, either melyea (keeping the y) or orea (dropping the y). Further examples from Late Notes on Verb Structure written in 1969 indicate Tolkien continued to vacillate on whether to drop the y, for example:

ya verbs must all be intransitive, and be . siryane. oryane.
the[?] present contin[uous] us[es?] ‘ea. sirya, sírea. siryane (PE22/157).

In these 1969 notes Tolkien also seems to have decided that there were distinct present tense forms for the causatives (from tā, yā) which continued to use -ea versus the formatives (from tă, yă) which instead used -ya or -ia (PE22/159):

Distinguish.

  • (a) -tă as a nec[essary] formative to elements that were not verbal, as ortā̆, which must include the t element throughout conjugation, except perfect.
  • (b) -ta as a formative (that spread in CQ especially to verbal bases with medial cons. Y, W, and original G|Ñ) which did not nec[essarily] appear in other parts.
  • (c) -tā́ causative.
  • (a) orta, ortea [inserted:] {old ortia >>} ortya ...
  • (b) caita, CQ caitea ... OQ caia, cea ...
  • (c) orta “raise”, {ort{e}a lat[er] ortea >>} ortea ...

Below these were a set of contrasting present forms: ortea, ortya, caitya, caitea, the latter with (archaic) cáya, cea without the formative suffix t. There were also “normal” present tense forms istea, nahtea, both (in this context) formative verbs in category (b) above. Later in this same bundle of notes (PE22/164) Tolkien had more of these experimental ia-presents: ortean < -ā́ya vs. ortian < -tiyan, the former written above a (rejected or archaic?) present orotan (PE22/164, note #103). Below these are still more present tense forms oryean vs. ōria; nahtia, kaitia vs. taltea, tulyea; and finally istya, ortya, sīria, ōria.

A similar set of rough notes (also on PE22/164) had [causative] tultā “fetch” with present tulteanye vs. [formative] ista “know” with present istianye (istyanye). Below these was a hard-to-read note that apparently says something like “Make Q. ea as present tense invade other forms” followed by various a-verb conjugations, whose aorist and present tense forms were:

alan, ālan (ālean†) ...
faran, fāran (-ean) ...
avan, āvan (āvean) ...

Puzzling through these rough notes is difficult, but it seems that in 1969 Tolkien thought:

  1. Causative verbs (and weak verbs?) formed present tenses with -ea < -āya as in 1964.
  2. The a-verbs originally formed presents simply by lengthening the base vowel (fára) but adopted the -ea suffix from other verbs (fárea).
  3. The formatives used the suffix -ya > -ia (kaitia).
  4. The y was retained in the presents of -causatives (tulyea) but dropped in -formatives (síria).

All these 1969 forms seem to be experimental, with Tolkien shifting among different possibilities. For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I think it’s probably better to stick to the 1964 system and use -ea for all verb stems ending in a.

One last verb class worth discussing are the talat-stem verbs. From rough 1964 notes:

√TALAT. Conjugation of √TALAT stems. Strong intransitive.

  • *talatā > talta, present.
  • t’lăti- > talati- or tal’ti- > talt-, aorist.
  • talante, past.
  • ataltie, perfect < atā̆latie.

Weak transitive.

  • talta, taltane.
  • present taltea < taltăyā.

With all causatives in -ta, continuative present talt]ea ? ayā (linguistic notes from 1964, PE17/186).

Again, these rough notes are hard to parse, but my interpretation is that like basic verbs, the talat-stem verbs were in Common Eldarin inflected with the usual present and aorist suffixes and : talatā and talati. After the Quenya syncope these became talta (present) and talti- (aorist). At some point the present talta was reinterpreted as the aorist stem by analogy with the much more common weak verbs, and a new present tense form taltea was coined, again by analogy with other verbs.

A similar set of conjugations appear in the 1969 Late Notes on Verb Structure: stem talat-, aorist taltan, (archaic?) present talatan with a note below stating: “fall is taltaya > taltea” (PE22/164). Thus the 1964 talat-stem paradigm seems to have remained more or less the same in 1969.

