Q. locative grammar.

Q. locative grammar.

The locative suffix -sse indicates location at the specified place, and is variously glossed “at, in, on”. Sometimes Tolkien also used the term inessive (“in”) and adessive (“on”) to refer to this case (PE21/68); the exact meaning is contextual. Thus Lóriendesse “in Lórien” (RGEO/58), ondolisse “on rocks” (MC/222), mahalmassen “on the thrones” (UT/305). The locative suffix can also be used temporally to indicate an event happening at a particular moment:

The locative can be used abstractly to indicate more metaphorical “locations”:

The “location” indicated by this suffix is highly contextual. The locative coa + -sse = coasse could mean “in the house” (the most likely interpretation for a container), “at the house” (but outside) and even conceivably “on the house” (on top of it). It depends on the nature of the location and the context in which it is used. For example, with a surface the most likely interpretation would be “on”: paluhtasse = “on the table”. If you wanted to be more precise, you would need to use a preposition rather than the locative: “on (above but touching)” (VT49/18), mi “in(side)” (PE17/92; VT47/30),

Forming the locative: With vocalic nouns, the locative suffix -sse is simply added to the noun. It is very likely that with consonantal nouns ending in -s, the suffix would be assimilated to the end of the noun as a “short locative” (e.g. ainasse “in the shrine” from ainas). We have no examples of this type of assimilation from the 1950s and 60s, but there are examples from the 1930s. With other consonants a “joining vowel” -e- is usually inserted between the noun stem and the suffix: Lóriendesse “in Lórien” (RGEO/58). See the joining-vowel discussion in the entry on the adverbial cases for further details. Tolkien also experimented with a variety of assimilated forms, as discussed in the entry on the assimilated locative.

According to Plotz, the locative plural adds the suffix -ssen to vocalic noun stems: ciryassen, lassessen (Plotz). Plural consonantal nouns use a joining vowel of -i- rather than -e-: [ᴹQ.] Koivienenissen “at the waters of awakening” (VT27/7). The suffix -sse(n) is added to partitive plural forms: ciryalisse(n) (Plotz). Since the partitive plural suffix already marks the plural, the final plural marker -n is redundant and therefore optional: either ciryalisse or ciryalissen are acceptable.

In the case of t-dual nouns, the ancient inflection was -t + se which became -tse: ciryatse “on the pair of ships” (Plotz). We don’t have any u-dual locative examples from Tolkien’s later writings, but presumably the -sse suffix is added directly to the dual form: aldusse “at the two trees”.

To summarize:

Locatives Sg. Du. Part. Pl. Pl.
vocalic: cirya ciryasse ciryatse ciryalisse(n) ciryassen
e-noun: lasse lassesse lassetse lasselisse(n) lassessen
consonantal: atan atanesse *atanusse *atanelisse(n) atanissen
consonantal (final s): ainas *ainasse *ainasusse *ainaselisse(n) *ainassen

Forms marked with a * are unattested and hypothetical.

Origins of the locative: As discussed in the entry on adverbial cases, the locative was originally just a suffix used to form adverbs from a noun. It was derived from the ancient element ✶ “at” (VT43/30) which was “fortified” to ssē or stē (PE21/79), of which only -ssē was used in Quenya. There is a related Quenya case suffix -s whose exact function is unclear. See the entry on the s-case for further discussion.

Conceptual Development: The first mention of the locative suffix was in a list of “adverbial suffixes” in the Early Qenya Grammar (EQG) from the 1920s, and the suffix was already -sse at this early stage (PE14/46, 78). The consonantal forms use the joining vowel -i-: -isse (PE14/47, 78). Any “true consonantal” nouns (those that primitively ended in a single consonant) often used short locative -se or -de, presumably with various assimilations. Even at this early conceptual stage, the ancient Quenya suffixes were not true inflections and could not be applied to plural nouns. In Quenya as it was spoken among “modern” elves, a plural form -ssen developed (PE14/47, 79).

The EQG forms persisted in declension charts later in the 1920s, where Tolkien also introduced a dual form -sset (PE16/113-5). Tolkien retained this basic system in the lengthy Declension of Nouns from the early 1930s (PE21/4), except that the joining vowel for singular consonantal nouns became -e-; the plurals continued to use -i- (PE21/25). For consonantal nouns, Tolkien also described the occasional use of an “abbreviated” inflection derived from -sē (PE21/18). He gave quite a few examples of consonantal inflections, some with “short locative” -sē and others with the full locative and the joining vowel -e-. Locative plurals for consonantal nouns sometimes just added the plural marker -n (though this was generally archaic); usually however they used the joining vowel -i- (PE21/20-37):

The general trend was to add -se where combination with the stem was phonologically suitable, and -esse when it was not. There were relatively few irregularities, the most notable being the occasional uses of an alternate suffix -te, which Tolkien explained on PE21/18 as a development of -nse, -lse > -nte, -lte. Plurals tended to add -issen to the stem even in cases where the singular added only -se. There were similar assimilations for consonantal nouns later in the 1930s (PE21/52):

Sometime in the mid-1930s, Tolkien decided that the plural form -ssen was added directly to vocalic nouns as they were in Plotz (PE21/53). Other than this change to the vocalic plural form, a shift in the joining vowel (-i- >> -e- in the early 1930s) and variations in assimilated forms, the locative remained quite constant throughout Tolkien’s life, with one peculiar exception: in the Entu, Ensi, Enta Declension (VT36/8), Tolkien briefly considered an alternate locative suffix -nye, but this is seen nowhere else.

