Q. aorist grammar.

Q. aorist grammar.

The function of the aorist tense in Quenya most closely resembles the simple present form in English: “the man eats, I eat”, i atan mate, matin. It is not, strictly speaking, tied to the present moment, however. More accurately the Quenya aorist is not tied to any particular time at all. Although it is often used to refer to the present, it is also used for habitual actions or other statements which are independent of time. As Tolkien described it Quendian & Common Eldarin Verbal Structure (EVS1) from the late 1940s:

Aorist ... This “tense” denoted no tense or time. Its uses closely resembled those of the simple so-called present of English: “I eat, I do”. It was thus used of all statements true at all times (as in proverbs): “gold glitters”; “the sun rises in the morning”; habits, etc.: “I live in a small house”. Also as with E. it may be employed as an “historic present” for narrative; and for the future when defined by such words as “tomorrow” (PE22/95).

Contrast this with the Quenya “present” tense (strictly speaking, the present continuous or present imperfect tense) “the man is eating, I am eating” i atan máta, mátan, which can only refer something going on in the present moment. Something that is happening now must necessarily be an ongoing action, which is why the present continuous form is used. Compare also English “something happens” (aorist, no specific time) versus “something is happening” (present continuous, necessarily happening now).

A slightly longer description appears in Common Eldarin: Verb Structure (EVS2) from the early 1950s:

Aorist ... This “tense” actually defined no tense or time. Its uses most closely resembled those of the simple present of English: “I eat, I do”. It was thus used of all statements true at all times (as in proverbs): “gold glitters”; “the sun rises in the morning”. It is also used of habitual actions: “I walk to my work”, “I sleep badly at night”. It is often employed as an “historic present” in narrative; in fact this employment is normal in extended narrative. A common narrative idiom is for the first verb to be in the past tense, and succeeding verbs (with the same subject) describing subsequent acts or events in a connected series to be in the aorist. This is notably the case in swift narrative where the subject (noun or pronoun) is not repeated: as if in English one wrote: “he came home, opens the doors, calls, hears no answer, searches all the rooms, etc.”

In sentences containing a clear time indicator or adverb the aorist is still sometimes used. This is for historical reasons only usual in English with future adverbs: as “he starts tomorrow”. But the Eldarin languages could also say “he starts yesterday”. Neither idiom is frequent in Quenya outside the archaic language of verse (PE22/129-130).

These notes describe the rather interesting (albeit somewhat archaic) convention of marking only the first in a series of closely associated verbs with the tense (past or future), while putting the rest into the aorist: túles [past] már, latya [aorist] i fendi, holtu, hlare lá hanquenta, cese ilye sambi and so forth. The aorist can also be combined with temporal adverbs to indicate some other time, but this is less common than using the appropriate tense: yestas enar “he starts tomorrow” vs. (more common) yestuvas enar “he will start tomorrow”.

Some Quenya verbs, most notably the a-verbs, did not originally in Common Eldarin have distinct aorist and present forms:

A difference from English is seen in the verbs such as “love, know”, which in English seldom (or never in their proper sense) use the true or analytic present “I am knowing”. In verbs of this sort the aorist is usually not constructed in Eldarin; or rather a similar “tense” but with a suffix -ā̆- is made: so CE melā- “love”, istā- “know” (EVS1, PE22/95).
A marked difference between Eldarin and English is found in the case of verbs whose fundamental sense describes a state, or process of development. Many of these like “have” (in sense “possess” not “take”), “love”, “know” in English use the simple present or aorist only, and avoid the analytic form “I am loving” etc. Almost the reverse is the case with verbs of this kind in Eldarin: they usually do not form a normal i-aorist, but make a durative present with tense-vowel ā̆, with or without any other consonantal adjunct. So CE melā “love”, galā “grow” (of plants), is-tā “know” (EVS2, PE22/130).

In later Quenya, however, the a-verbs could have a distinct present tense form, adapted from other verb classes (PE22/164), for example: horan “I wait” (aorist) vs. hórean “I am waiting” (present). See the entry on the present tense for more information.

Forming the Aorist: For derived verbs (those whose stems end in a or u), the aorist is simply the verb stem, with additional pronominal suffixes added as needed: laita-i atan laita, laitan “the man praises, I praise”, liru-i atan liru, lirun “the man sings, I sing”. For basic verbs, the ancient aorist suffix was ✶-i (PE18/86; PE22/95, 129), which remained if pronominal inflections were added but becomes -e if there are no such suffixes: i atan cene “the man sees” vs. cenin “I see”. The -i is also used with aorist basic verbs inflected for number to agree with the noun: i atani cenir “the men see”. As Tolkien described it in the 1948 Quenya Verbal System (QVS):

Aorist stem: Basic form kărĭ- “do”; nĕmĭ- “seem” etc.

Uninflected form: kărĕ, nĕmĕ.

Inflected form: this form could only inflect for:

(a) number agreeing with that of subject of the action, pl. karir, nemir etc., dual karit, nemit.

(b) the pronominal object, which was then always the direct object, except in the case of intransitive impersonal verbs where it could be “indirect” or dative (as regarded by European languages). So karin “makes me”; nemin “seems to me” (PE22/99).

In the original, Tolkien also inserted basic and uninflected forms ŏlē̆ “become” and ŏlĕ (PE22/99 note #2) which seem to be variant aorist forms for the verb ol-, but this was never explained and elsewhere in QVS Tolkien gave it the more ordinary aorist stem oli- (PE22/113). In QVS, Quenya used only pronominal object suffixes and not subject suffixes, but examples elsewhere make it abundantly clear the same rules apply to subject suffixes in Tolkien’s writing after QVS: carin(ye) “I make”, nemin(ye) “I seem”.