To summarize:

Conceptual Development: In the Qenya Verb Forms (QVF) of the 1910s and the Early Quenya Grammar (EQG) of 1920s, the “present” tense as described by Tolkien had the same form as the later aorist: tule when uninflected and tuli- when inflected (PE14/28; PE14/57). QVF had a distinct aorist form (tulya), but EQG did not. In EQG, Tolkien distinguished between the present form (tule) and the present imperfect (tulinde “is coming”). So it seems in its earliest conception, the “present” tense in Early Qenya was more like the English simple present rather than the present continuous/imperfect of the 1940s, 50s and 60s.

In the Qenya Conjugations of the late 1920s or early 1930s, Tolkien had distinct aorist, present and imperfect forms: tulin, tulinye, tulan(ye) in 1st person (PE16/125, 127). This “present” tense was in one place explicitly marked “present indicative” (PE16/127). Thus the “imperfect” tense seems to be the proper precursor to the later present continuous; it already showed the suffix -a, but did not yet show vowel lengthening. The first proper mention of the present continuous or imperfect tense as Tolkien later conceived of it was in Quendian & Common Eldarin Verbal Structure (EVS1) from the late 1940s (túla), and for basic verbs it seems to have retained this form thereafter.

In EQG, the “present” tense forms for derived verbs ending in -a simply used the unmodified verb stem, much like the later aorist (PE14/58). In the Quenya Verbal System (QVS) of the 1940s, the ancient aorist and present continuous forms were identical for derived verbs ending in -a. For the a-verbs, this was due to the inherently continuative semantics of the verb (PE22/113); for other verb classes it was because the a suffix was already part of the verb stem (PE22/114, 117). However, a distinct present continuous form could be made using the so called “long imperfect”, which was simply the active participle fully inflected as a verb:

A distinct imperfect where required could be made with the imperfect partc. (“to be” understood), as ni taltalya “I am slipping down”. This then became inflected as a verb (like the long perfect): taltalya “to be slipping down”, he·taltalyar “they are etc.” (PE22/115).

This long imperfect syntax was a replacement for a more English-like syntax requiring the verb “to be”:

A distinct imperfect where required could be made with the imperfect partc. and verb “to be”, as nie[?] taltalya “I am slipping down”. In verse an agglutinated form like the long perfect is found: taltalye “to be slipping down” (PE22/115 note #87).

In this rejected syntax nie = ni + ye, since ye was the general verb for “to be” in QVS (PE22/123 note #130). The long imperfect could also be used with basic verbs, especially when their normal present continuous form was problematic for some reason:

The long imperfect (of same sense as the simple one) was formed by using the Imperfect Participle (q.v.) as a verb. So karalyate “is making it” = kárat. This so called “long imperfect” could be formed by any verb (in verse), but in ordinary language was only formed by verbs that for any reason found it impossible or difficult to differentiate the “imperfect” from aorist (or future). This is specially common in late classical and TQ in weak verbs with ending -a, q.v. But certain strong verbs, notably those with stems ending in ov or uv had contracted futures identical with the imperfect (see Future). Thus √NOV-, future nouva > nóva; √TUV, fut. túva. For such verbs already in classical the “long imperfects” [were] novalya, túlya (tuvalya) (PE22/101 note #11).

Outside of QVS there are no other signs of this long imperfect. By the 1960s the present tense of verb stems ending with a normally used the suffix -ea, along with some experimental ia-presents for formative verbs in 1969 as discussed above.

Neo-Quenya: I recommend avoiding the 1969 ia-presents in Neo-Quenya writing, as discussed above. The ea-presents are much better known to other Neo-Quenya writers and readers.