The full set of conceptual developments is given in the table below, using the version numbers for the declension charts from PE16 and PE21, with EQG for the Early Qenya Grammar and LQ for Late Quenya forms (in Plotz and elsewhere). The Entu, Ensi, Enta Declension (EEED) is inserted between versions 2 and 3, and the Bodleian Declension (BD) between versions 5c and 6, as discussed in the entry on noun cases. Sh. Pl. = “Short Plural” are for shorter plural forms where they exist, adding the locative plural suffix directly to a vocalic stem without the plural suffix; this became the norm as of version 6.

V Locatives Sg. Du. Pl. Sh. Pl.
EQG vocalic -sse -lissen -ssen
EQG consonantal -isse -issen
EEED vocalic -sse/-nye -nye(t)
EEED consonantal -isse/-inye -isset/-nyet
3 vocalic -sse -sset -lissen
3 consonantal -(is)se -isset -issen
4 vocalic -sse -sset -lissen -ssen
4 consonantal -(es)se -(us)set -issen
5a vocalic -sse -sset -lissen -ssen
5b vocalic -sse -sset -lissen -ssen
5c vocalic -sse -sset -lissen -ssen
5c consonantal -(es)se -(us)set -issen
BD vocalic -sse -tosse -lisse(n) -sser/-ssen
6 vocalic -sse -sset -ssen
LQ vocalic -sse -tse -ssen
LQ consonantal -esse ? -issen