In QVS, all the derived verb classes use the unmodified verb stem for the aorist as indicated above (PE22/114-118). Elsewhere, though, Tolkien experimented with some abnormal aorist forms for talat-stem verbs. Since these were derived from verbal roots of the form √TALAT, in Common Eldarin they would have used the same aorist suffix -i as basic verbs. The result was some rather strange looking aorist forms like talati or tal’ti, but these were eventually regularized to aorists of the form talta by analogy with the much more common weak verbs (PE17/186). The net result is that all verbs ending in a use the verb stem for the aorist, and this was true up through Tolkien’s Late Notes on Verb Structure written near the end of his life (PE22/159, 164).

Using the Aorist: The most basic use of the aorist is like the English simple present as in:

Strictly, speaking, this phrase does not designate exactly when the leaves are failing. A more illustrative examples is:

Every verb in this sentence is in the aorist form, and the timing of each action is understood only from context: merin “hope” in the present, vanyalye “pass (from the world)” in the future and haryalye “have (happiness)” unspecified, perhaps past, present or future. The aorist behaves no differently than the English simple present in the above sentence. The aorist is also used to describe regular or habitual activity vs. current activity: faran senyave i tauresse, mal síra fárean i orontissen “I hunt [aorist] usually in the forest, but today I am hunting [present] in the mountains”.

Conceptual Development: The aorist is mentioned as a distinct verb form all the way back in The Qenya Verb Forms of the 1910s, though its formation in this document is rather complicated, depending on the pronominal inflection (masculine, feminine and neuter); it’s uninflected suffix was -ya (PE14/28). There is no mention of the aorist in the Early Qenya Grammar of the 1920s (PE14/41-86); it is unclear whether Tolkien temporarily abandoned this tense or just didn’t get around to writing about it.

The aorist did appear in the Qenya Conjugations of the late 1920s or early 1930s (PE16/124-128). In these conjugations, it had already reach its final form for basic verbs: tule uninflected but tuli- when inflected. The aorist kept this form thereafter, making this verb tense quite stable in Tolkien’s mind. The only possible vacillations on the aorist I have found were in the aorists of talat-stem verbs, as mentioned above.