Examples (present)
rúma ← rúma- ✧ MC/222
āva [← ava-¹] a-verb ✧ PE22/151
ōrea ← ora (aorist) a-verb ✧ VT41/13
alean [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
ālan [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
ālan [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
ālean [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
āvan [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/162
āvean [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/162
āvean [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
āvan [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
āvean [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
āvan ← ava- a-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/13
āvean ← ava- a-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/13
fāran [← fara-] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
fārean [← fara-] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
cára “am making” [← car-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/144
kíra “leave” [← #cir-] basic-verb ✧ MC/221
hríza [← †#hriz-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/168
mēna- “is on point of arrival, is just coming to the end” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/24
palantíra “watch/look afar” [← #palantir-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/86
quēta “is saying” [← quet-] basic-verb ✧ VT41/13
síla “shines” [← sil-] basic-verb ✧ Let/265
síla [← sil-] basic-verb ✧ Let/425
síla “shines” [← sil-] basic-verb ✧ LotR/81
síla [← sil-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/13
síla “is shining” ← sil- basic-verb ✧ PE17/13
síla “shines” [← sil-] basic-verb ✧ WJ/367
tēna- “is on point of arrival, is just coming to the end” [← ten-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/23
tíra “watch, look” [← tir-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/86
tūpa “cover” [← tup-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/73
túva [← #tuv-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/155
tyáva [← tyav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
untúpa “covers” [← #untup-] basic-verb ✧ LotR/377
untúpa “is covering over” [← #untup-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/73
un-tūpa “cover over” [← #untup-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/73
untúpa “is covering” [← #untup-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/73
ùn-tū́pa “covers” [← #untup-] basic-verb ✧ RGEO/58
un-tūpa “down-roofs” [← #untup-] basic-verb ✧ RGEO/59
káranye [← car-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/152
ménanye “I am ... coming” [← men-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/162
nīran [← nir-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/165
paranye “I am learning” [← par-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/180
mātare [← mat-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE17/76
hárar “sit” [← har-] basic-verb plural ✧ UT/305
hárar “are sitting” [← har-] basic-verb plural ✧ UT/317
avea ← av|va irregular-verb ✧ PE17/63
autya [← auta-¹] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/164
ëa “it exists” [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/28
laia [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/153
laia ← lā- irregular-verb ✧ PE22/156
laia ←  irregular-verb ✧ VT49/13
na “be” [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ PE17/59
[← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
← nā̆ irregular-verb ✧ VT49/30
auta “possess, own, keep (have in hand, use or with one)” [← oa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/151
oa [← oa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/151
ūva “(unwelcome) is coming/threatens” [← úva-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/167
ūva “is drawing near” [← úva-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/167
ūva “is drawing near” [← úva-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/14
(nalme?) [← ná-] irregular-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ VT49/27
nalme ← nā̆ irregular-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ VT49/30
nánye [← ná-] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/27
nanye ← nā̆ irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/30
uan “I am not, I do not” ← ua- irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/144
uan ← ua- irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/144
uan ← ua irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/144
na-tye [← ná-] irregular-verb 2nd-sg-familiar ✧ VT49/27
na-lye [← ná-] irregular-verb 2nd-sg-polite ✧ VT49/27
nalye ← nā̆ irregular-verb 2nd-sg-polite ✧ VT49/30
nās(e) [← ná-] irregular-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/27
nasse ← nā̆ irregular-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/30
lamma [← lamma-] na-formative ✧ VT47/21
caitea ← caita (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
ortea ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE17/77
ortea ← ortā ta-causative ✧ PE22/157
ortea ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
ortea ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
orotan ← orta ta-causative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
ortean ← orta ta-causative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
tulteanye [← tulta-] ta-causative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
kaitea [← caita-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
káya [← caita-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
caiteā ← caita (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
cáya ← caita (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
caitya ← †cea (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
kaitia ← kaita (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
istea ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE17/77
sia ← istā (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
ísa ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
istea ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
istia [← ista-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
istya [← ista-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
istya ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
nahtea ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE17/77
nahtia [← nahta-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
nahtea ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
nahtia ← nahta ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
ortia ← ortă ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
ortea ← ortă ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
ortea ← orta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
ortia ← orta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
ortya ← orta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
ortya ← orta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
ortya ← orta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
ráya ← raita- ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
rea ← raita- ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
istianye [← ista-] ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
istyanye [← ista-] ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
ortian ← orta ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
[ort]iyan ← orta ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
tankatealye [← tancata-] ta-formative 2nd-sg-polite ✧ PE17/76
mānata “bless” [← #manta-] talat-stem ✧ PE17/75
talta [← talta-] talat-stem ✧ PE17/186
taltea ← talta (aorist) talat-stem ✧ PE17/186
taltaya “fall” [← talta-] talat-stem ✧ PE22/164
taltea [← talta-] talat-stem ✧ PE22/164
talatan ← †talat- talat-stem 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
nīqua “it is freezing” ← niku- u-verb ✧ PE17/168
nurrua ← nurru- u-verb ✧ MC/222
auta ← avante (past) weak-verb ✧ PE19/90
hentea ← henta weak-verb ✧ PE17/77
tengwëa ← tengwa- weak-verb ✧ VT49/48
naiquear “*[who] sin” [← #naiqua-] weak-verb plural ✧ VT43/34
tulyea ← tulya (aorist) ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
oryean [← orya-²] ya-causative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
melyea ← melya (aorist) ya-formative ✧ PE17/77
orea ← orya (aorist) ya-formative ✧ PE17/77
ōria ← orya (aorist) ya-formative ✧ PE22/164
sírea [← sirya-] ya-formative ✧ PE22/157
sīria ← sirya (aorist) ya-formative ✧ PE22/164
óreanye [← orya-¹] ya-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/157
ōrian [← orya-¹] ya-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164

Reference ✧ PE22/164

Elements

frequentative

Element In


ᴹQ. present grammar.

Examples (present)
ōla- “is growing” [← ola-] a-verb ✧ PE22/116
alarye [← ala-] a-verb long-imperfect ✧ PE22/116
faralya “I am (on this occasion engaged in) hunting” ← fara- a-verb long-imperfect ✧ PE22/116
faralye “is hunting” [← fara-] a-verb long-imperfect ✧ PE22/116
ye faralya “I am (on this occasion engaged in) hunting” [← fara-] a-verb long-imperfect ✧ PE22/116
faralye “I am (on this occasion engaged in) hunting” [← fara-] a-verb long-imperfect ✧ PE22/116
ólar “is ... growing” [← ola-] a-verb plural ✧ PE22/116
kāra “be doing” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/100
kára [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/109
kára [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/109
épha “it emerges” [← ef-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
háma [← ham-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/125
láta “lies” [← lat-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/126
māta “be eating” [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/100
méla “love” [← mel-] basic-verb ✧ LR/61
nēma “is appearing” [← nem-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/100
nyára “talking” [← nyar(a)-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/119
oia [← oi-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/125
ōla “is becoming” [← ol-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/100
sére “resteth” [← ser-] basic-verb ✧ LR/72
séra “is” [← ser-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/125
thāra “stands” [← #thar-²] basic-verb ✧ PE22/126
meláne “I love” [← mel-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ LR/61
kára “(to) be making” [← kar-] basic-verb infinitive ✧ PE22/100
novalya ← NOV basic-verb long-imperfect ✧ PE22/101
túlya ← TUV basic-verb long-imperfect ✧ PE22/101
tuvalya ← TUV basic-verb long-imperfect ✧ PE22/101
kárar [← kar-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/109
kára “are ... making” [← kar-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/127
oiar “do live” [← oi-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/125
káralti “are ... making them” [← kar-] basic-verb plural with-pl-object ✧ PE22/127
káran [← kar-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/109
kárathe “is (then) making it” [← kar-] basic-verb with-remote-sg-object ✧ PE22/118
káraza “doing this” [← kar-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/122
kára(za) “doing it” [← kar-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/122
lumna “is-heavy” [← lumna-] na-formative ✧ LR/47
lumna “(is) heavy” [← lumna-] na-formative ✧ LR/56
lumna “is-heavy” [← lumna-] na-formative ✧ SD/310
antalto “they gave” [← anta-] ta-causative 3rd-pl ✧ LR/72
antaróta “he gave it” [← anta-] ta-causative 3rd-sg-masc with-sg-object prosodic-lengthening ✧ LR/72
antar “they gave” [← anta-] ta-causative plural ✧ LR/72
kélua ← kelu u-verb ✧ PE22/117
lírua ← liru u-verb ✧ PE22/117
hára “dwells” [← har-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/125
hára [← har-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/125
laitalle “praise [them]” [← laita-] weak-verb 2nd-pl ✧ SD/47

References ✧ PE22/100-101

Elements

frequentative

Element In


ᴱQ. present grammar.