Examples (aorist)
ala [← ala-¹] a-verb ✧ PE17/132
etrúna “*deliver” [← eterúna-] a-verb ✧ VT43/23
eterúna “*deliver” [← eterúna-] a-verb ✧ VT43/23
eterunna [← eterúna-] a-verb ✧ VT44/5
eterúna “*deliver” [← eterúna-] a-verb ✧ VT44/9
nattira “*despise” [← nattira-] a-verb ✧ VT44/8
ora [← ora-] a-verb ✧ VT41/13
ora “it warns” [← ora-] a-verb ✧ VT41/15
órava “*have mercy” [← órava-] a-verb ✧ VT44/14
ocama “*have mercy” [← ócama-] a-verb ✧ VT44/13
ócama “*have mercy” [← ócama-] a-verb ✧ VT44/13
Vala “has power” [← vala-] a-verb ✧ WJ/403
vala “order (it)” ← vala a-verb ✧ WJ/404
alammo [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE17/132
alalmo [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE17/132
alambe [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE17/132
alalme [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE17/132
alanye [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/132
alan [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
alan [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
aþanye “I will” [← asa-] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/166
aþanye “I will (do so) — as you ask or order; I will, I am willing, I agree (to do so)” [← asa-] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/166
avan [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/162
avan [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
avan [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
avan ← ava- a-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/13
faran [← fara-] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
alallo [← ala-¹] a-verb 2nd-dual ✧ PE17/132
alastar [← ala-¹] a-verb 2nd-dual-honorific ✧ PE17/132
alalle [← ala-¹] a-verb 2nd-pl ✧ PE17/132
alaltar [← ala-¹] a-verb 2nd-pl-honorific ✧ PE17/132
farále “you hunt” [← fara-] a-verb 2nd-sg ✧ PE22/138
alatar [← ala-¹] a-verb 2nd-sg-honorific ✧ PE17/132
alalye [← ala-¹] a-verb 2nd-sg-polite ✧ PE17/132
alasto [← ala-¹] a-verb 3rd-dual ✧ PE17/132
alante [← ala-¹] a-verb 3rd-pl ✧ PE17/132
alas/alasse [← ala-¹] a-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE17/132
alat [← ala-¹] a-verb dual ✧ PE17/132
alar [← ala-¹] a-verb plural ✧ PE17/132
Valar “they have power” ← Vala (aorist) a-verb plural ✧ WJ/403
ape “to touch one, concern, affect” [← #ap-] basic-verb ✧ VT44/26
apsene “*forgive” [← #apsen-] basic-verb ✧ VT43/18
au-kiri- “cut off” [← #aucir-] basic-verb ✧ WJ/365
aukiri “cut off so that a portion is lost or no longer available” [← #aucir-] basic-verb ✧ WJ/365
aukiri- “cut off and get rid of or lose a portion” [← #aucir-] basic-verb ✧ WJ/368
kare [← car-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/94
kare [← car-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/132
care “make” [← car-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/144
kare “to do” [← car-] basic-verb ✧ VT42/34
care “*done” [← car-] basic-verb ✧ VT43/15
cari- “make” [← car-] basic-verb ✧ VT43/26
care [← car-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/16
kene “look” [← cen-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/94
kiri- “cut” [← #cir-] basic-verb ✧ WJ/365
kiri- “cut” [← #cir-] basic-verb ✧ WJ/368
eke “may, can” [← ec-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/20
fírë “expire” [← fir-] basic-verb ✧ MR/250
hĭre- “find” [← hir-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/76
hókiri “cut off a required portion so as to have it or use it” [← #hócir-] basic-verb ✧ WJ/366
hókiri- “cut off so as to have or use a required portion” [← #hócir-] basic-verb ✧ WJ/368
hyame “*pray” [← #hyam-] basic-verb ✧ VT43/32
lire “sing” [← #lir-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/94
make “hews with a sword” [← mac-] basic-verb ✧ VT39/11
mene “proceed” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/94
mene “goes” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ VT47/11
mene “comes, arrives, is with us” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/24
nattire “look back” [← nattir-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/166
nave “judges” [← nav-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/154
nave “judges” [← nav-¹] basic-verb ✧ VT42/34
nave “judge” [← nav-¹] basic-verb ✧ VT42/34
hame “judges” [← #ham-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/154
hame “judge” [← #ham-] basic-verb ✧ VT42/34
neme “learn” [← nem-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/154
neme “judge” [← nem-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/154
neme “judges” [← nem-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/154
neme “judge” [← nem-¹] basic-verb ✧ VT42/34
nore “run” [← nor-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE17/94
ñware “frets, wears away” [← #nwar-] basic-verb ✧ PE19/76
nyare “recites” [← nyar-] basic-verb ✧ PE19/76
ókome “gathers, assembles” [← ócom-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/158
(h)ore “feel an urge/wish/desire” [← or-] basic-verb ✧ VT41/13
ore “would like / feel moved” [← or-] basic-verb ✧ VT41/13
pare “learn” [← par-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/154
pase “smooths” [← pas-] basic-verb ✧ PE19/89
quere “turns” [← quer-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/21
quete [← quet-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/138
quete “speak” [← quet-] basic-verb ✧ VT41/6
quete “tells” [← quet-] basic-verb ✧ VT41/11
qete [← quet-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/19
rafe “waves, brandishes” [← raf-] basic-verb ✧ PE19/89
raze “sticks out” [← #ras-] basic-verb ✧ PE19/73
rase “sticks out” [← #ras-] basic-verb ✧ PE19/73
remi- “snare” [← #rem-] basic-verb ✧ VT42/12
rike “try” [← #ric-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE17/93
rike [← #ric-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE17/167
sile “shine” [← sil-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/13
sile “shine” [← sil-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/13
tene “comes, arrives, is with us” [← ten-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/23
tire “watch, observe” [← tir-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/94
tule “come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/140
tūle “*come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ VT43/14
túle “*come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ VT43/14
tule “*come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ VT43/14
tupe “covers” [← tup-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/73
tyare “cause” [← #tyar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/154
tyave [← tyav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
undulăve- “swallow, lick down” [← undulav-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/72
un-tupe “covers up, (lit.) covers down” [← #untup-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/73
karimmo [← car-] basic-verb 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE17/132
karilmo [← car-] basic-verb 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE17/132
avatyaremme “*we forgive” [← #avatyar-] basic-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ VT43/20
karilme [← car-] basic-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE17/129
karimbe [← car-] basic-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE17/132
hamilme “we judge” [← #ham-] basic-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE22/154
nemilme “we judge” [← nem-¹] basic-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE22/154
rucimme “*we fly” [← #ruc-] basic-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ VT44/7