Examples (present)
an “give” [← anta-] ✧ PE14/53
kaita “lie down” [← kaita-] ✧ PE14/58
kapta “leap” [← kapta-²] ✧ PE14/58
kare “make” [← kara-] ✧ PE14/58
kare ← kara ✧ PE15/71
i “is” [← e-²] ✧ PE14/51
e “is” [← e-²] ✧ PE14/51
e [← e-²] ✧ PE14/57
i ← e (present) ✧ PE14/57
e “is” [← e-²] ✧ PE14/57
ea [← e-²] ✧ PE16/140
hari ← hari ✧ PE14/58
**hare ← hari ✧ PE14/58
ilta “in came” [← ilt-] ✧ PE14/54
karpe “pluck” [← karp-] ✧ PE14/58
lalle “chatter, babble” [← lala-] ✧ PE16/144
lilte “dance” [← lilt-] ✧ PE14/58
lilte “dance” [← lilt-] ✧ PE15/71
mape “seize” [← mapa-] ✧ PE14/58
mate ← mat- ✧ PE14/57
mate “eat” [← mata-] ✧ PE14/58
mate [← mata-] ✧ PE14/70
mate “eats” [← mata-] ✧ PE14/85
piste “spit” [← pist-] ✧ PE14/58
silte “sift” [← silt-] ✧ PE14/58
sore ← soro ✧ PE15/77
sulpe “sips, tastes” [← sulp-] ✧ PE13/149
sulpe “drink” [← sulp-] ✧ PE14/58
tanga- ← tanga ✧ PE14/58
tante “bounce” [← tanta-¹] ✧ PE14/58
tantila ← tantila ✧ PE14/58
tantilta ← tantilta ✧ PE14/58
tantya ← tantya ✧ PE14/58
[tant]īne ← tantya ✧ PE14/58
tiqe “it thaws” [← tiqi-] ✧ PE14/56
tiqe “melt” [← tiqi-] ✧ PE14/58
tule [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/28
tule “comes” [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/52
tule “come” [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/53
tule ← tul- ✧ PE14/57
tule “come” [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/59
tule “come” [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/59
tule “comes” [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/85
tule [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/124
tulie [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/125
tulya ← tulya ✧ PE14/58
tumpe “beat” [← tump-¹] ✧ PE14/58
tunqe “hear” [← tunq-] ✧ PE14/58
tuve “receive, take” [← tuvu-] ✧ PE14/58
tue [← tuvu-] ✧ PE14/58
uqe “it rains” [← #uqu-] ✧ PE14/56
úqe “it rains” [← #uqu-] ✧ PE14/85
tulimbo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
[tulimb]ur [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
tulimbo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/125
tulingo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
tulingwe [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
[tuling]ur [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
tulingo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/125
tulilme [← tulu-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
tulilme(n) [← tulu-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
tulilme [← tulu-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE16/125
tulingwe [← tulu-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
tulingwe(n) [← tulu-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
tulingwe [← tulu-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE16/125
anir “I give” [← anta-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/31
anin [← anta-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/31
aqin “I seize in my hand” [← #aqa-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/31
karin “I make, do” [← kara-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/45
kilkin “I gather, reap” [← kilk-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/47
kilkin “to gather, reap” [← kilk-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/47
elin “I drive” [← #ele-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/35
enin “I am called” [← en-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/35
enin [← en-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/35
emin [← en-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/35
erin “remains” [← #er-] 1st-sg ✧ LT1A/Tol Eressëa
erin “remains” [← #er-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/36
fengin “I cut” [← #feng-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/38
harin “remains” [← har-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/39
hatin “I fling” [← hata-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/39
hilkin “it freezes” [← hilk-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/39
hepin “I bind” [← hepe-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/40
hotin “I sneeze” [← hotyo-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/41
iltin “I thrust home” [← ilt-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/42
iqin “I beg, ‘pray’” [← iq-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/43
irtin “I peck, prick” [← #irt-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/43
kangin “I weave, spin” [← #kanga-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/45
kapin “I jump” [← kap-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/45
kawin “I bow” [← kawa-] 1st-sg ✧ LT1A/Kaukaeldar
kawin “I bow, make obeisance” [← kawa-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/45
kenin “I prick” [← ken-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/46
kulpin “I contain” [← kulp-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/47
kumin “I pile up” [← #kum-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/49
kakin “I laugh” [← kaka-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/44
lomir “I hide” [← lom-] 1st-sg ✧ LT1A/Hisilómë
lomir “I hide (tr.), lurk (intr.)” [← lom-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/55
lomir “I hide (tr.)” [← lom-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/55
mokir “I hate” [← mok-] 1st-sg ✧ LT1A/Kosomot
mokir “I hate” [← mok-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/62
kiltin “I jerk, tuck” [← #kilti-] 1st-sg ✧ QL/47
tulinye [← tulu-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/124
tulinye [← tulu-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/125
[tul]illo [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/124
[tulill]ur [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/124
tulillo [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/125
tulille [← tulu-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE16/124
tulille [← tulu-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE16/125
emil ← enin (present 1st-sg) 2nd-sg ✧ QL/35
enil ← enin (present 1st-sg) 2nd-sg ✧ QL/35
tuliste [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/124
tul [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/125
tulilye [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/125
[tul]insi(r) [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/124
tulisse [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/125
[tuliss]ir [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/125
[tul]intu(r) [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/124
tulisso [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/125
[tuliss]ur [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/125
[tul]inta(r) [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-neut ✧ PE16/124
tulitta(r) [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-neut ✧ PE16/125
tulilde [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/124
tulilde(n) [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/125
tulildo [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/124
tulildo(n) [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/125
tulilta [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-neut ✧ PE16/124
tulilta(n) [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-neut ✧ PE16/125
emir ← enin (present 1st-sg) 3rd-sg ✧ QL/35
enir ← enin (present 1st-sg) 3rd-sg ✧ QL/35
hilkin “it freezes” [← hilk-] 3rd-sg ✧ LT1A/Helkar
ilkin- “it seems” [← ilk-] 3rd-sg ✧ QL/42
limin “he binds” [← lim-] 3rd-sg ✧ QL/54
tulia [← tulu-] 3rd-sg ✧ PE16/124
tulie [← tulu-] 3rd-sg ✧ PE16/124
usin “he escapes” [← usu-] 3rd-sg ✧ LT1A/Dor Faidwen
avin “he departs” [← #ava-] 3rd-sg ✧ QL/33
Kaire “lay” [← kaya-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ MC/221
kaire “lay” [← kaya-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/62
käire [← kaya-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/72
kaire [← kaya-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/74
kaire [← kaya-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/75
kair [← kaya-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/75
kaire [← kaya-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/77
fundunár [← fundu(na)-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/60
fundunáre [← fundu(na)-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/61
tulisse [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/124
tulinde [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/125
[tul]īre [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/125
alildon [← #ala-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/80
númetar “went down in the West” [← númeta-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ MC/221
númetar “went down” [← númeta-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/62
númetáro [← númeta-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/64
nuumetaar [← númeta-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/72
númetar [← númeta-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/74
nuumetaar [← númeta-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/77
kantalár [← kantala-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/60
kantalára [← kantala-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/61
tulindo [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/124
tulindo [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/125
[tul]īro [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/125
tulīta [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/124
tulat [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/125
tulīta [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/125
in(d-) ← e (present) active-participle ✧ PE14/57
inda ← e (present) active-participle ✧ PE14/57
matsin ← mat- active-participle ✧ PE14/57