karilme [← car-] basic-verb 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE17/132
navilwe “we judge” [← nav-¹] basic-verb 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE22/154
karin(ye) [← car-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/132
karin “I make” [← car-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/152
kesin ← kes- basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/156
matinye “I shall eat” [← mat-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/131
melin “I love” [← #mel-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/15
meninye “I ... come” [← men-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/162
menin “I arrive at/come to/get to” [← men-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/24
merin “I hope” [← mer-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ MS/1
nakin “hew” [← #nac-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/156
nakin “I hew, cut” [← #nac-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/24
namin “I judge [it]” [← nam-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT41/13
năvin “I judge” [← nav-¹] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/154
navin “I think” [← nav-¹] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/154
navin “I judge” [← nav-¹] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT42/33
navin “I think” [← nav-¹] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT42/34
hamin “I think” [← #ham-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/154
nemin “I think” [← nem-¹] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/154
nirin “press, thrust, force (in a given direction)” [← nir-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/165
nirin “I press/thrust/force (in a given direction)” [← nir-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT41/17
okomin ← okom- basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/157
penin “no, I haven’t” ← pen- basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/173
polin “I can” [← pol-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/181
polin “I can” [← pol-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT41/6
rukin “I feel fear or horror” [← #ruc-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ WJ/415
samin [← #sam-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/173
savin “I believe” [← #sav-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/158
savin “I believe” [← #sav-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/158
savin “I believe” [← #sav-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/27
savin “I believe” [← #sav-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/28
tenin [← ten-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/23
tenin “I arrive at/come to/get to” [← ten-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/23
tulinye “I ... come” [← tul-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/139
tulinye [← tul-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/162
tyavin [← tyav-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/152
váquetin ← vā-quet basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ WJ/370
hirinyes [← hir-] basic-verb 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ PE22/151
melinyes “I love him” [← #mel-] basic-verb 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ VT49/15
karillo [← car-] basic-verb 2nd-dual ✧ PE17/132
karistar [← car-] basic-verb 2nd-dual-honorific ✧ PE17/132
karille [← car-] basic-verb 2nd-pl ✧ PE17/132
kariltar [← car-] basic-verb 2nd-pl-honorific ✧ PE17/132
hamil “you judge” [← #ham-] basic-verb 2nd-sg ✧ PE22/154
hamil “you judge” [← #ham-] basic-verb 2nd-sg ✧ VT42/33
nemil “you judge” [← nem-¹] basic-verb 2nd-sg ✧ PE22/154
tulil “you come” [← tul-] basic-verb 2nd-sg ✧ PE22/158
karitar [← car-] basic-verb 2nd-sg-honorific ✧ PE17/132
karil(ye) [← car-] basic-verb 2nd-sg-polite ✧ PE17/132
karisto [← car-] basic-verb 3rd-dual ✧ PE17/132
karinte [← car-] basic-verb 3rd-pl ✧ PE17/132
melitte “they loves themselves” [← #mel-] basic-verb 3rd-pl-reflexive ✧ VT49/21
carilye “you do” [← car-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE17/58
karis [← car-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE17/129
karis- [← car-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE17/129
karis(se) [← car-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE17/132
karis “he is ... to do” [← car-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE22/162
tulis [← tul-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/19
melisse “he loves himself” [← #mel-] basic-verb 3rd-sg-reflexive ✧ VT49/21
karit [← car-] basic-verb dual ✧ PE17/132
þak’ “close” [← sac-] basic-verb elided ✧ PE22/166
avatyarir “*forgive” [← #avatyar-] basic-verb plural ✧ VT43/20
karir [← car-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE17/132
karir “form” [← car-] basic-verb plural ✧ WJ/391
quetir “they ... say” [← quet-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE17/167
quetir [← quet-] basic-verb plural ✧ VT49/11
rikir “try” ← rike (aorist) basic-verb plural ✧ PE17/94
úcarer “*trespass” [← #úcar-] basic-verb plural ✧ VT43/21
úcarir “*trespass” [← #úcar-] basic-verb plural ✧ VT43/21
avatyarirat “*forgive those” [← #avatyar-] basic-verb plural with-pl-object ✧ VT43/20
avatyaritar “*forgive those” [← #avatyar-] basic-verb plural with-pl-object ✧ VT43/20
avatyarilta “*forgive those” [← #avatyar-] basic-verb plural with-pl-object ✧ VT43/20
carilta [← car-] basic-verb plural with-pl-object ✧ VT43/26
carires [← car-] basic-verb plural with-sg-object ✧ VT43/26
carita [← car-] basic-verb with-pl-object ✧ VT43/26
apsenet “*forgive those” [← #apsen-] basic-verb with-pl-object object-suffix-only ✧ VT43/20
caris [← car-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ VT43/26
híres “to find it” [← hir-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/151
ava ← av|va irregular-verb ✧ PE17/63
auta [← auta-¹] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/164
Auta “is passing” [← auta-¹] irregular-verb ✧ S/190
Auta “is passing” [← auta-¹] irregular-verb ✧ WJ/166
ëa “exists” [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE17/74
ëa “is” [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ UT/305
ëa “is” [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ UT/317
ëa “it is” [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ VT39/6
ëa “exists” [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ VT39/7
ëa [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ VT43/13
ëa [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ VT43/14
mai [← mai-²] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/148
na [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT43/16
na “*art” [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT43/30
na [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
tëa “indicate” [← tëa-] irregular-verb ✧ VT39/6
ui ← ū- irregular-verb ✧ VT49/29
ui “it is not” [← ui-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/29
mai(l)me [← mai-²] irregular-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE22/148
uilme ← ui (aorist) irregular-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ VT49/29
mai(l)we [← mai-²] irregular-verb 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE22/148
mai(l)ve [← mai-²] irregular-verb 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE22/148
oan “go away” [← auta-¹] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
lanye “I do not, am not” [← lá-] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/153