tulinwa [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/28
tulīlya/tulíla [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/28
tulvála/tulvalya [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/28
tulimba [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/28
tulin ← tul- active-participle ✧ PE14/57
tulit [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE14/28
tuli(n)t [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE14/28
tulir [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE16/124
tulisset [← tulu-] dual fem ✧ PE14/28
tulindon [← tulu-] dual masc ✧ PE14/28
tulista [← tulu-] dual neut ✧ PE14/28
tulint(a) [← tulu-] dual neut ✧ PE14/28
tulyat [← tulu-] dual neut ✧ PE14/28
tulir [← tulu-] fem ✧ PE14/28
tulisse [← tulu-] fem ✧ PE14/28
ista ← e (present) gerund ✧ PE14/57
matsista ← mat- gerund ✧ PE14/57
tulinto [← tulu-] gerund ✧ PE14/28
tulinto [← tulu-] gerund ✧ PE14/28
tulista ← tul- gerund ✧ PE14/57
ir ← e (present) impersonal ✧ PE14/57
matsir “is eaten” [← mata-] impersonal ✧ PE14/56
matsir ← mat- impersonal ✧ PE14/57
matsir “one eats; is eaten” [← mata-] impersonal ✧ PE14/85
tulir “one goes, somebody goes” [← tulu-] impersonal ✧ PE14/56
tulir ← tul- impersonal ✧ PE14/57
[← tuvu-] impersonal ✧ PE14/58
kiryinqen [← kiri-] infinitive ✧ PE16/56
kiryinqe [← kiri-] infinitive ✧ PE16/56
tulint [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
tulinqe [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
tulista [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
tulint [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE16/128
tulin(do) [← tulu-] masc ✧ PE14/28
tule [← tulu-] neut ✧ PE14/28
tulitā [← tulu-] neut ✧ PE14/28
tulya [← tulu-] neut ✧ PE14/28
tulilwe [← tulu-] passive ✧ PE14/30
tulilqe [← tulu-] passive ✧ PE14/30
tulildo [← tulu-] passive ✧ PE14/30
tulilqet [← tulu-] passive dual ✧ PE14/30
tulilwet [← tulu-] passive dual ✧ PE14/30
tulildon [← tulu-] passive dual ✧ PE14/30
tulillet [← tulu-] passive dual fem ✧ PE14/30
tulilmut [← tulu-] passive dual masc ✧ PE14/30
tuliltan [← tulu-] passive dual neut ✧ PE14/30
tulille [← tulu-] passive fem ✧ PE14/30
tulilse [← tulu-] passive fem ✧ PE14/30
tulildo [← tulu-] passive gerund ✧ PE14/30
tulil(de) [← tulu-] passive infinitive ✧ PE14/30
tulīma/tulilma [← tulu-] passive infinitive ✧ PE14/30
tulilmo [← tulu-] passive masc ✧ PE14/30
tulilta [← tulu-] passive neut ✧ PE14/30
tulilwi(r) [← tulu-] passive plural ✧ PE14/30
tulilqi(r) [← tulu-] passive plural ✧ PE14/30
tulildu [← tulu-] passive plural ✧ PE14/30
tulillir [← tulu-] passive plural fem ✧ PE14/30
tulilmur [← tulu-] passive plural masc ✧ PE14/30
tuliltai [← tulu-] passive plural neut ✧ PE14/30
tuliltar [← tulu-] passive plural neut ✧ PE14/30
tūlila [← tulu-] passive-participle ✧ PE14/30
tūlilya(nt) [← tulu-] passive-participle ✧ PE14/30
il ← e (present) plural ✧ PE14/57
matsil ← mat- plural ✧ PE14/57
matsi [← mata-] plural ✧ PE14/70
tulya [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/28
tulir [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/28
tulil ← tul- plural ✧ PE14/57
tulil [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/59
tulil “come” [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/59
tulil [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE16/124
tulissir [← tulu-] plural fem ✧ PE14/28
tulindoi [← tulu-] plural masc ✧ PE14/28
tulyar [← tulu-] plural neut ✧ PE14/28
tulinta [← tulu-] plural neut ✧ PE14/28
ikto ← e (present) reflexive ✧ PE14/57
matsikto ← mat- reflexive ✧ PE14/57
tulista [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
[tul]is [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
tulikto [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
tulisto [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
tulikto(r) ← tul- reflexive ✧ PE14/57
tulistan [← tulu-] reflexive dual ✧ PE14/29
tuliston [← tulu-] reflexive dual ✧ PE14/29
tuliksin [← tulu-] reflexive dual fem ✧ PE14/29
tulikson [← tulu-] reflexive dual masc ✧ PE14/29
tuliktan [← tulu-] reflexive dual neut ✧ PE14/29
tulikse [← tulu-] reflexive fem ✧ PE14/29
tulitsa [← tulu-] reflexive gerund ✧ PE14/29
[tul]iksa(nt) [← tulu-] reflexive gerund ✧ PE14/29
tulis(te) [← tulu-] reflexive infinitive ✧ PE14/29
tulinko [← tulu-] reflexive masc ✧ PE14/29
túliesto [← tulu-] reflexive masc ✧ PE14/29
tulikta [← tulu-] reflexive neut ✧ PE14/29
ilko ← e (present) reflexive plural ✧ PE14/57
matsilto ← mat- reflexive plural ✧ PE14/57
tulistu [← tulu-] reflexive plural ✧ PE14/29
tulistoi [← tulu-] reflexive plural ✧ PE14/29
tulilto(r) ← tul- reflexive plural ✧ PE14/57
tuliksi [← tulu-] reflexive plural fem ✧ PE14/29
tuliksoi [← tulu-] reflexive plural masc ✧ PE14/29
tuliktai [← tulu-] reflexive plural neut ✧ PE14/29
tulistima [← tulu-] reflexive-participle ✧ PE14/29
tuliksima [← tulu-] reflexive-participle ✧ PE14/29
tuliska [← tulu-] reflexive-participle ✧ PE14/29

References ✧ PE14/34, 56

Element In