lain ← lā- irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/156
lanye ← lā- irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/156
lanye “I do not, I am not” ←  irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/13
lanye “not” [← lá-] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/15
main(ye) [← mai-²] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/148
mán(ye) [← mai-²] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/148
nain [← ná-] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/27
uin “I do not” [← ui-] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/68
uin “I do not” [← ui-] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/152
uin(ye) “I am not” ← ū- irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/29
ún/unye ← ua irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/144
mail(de) [← mai-²] irregular-verb 2nd-pl ✧ PE22/148
lail ← lā- irregular-verb 2nd-sg ✧ PE22/156
uin(le) ← ū- irregular-verb 2nd-sg ✧ VT49/29
mait(ye) [← mai-²] irregular-verb 2nd-sg-familiar ✧ PE22/148
mailtye [← mai-²] irregular-verb 2nd-sg-familiar ✧ PE22/148
naitye [← ná-] irregular-verb 2nd-sg-familiar ✧ VT49/27
lalye ← lā- irregular-verb 2nd-sg-polite ✧ PE22/156
nalye “*art thou” [← ná-] irregular-verb 2nd-sg-polite ✧ VT43/30
nailye [← ná-] irregular-verb 2nd-sg-polite ✧ VT49/27
úalye “*do not” [← ua-] irregular-verb 2nd-sg-polite ✧ VT43/21
mainte [← mai-²] irregular-verb 3rd-pl ✧ PE22/148
maise [← mai-²] irregular-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE22/148
nas “he is” [← ná-] irregular-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE17/126
nās “it is” [← ná-] irregular-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/30
uis ← ū- irregular-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/29
nar [← ná-] irregular-verb plural ✧ VT43/34
năr ← nā̆ irregular-verb plural ✧ VT49/30
uir ← ui (aorist) irregular-verb plural ✧ VT49/29
caita [← caita-²] ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
orta [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE17/77
orta “raise” [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
orta [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
ortan ← orta ta-causative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
tultan [← tulta-] ta-causative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
antale “*give” [← anta-] ta-causative 2nd-sg-polite ✧ VT43/17
le·ana [← anta-] ta-causative 2nd-sg-polite ✧ VT44/13
caita “lies” [← caita-¹] ta-formative ✧ LotR/377
cai-ta “lie down, lies” [← caita-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE17/72
caita “lies” [← caita-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE17/72
caita [← caita-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
caita [← caita-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
cea [← caita-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
kaita [← caita-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
caíta “lies” [← caita-¹] ta-formative ✧ RGEO/58
caita “lies” [← caita-¹] ta-formative ✧ RGEO/59
kuita “live” [← cuita-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/154
ista “know” [← ista-] ta-formative ✧ PE17/77
istā [← ista-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
ista [← ista-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
ista [← ista-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
ista [← ista-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
ista [← ista-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
nahta [← nahta-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE17/77
nahta [← nahta-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE22/157
nahta [← nahta-¹] ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
nahta ← nahta ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
orta [← orta-²] ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
orta [← orta-²] ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
orta [← orta-²] ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
kítan “I suppose” ← kíta- ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ VT49/19
istan “I can (because I have learned)” [← ista-] ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE17/155
istan “I ... know” [← ista-] ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/158
istan [← ista-] ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
istan “I can (because I have learned)” [← ista-] ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ VT41/6
nahtan “slay” [← nahta-¹] ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/156
nahatan [← nahta-¹] ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
nahtan “I slay” [← nahta-¹] ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ VT49/24
ninquitan [← #ninquita-] ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/157
ortan ← orta ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
tankatalye [← tancata-] ta-formative 2nd-sg-polite ✧ PE17/76
caitas “it is, [(lit.) it lies]” [← caita-¹] ta-formative 3rd-sg ✧ PE17/65
lantar “fall” [← lanta-] ta-formative plural ✧ LotR/377
lántar “fall” [← lanta-] ta-formative plural ✧ RGEO/58
lantar “fall (pl.)” [← lanta-] ta-formative plural ✧ RGEO/58
#manta “bless” [← #manta-] talat-stem ✧ VT49/52
talati- ← talta (present) talat-stem ✧ PE17/186
talt- ← talta (present) talat-stem ✧ PE17/186
talta ← talta (aorist) talat-stem ✧ PE17/186
taltan ← †talat- talat-stem 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
nĭque “it snows or freezes” ← niku- u-verb ✧ PE17/168
nique “it is cold, it freezes” ← niku- u-verb ✧ WJ/417
lirule “you sing” [← liru-] u-verb 2nd-sg ✧ PE22/138
etelehta “*deliver” [← etelehta-] weak-verb ✧ VT43/23
hentā̆ ← henta weak-verb ✧ PE17/77
arca “*pray” [← arca-] weak-verb ✧ VT43/33
arca [← arca-] weak-verb ✧ VT43/33
arca “*pray” [← arca-] weak-verb ✧ VT44/18
mittanya “*lead (into)” [← mittanya-] weak-verb ✧ VT43/22
tengwa ← tengwa- weak-verb ✧ VT49/48
lerta[n] “I can ... because I [am] free to do [so]” [← lerta-] weak-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/160
lerta[n] “I can ... because I [am] free to do [so]” [← lerta-] weak-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT41/6
quistanyes “I suppose so” [← quista-] weak-verb 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ PE22/158
kestallen “you ask me” [← cesta-] weak-verb 2nd-sg with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/138
tintilar “tremble” [← tintila-] weak-verb plural ✧ LotR/377
tintilar “twinkle” ← tintila- weak-verb plural ✧ PE17/66
tintilar [← tintila-] weak-verb plural ✧ PM/364
tíntilàr “tremble” [← tintila-] weak-verb plural ✧ RGEO/58
tintilar “twinkle” [← tintila-] weak-verb plural ✧ RGEO/59
tintilar “sparkle, glitter” [← tintila-] weak-verb plural ✧ RGEO/61
tulya [← tulya-] ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
tulya “*lead” [← tulya-] ya-causative ✧ VT43/22
oryan [← orya-²] ya-causative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
hrisya “it snows” [← hrisya-] ya-formative ✧ PE17/168
melya [← melya-] ya-formative ✧ PE17/77
orya [← orya-¹] ya-formative ✧ PE17/77
orya [← orya-¹] ya-formative ✧ PE22/164
sirya [← sirya-] ya-formative ✧ PE17/77
sirya [← sirya-] ya-formative ✧ PE22/157
sirya [← sirya-] ya-formative ✧ PE22/164
oryan [← orya-¹] ya-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/157
oryan [← orya-¹] ya-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
haryalye “you have” [← #harya-] ya-formative 2nd-sg-polite ✧ MS/1
vanyalye “you pass” [← vanya-] ya-formative 2nd-sg-polite ✧ MS/1

Element In


ᴹQ. aorist grammar.

Examples (aorist)
atintilar [← #tintila-] plural ✧ VT28/11
atintillinar [← #tintila-] plural ✧ VT28/11
tintilar [← #tintila-] plural ✧ VT28/11
fara ← fara- a-verb ✧ PE22/116
tuia “sprouts, springs” [← tuia-] a-verb ✧ Ety/TUY
alar “grow” [← ala-] a-verb plural ✧ PE22/116
olar “grow” [← ola-] a-verb plural ✧ PE22/116
ólar “grow” [← ola-] a-verb plural ✧ PE22/124
farále “hunts you” [← fara-] a-verb with-2nd-pl-object prosodic-lengthening ✧ PE22/110
kărĭ- “do” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/99
kărĕ [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/99
kare [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/109
kare “make(s)” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/109
kare “to make” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
hame “sit down” [← ham-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
hame “is/stands/is situated in” [← ham-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/125
hime “adhere” [← him-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
hlike “creeps” [← hlik-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/113
hyare “cleave” [← hyar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
kave “can” [← #kav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
kime “finds” [← kim-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/108
kime “finds” [← kim-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/125
lahe “kick” [← lah-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
láre “happen” [← lár-] basic-verb ✧ EtyAC/LAR
lave “lick” [← lav-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
lue “it is heavy, sad” [← lu-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
kuve “bow” [← kuv-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
mate “eat” [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
mene “mean, intend” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/99
mene “wish” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/118
mere “wish, desire, want” [← mer-] basic-verb ✧ Ety/MER
mere “wish for, desire” [← mer-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
mere “wish” [← mer-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/118
mune “dislike, not to like” [← mun-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
nake [← nak-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/112
ndake “to kill” [← nak-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/123
nĕmĭ- “seem” [← nem-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/99
nĕmĕ [← nem-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/99
nure “grow/be dark” [← nur-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
ŏlē̆- “become” [← ol-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/99
ŏlĕ [← ol-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/99
oli- [← ol-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/113
orhale “exalt” [← orhal-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
pise “spit” [← pis-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
psare “frets” [← †psar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/119
qete [← qet-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/118
qete “say” [← qet-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/119
raphe “seizes” [← raf-] basic-verb ✧ PE19/44
rafe “snatch” [← raf-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
sere “rest” [← ser-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
sile “shines” [← sil-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/14
silë “shines” [← sil-] basic-verb ✧ RS/324
take “he fastens” [← tak-] basic-verb ✧ Ety/TAK
tape “he stops, blocks” [← tap-] basic-verb ✧ Ety/TAP
teke “writes” [← tek-] basic-verb ✧ Ety/TEK
tele “intend” [← tel-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/99
tele “intend” [← tel-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/118
thare [← †thar-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/112
tine “it glints” [← #tin-] basic-verb ✧ Ety/TIN
tone “tap, knock” [← ton-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
tune “tap, knock, touch (with the fingers)” [← ton-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
tule “come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
tule “come!” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/105
tule “is coming” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/119
tule “comes” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/121
tule “come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/121
tule “come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
tope “covers” [← top-] basic-verb ✧ Ety/TOP
tuve “finds” [← #tuv-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/108
tyave “taste” [← tyav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
tyaze “do like” [← tyaz-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/120
ware “err” [← war-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
karin “I make, build” [← kar-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/KAR
hyarin “I cleave” [← hyar-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/SYAD
lavin “I lick” [← lav-¹] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/LAB
lirin “I sing” [← #lir-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/GLIR
lirin “I chant” [← #lir-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/LIR¹
nutin “I tie” [← #nut-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/NUT
nyarin “I tell” ← nyar- basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/NAR²
rerin “I sow” [← #rer-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/RED
serin “I rest” [← ser-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/SED
sukin “I drink” [← suk-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/SUK
tamin “I tap” [← tam-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/TAM
tirin “I watch” [← #tir-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/TIR
tukin “I draw” [← tuk-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/TUK
tulin “I come” [← tul-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/TUL
turin “I wield, control, govern” [← tur-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/TUR
tyalin “I play” [← #tyal-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/TYAL
tyavin “I taste” [← tyav-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/KYAB
vilin “I fly” [← wil-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/WIL
wilin “I fly” [← wil-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/WIL
karit [← kar-] basic-verb dual ✧ PE22/99
karit [← kar-] basic-verb dual ✧ PE22/109
nemit [← nem-] basic-verb dual ✧ PE22/99
karir [← kar-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/99
karir [← kar-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/109
menir “wish” [← men-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/118
nemir [← nem-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/99
silir “shine” ← silë (aorist) basic-verb plural ✧ RS/324
telir “mean” [← tel-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/118
tulir [← tul-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/106
menilti [← men-] basic-verb plural with-pl-object ✧ PE22/118
merilti [← mer-] basic-verb plural with-pl-object ✧ PE22/118
ndakilti “hate them” [← nak-¹] basic-verb plural with-pl-object ✧ PE22/112
nakilti [← nak-¹] basic-verb plural with-pl-object ✧ PE22/112
menilte “wish him” [← men-] basic-verb plural with-sg-object ✧ PE22/118
merilte “wish him” [← mer-] basic-verb plural with-sg-object ✧ PE22/118
karin “makes me” [← kar-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/99
karin [← kar-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/109
karin [← kar-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/109
luin “it is heavy on me, I am sad” ← lue (aorist) basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/102
nakin(ye) “kills me” [← nak-¹] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/120
nimin “it seems to me” [← nem-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/93
nemin “it seems to me” [← nem-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/93
nemin “seems to me” [← nem-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/99
sakin “it hurts[?] me, I am hurt[?]” [← sak-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/93
karilthi “to make them” [← kar-] basic-verb with-pl-object ✧ PE22/127
karis [← kar-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/109
karite “making it” [← kar-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/119
karite “make it” [← kar-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/123
karit “make it” [← kar-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/127
karis “make it” [← kar-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/127
matis “eats it” [← mat-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/107
matite “eating (to eat)” [← mat-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/120
menite “wish him” [← men-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/118
merite “wish him” [← mer-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/118
qetis “tell him” [← qet-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/118
ëa “there is, there exists” [← ea-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/124
ëa “(there) is” [← ea-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/124
ye “is” [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ LR/72
ye “is” [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ LR/72
ye “is” [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/11
ye “is” [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/107
ye [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/115
ye “is” [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/117
ye “is” [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/119
ye “it is” [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/120
“don’t!” [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/106
la “is not necessarily” [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/119
uin “I do not, am not” [← um-] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/UGU
umin [← um-] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ Ety/UGU
humin “I do not” [← um-] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ EtyAC/ƷŪ
ëat ← ëa irregular-verb dual ✧ PE22/122
ëar ← ëa irregular-verb plural ✧ PE22/122
yér [← ye-] irregular-verb plural ✧ PE22/123
lar “not” [← lá-] irregular-verb plural ✧ PE22/127
lalti “not ... them” [← lá-] irregular-verb plural with-pl-object ✧ PE22/127
lalthi “not ... them” [← lá-] irregular-verb plural with-pl-object ✧ PE22/127
ëanye “there is to me” ← ëa irregular-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/122
ëan “there is to me” ← ëa irregular-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/122
láte “don’t ... do it” [← lá-] irregular-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/106
láte “does not do it” [← lá-] irregular-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/126
esta “called” [← esta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE22/124
qesta “called” [← esta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE22/124
e·anta “he gives” [← anta-] ta-causative 3rd-sg pronoun-prefix ✧ PE22/44
ortar [← orta-¹] ta-causative plural ✧ PE22/117
ortalme [← orta-¹] ta-causative with-1st-pl-object ✧ PE22/117
ortáte [← orta-¹] ta-causative with-sg-object prosodic-lengthening ✧ PE22/117
phasta “pleases him” [← fasta-²] ta-formative ✧ PE22/124
ista [← ista-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/114
núta “come down” [← núta-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/125
orta “rises” [← orta-²] ta-formative ✧ PE22/100
orta “rises” [← orta-²] ta-formative ✧ PE22/100
orta [← orta-²] ta-formative ✧ PE22/114
unta “come down” [← unta-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/125
nahtanye “I slay” [← nahta-] ta-formative 1st-sg ✧ PE22/93
koitar “live” [← koita-] ta-formative plural ✧ PE22/125
nahtan “(somebody unspecified[?]) slays me, I am slain” [← nahta-] ta-formative with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/93
nahtan “slays me = I am slain” [← nahta-] ta-formative with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/93
talta [← talta-] talat-stem ✧ PE22/114
kelue “issuing, running away (of water)” ← kelu u-verb ✧ PE22/116
lirŭ- ← liru u-verb ✧ PE22/116
lirue “sing” ← liru u-verb ✧ PE22/116
lirur ← liru u-verb plural ✧ PE22/116
lirulme ← liru u-verb with-1st-pl-object ✧ PE22/116
lirun ← liru u-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/116
lirute ← liru u-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/116
lirus ← liru u-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/116
lirute “sings it” ← liru u-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/116
lirus “sings it” ← liru u-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/116
hare “live” [← har-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/125
kakarra [← kakarra-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/109
mitta “come in” [← mitta-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/106
ampanótar [← ampanóta-] weak-verb plural ✧ PE22/118
mittar [← mitta-] weak-verb plural ✧ PE22/106
niñqityor ← niñqityo (infinitive) weak-verb plural ✧ PE22/117
kestan “asks me” [← kesta-] weak-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/97
kestan “asked me” [← kesta-] weak-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/120
orya [← orya-] ya-formative ✧ PE22/114
sirya [← sirya-] ya-formative ✧ PE22/114

Reference ✧ PE22/99

Element In


ᴱQ. aorist grammar.

Examples (aorist)
altíne ← alatya ✧ PE13/158
alantye ← alatya ✧ PE13/158
anta “gives” [← anta-] yar i vilya anta miqilis ✧ MC/215
anta “raised” [← anta-] mandulómi anta móri Ambalar ✧ MC/221
anta “came” [← anta-] Mandulómi anta {móre >>} more n’Ambustar ✧ PE16/62
äntä [← anta-] Manduloomi äntä moore n’Ambustaar ✧ PE16/72
anta [← anta-] Mandulómi anta {móre >>} móri {n·Ambustar >>} n·Ambalar ✧ PE16/74
anta [← anta-] hiisimanduloomi anta moori raukvi n·Ambalaar ✧ PE16/77
anta “give” [← anta-] yan i vilyar anta miqilis ✧ PE16/90
anta “give” [← anta-] yan i vilyar anta miqilis ✧ PE16/92
karpa [← karp-] ✧ PE14/34
lante “fall” [← lant-] lante no lanta-mindon ✧ MC/214
lúte “leave” [← lutu-] oilima ailinello lúte ✧ MC/213
matya [← mata-] ✧ PE14/34
piste “spits” [← pist-] ✧ PE13/163
róse ← rosta- ✧ PE13/159
róre ← rosta- ✧ PE13/159
saqa [← saqa-] ✧ PE14/34
histe “hisses” [← histe-] ✧ PE13/163
tulya [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/28
tulta [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/28
tulya [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/34
tule [← tulu-] nímo tule, ni·tule, ni·tule nímo ✧ PE14/56
tule [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/124
tule [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/125
ui [← úya-] sinda nekka ui sara ro sinda hyalin me sinda móro ✧ PE16/146
tulumo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
[tulu]mur [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
tulumo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/125
tulumur [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/125
tuluvo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
[tulu]vur [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
tuluvo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/125
tuluvur [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/125
tulumen [← tulu-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
tulime [← tulu-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE16/125
tulimen [← tulu-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE16/125
tuluven [← tulu-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
tulive [← tulu-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE16/125
tuliven [← tulu-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE16/125
tulin [← tulu-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/124
tulin [← tulu-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/125
tululo [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/124
[tulu]lur [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/124
tululo [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/125
tululur [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/125
tululen [← tulu-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE16/124
tulile [← tulu-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE16/125
tulilen [← tulu-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE16/125
tulit [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/124
tulil [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/125
tulsi(r) [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/124
tulutsi(r) [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/124
tuluris [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/125
tulsir [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/125
tuldir [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/125
tultu(r) [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/124
tulutu(r) [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/124
tulurus [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/125
tultur [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/125
tuldur [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/125
tultar [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-neut ✧ PE16/124
tulútar [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-neut ✧ PE16/124
tulutar [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-neut ✧ PE16/125
tultar [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-neut ✧ PE16/125
tulur [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-neut ✧ PE16/125
marden [← mar-] 3rd-pl-fem yain tavárin lilyen {mardon >>} marden ✧ PE16/80
tulden [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/124
[tul]sin [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/124
tuliren [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/124
tuliren [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/125
tulten [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/125
tulden [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/125
kautáron “bent” [← kauta-] 3rd-pl-masc tyulmin talalínen aiqalin kautáron ✧ MC/216
kautáron “bent” [← kauta-] 3rd-pl-masc tyulmin talalínen aiqalin kautáron ✧ PE16/100
kautáron [← kauta-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/100
kautaaron [← kauta-] 3rd-pl-masc tjulmin talaliinen aikvalin kautaaron ✧ PE16/104
mardon [← mar-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/80
tindon “shining” [← tini-] 3rd-pl-masc Silmeráno tindon ✧ MC/220
tindon “gleamed” [← tini-] 3rd-pl-masc {ranainen >> ránasi >> silmerána >>} no silmerána tindon ✧ PE16/62
tindon [← tini-] 3rd-pl-masc no silmeraana tindon ✧ PE16/72
tindon [← tini-] 3rd-pl-masc {no} silmeráno tindon ✧ PE16/74
tindon [← tini-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/75
tindon [← tini-] 3rd-pl-masc ondoin moorin ninkuvaaron; nuuni silmeraana tindon ✧ PE16/77
tulton [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/124
tuliton [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/124
tuliron [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/125
tulton [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/125
tuldon [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/125
tultan [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-neut ✧ PE16/124
tulitan [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-neut ✧ PE16/125
tultan [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-neut ✧ PE16/125
tulle [← tulu-] 3rd-sg ✧ PE16/124
kilde [← kili-] 3rd-sg-fem karnevaite úri kilde hísen níe nienaite ✧ MC/221
kilde “gazed” [← kili-] 3rd-sg-fem {telukarnea >> karnen vaiya >> karnen vaite >>} karnevaite úri kilde hīsen {nielinqe >>} ter nie {niena >>} nienaite ✧ PE16/62
kilde [← kili-] 3rd-sg-fem karnevaite uuri kilde hiisen ter nie nienaite ✧ PE16/72
kilde [← kili-] 3rd-sg-fem karnevaite úri kilde hísen nie nienaite ✧ PE16/74
tulle [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/124
tulir [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/125
tulde [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/125
Kildo “one saw” [← kili-] 3rd-sg-masc Kildo kirya ninqe ✧ MC/220
kildo [← kili-] 3rd-sg-masc {killer >> kílier >>} kildo kirya ninqe ✧ PE16/56
kildo [← kili-] 3rd-sg-masc kildo kirya ninqe ✧ PE16/57
kildo [← kili-] 3rd-sg-masc kildo kirya ninqe ✧ PE16/60
kildo [← kili-] 3rd-sg-masc kildo kirya {naika >>} noiko ✧ PE16/60
kildo “he saw” [← kili-] 3rd-sg-masc kildo kirya ninqe ✧ PE16/62
kildo [← kili-] 3rd-sg-masc kildo kirja ninkve ✧ PE16/72
kildo [← kili-] 3rd-sg-masc kildo kirya ninqe ✧ PE16/74
lunganar “sagged” [← lunga(na)-] 3rd-sg-masc telumen tollanta naiko lunganar. ✧ MC/221
lunganar “leaned” [← lunga(na)-] 3rd-sg-masc Telumen {lungáro >>} tollanta naiko lunganar ✧ PE16/62
lungáro [← lunga(na)-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/65
lunganar [← lunga(na)-] 3rd-sg-masc Tellumen töllänta näikö lunganar ✧ PE16/72
lunganar [← lunga(na)-] 3rd-sg-masc telumen tollanta naiko lunganar ✧ PE16/74
lunganaar [← lunga(na)-] 3rd-sg-masc taiteluumen san tollanta ranka naiko lunganaar ✧ PE16/77
lurdon [← lur-] 3rd-sg-masc surussin lurdon lausto ✧ PE16/60
surdon [← sur-] 3rd-sg-masc {surui >>} surussin surdon lausto ✧ PE16/57
tulto [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/124
tulur [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/125
tuldo [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/125
tulta [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/124
tulit [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/125
tulta [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/125
tule [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/125
tulwa [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/28
tulya [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/28
tulna [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/29
karpat [← karp-] dual ✧ PE14/34
tulyat [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE14/28
tultan [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE14/28
tulyat [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE14/34
tulur [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE16/124
tulu(r) [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE16/125
karpit [← karp-] dual fem ✧ PE14/34
tulsit [← tulu-] dual fem ✧ PE14/28
tulsin [← tulu-] dual fem ✧ PE14/28
tullet [← tulu-] dual fem ✧ PE14/28
tullin [← tulu-] dual fem ✧ PE14/28
tulsit [← tulu-] dual fem ✧ PE14/34
[tulsi]n [← tulu-] dual fem ✧ PE14/34
tullit [← tulu-] dual fem ✧ PE14/34
karput [← karp-] dual masc ✧ PE14/34
karpon [← karp-] dual masc ✧ PE14/34
tulmut [← tulu-] dual masc ✧ PE14/28
tulmut [← tulu-] dual masc ✧ PE14/34
karpan [← karp-] dual neut ✧ PE14/34
tultan [← tulu-] dual neut ✧ PE14/28
tultan [← tulu-] dual neut ✧ PE14/34
karpe [← karp-] fem ✧ PE14/34
matse [← mata-] fem ✧ PE14/34
sakse [← saqa-] fem ✧ PE14/34
saqe [← saqa-] fem ✧ PE14/34
tulse [← tulu-] fem ✧ PE14/28
tulle [← tulu-] fem ✧ PE14/28
tulse [← tulu-] fem ✧ PE14/34
tulle [← tulu-] fem ✧ PE14/34
tula [← tulu-] gerund ✧ PE14/28
tulinqe [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
tula [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
tula(i) [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
tultai [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
karpo [← karp-] masc ✧ PE14/34
matso [← mata-] masc ✧ PE14/34
sakso [← saqa-] masc ✧ PE14/34
tulmo [← tulu-] masc ✧ PE14/28
tulmo [← tulu-] masc ✧ PE14/34
karpa [← karp-] neut ✧ PE14/34
matta [← mata-] neut ✧ PE14/34
saqa, sakta [← saqa-] neut ✧ PE14/34
tulta [← tulu-] neut ✧ PE14/28
tulta [← tulu-] neut ✧ PE14/34
karpar [← karp-] plural ✧ PE14/34
tulyar [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/28
tultu [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/28
tulu [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/28
tulyar [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/34
tulil [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE16/124
tulint [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE16/125
karpir [← karp-] plural fem ✧ PE14/34
tullir [← tulu-] plural fem ✧ PE14/28
tullir [← tulu-] plural fem ✧ PE14/34
karpoi [← karp-] plural masc ✧ PE14/34
tulmoi [← tulu-] plural masc ✧ PE14/28
tulmoi [← tulu-] plural masc ✧ PE14/34
karpai [← karp-] plural neut ✧ PE14/34
tultai [← tulu-] plural neut ✧ PE14/28
tultar [← tulu-] plural neut ✧ PE14/28
tultai [← tulu-] plural neut ✧ PE14/34

Reference ✧ PE14/34

Element In