Examples (locative)
amaurëasse ← †amaurëa métima amaurëasse ✧ MC/222
auressë “in the ... morning” [← aurë] métim’ auressë ✧ MC/222
ciryasse ← cirya ✧ Plotz/7
lassesse ← lasse ✧ Plotz/17
Lóriendesse “in Lórien” [← Lórien] Altariello nainië Lóriendesse ✧ RGEO/58
lúmesse “*at [the] hour” [← lúmë¹] sí ar lúmesse ya firuvamme: násie ✧ VT43/34
máriesse ← márien ✧ PE17/59
máriesse “in happiness” [← márië] (hara) máriesse ✧ PE17/162
omesse “*on us” [← me] {A} Heru {le·ana >> ocama >> ócama >>} órava {men >> ómen >>} omesse ✧ VT44/15
ómesse “*on us” [← me] A {Elpino >> Hiris >>} Hrísto órava {ómen >>} ómesse ✧ VT44/15
(o)messe “*on us” [← me] A Aina Faire, Eru órava {ómen >>} (o)messe, A Aina Neldie Eru {Erea >>} Er órava (o)messe, A {Io >> Yón >>} Eruion Mardorunando, Eru órava {ómen >>} (o)messe, Atar meneldea Eru órava {ómen >>} (o)messe ✧ VT44/15
Mondósaresse “in Oxford” [← #Mondósar] Arcastar Mondósaresse ✧ DTS/70
símasse [← síma] {tánen >> ta >> etta >>} potai hyarmen láne “sinister” {símasse >>} símaryasse ✧ VT49/16
súrisse “*in the wind” [← súrë] ✧ TAI/197
tosse ←  ✧ PE22/168
yasse ← ya- (stem) ✧ PE17/66
yasse ← ya- (stem) ✧ PE17/66
sangiessemman “*in our necessities” [← #sangië] 1st-pl-exclusive-poss plural possessive-second {anarcandemman alalye nattira >>} alalye nattira arca·ndemmar sangiessemman ✧ VT44/8
olesse “*with thee” [← #ó] 2nd-sg-polite-prep i Héru olesse ✧ VT43/29
símaryasse “connexions” [← síma] 3rd-pl-poss colloquial-possessive {tánen >> ta >> etta >>} potai hyarmen láne “sinister” {símasse >>} símaryasse ✧ VT49/16
símaryassen “in their imagination” [← síma] 3rd-pl-poss plural colloquial-possessive epetai i hyarma {ú téna >>} ú ten ulca símaryassen ✧ VT49/16
súmaryasse “in her ... bosom” ← súma 3rd-sg-poss ringa súmaryasse ✧ MC/222
ilkalasse “in ... gleaming” ← ilka active-participle isilme ilkalasse ✧ MC/222
lantalasse “in ... falling” [← lanta-] active-participle isilme lantalasse ✧ MC/222
píkalasse “in ... waning” ← píka- active-participle isilme píkalasse ✧ MC/222
menelessea “*in heaven” [← menel] adjectival ataremma {menellea >> menelessea >> mi menel >> menellea >>} menelzea na ✧ VT43/13
menelzea “*in heaven” [← menel] adjectival assimilated ataremma {menellea >> menelessea >> mi menel >> menellea >>} menelzea na, A Ataremma i {mennelzea >>} menelzea, A Ataremma i {mennelzea >>} menelzea, {A >>} Ai Ataremma i {menelzea >>} meneldea ✧ VT43/13
menellea “*in heaven” [← menel] adjectival assimilated ataremma {menellea >> menelessea >> mi menel >> menellea >>} menelzea na ✧ VT43/13
meneldea “*in heaven” [← menel] adjectival assimilated {A >>} Ai Ataremma i {menelzea >>} meneldea, Ataremma {i} meneldea, Ataremma meneldea, Átaremma meneldëa [>> i ëa pell’ Ëa] ✧ VT43/13
meneldea “*of heaven” [← menel] adjectival assimilated Atar meneldea Eru órava {ómen >>} (o)messe ✧ VT44/16
cemenze “*on earth” [← cemen] assimilated ier menelze {ar ter >>} tier cemenze ✧ VT43/17
cemende “*on earth” [← cemen] assimilated cemende tambe Erumande ✧ VT43/17
cemesse “*on earth” [← cemen] assimilated ✧ VT43/17
kemende [← cemen] assimilated ar kemende {r... >>} síve fírimonnar ✧ VT44/34
Erumande “*in heaven” [← #Eruman] assimilated cemende tambe Erumande ✧ VT43/16
menelle “*in heaven” [← menel] assimilated {kemende ar yé >> ye >>} ier menelle ar tér {kemenze >>} cemenze ✧ VT43/16
menelze “*in heaven” [← menel] assimilated ier menelze {ar ter >>} tier cemenze ✧ VT43/16
menelde “*in heaven” [← menel] assimilated cemende sívë [>> tambe] menelde [>> Erumande] ✧ VT43/16
talse ← tāl assimilated ✧ VT43/16
tarmenelde [← Tarmenel] assimilated alkar {tarmenissen >>} tarmenelde na Erun ✧ VT44/34
ciryatse ← cirya dual ✧ Plotz/7
talasse ← tāl joining-base-vowel ✧ VT43/16
ciryalisse(n) ← cirya partitive-plural ✧ Plotz/7
ondolisse “on ... the rocks” [← ondo] partitive-plural ondolisse mornë ✧ MC/222
kelumessen “in [the] flowing” ← kelume plural ëar-kelumessen ✧ MC/222
ciryassen ← cirya plural ✧ Plotz/7
lassessen ← lasse plural ✧ Plotz/17
lúmissen “at the times” [← lúmë¹] plural nai laure lantuva parmastanna lúmissen tengwiesto ✧ VT49/47
mahalmassen “on the thrones” [← mahalma] plural Nai tiruvantes i hárar mahalmassen mi Númen ✧ UT/305
mahalmassen ← mahalma plural ✧ UT/317
tarmenissen [← Tarmenel] plural ✧ VT44/34
yassen “wherein” [← ya] plural yassen tintilar i eleni ✧ LotR/377
yassen “where” ← ya- (stem) plural ✧ PE17/66
yassen “in which” ← ya- (stem) plural ✧ PE17/66
yassen “in which places” ← ya- (stem) plural ✧ PE17/66
ya-sse-n “in which places” [← ya] plural ✧ PE17/135
yássen “wherein” [← ya] plural yássen tíntilàr i élenì ✧ RGEO/58
yassen “which-in (pl.)” [← ya] plural yassen tintilar i eleni ✧ RGEO/58

Elements

assimilated locative
s-case

Element In


ᴹQ. locative grammar.

Examples (locative)
[ahtu]matesse [← ahtumat] ✧ PE21/37
[Ala]karwesse [← Alakaru] ✧ PE21/41
[Alary]esse [← Alari] ✧ PE21/41
amanesse [← aman] ✧ PE21/34
amboresse [← ambor] ✧ PE21/33
andulesse [← andul] ✧ PE21/34
arakesse [← arat] ✧ PE21/35
[Astul]ahtesse [← Astulat] ✧ PE21/37
[kalm]esse [← kalma] ✧ PE21/52
kiryasse [← kirya] ✧ PE21/4
kiryasse [← kirya] ✧ PE21/44
kiryasse [← kirya] ✧ PE21/46
kiryasse [← kirya] ✧ PE21/53
kiryasse [← kirya] ✧ VT28/8
[Koivi]ĕnĕnesse [← Kuiviénen] ✧ PE21/36
[Earend]elesse [← Earendel] ✧ PE21/34
endisse [← en] ✧ VT36/8
esse [← en] ✧ VT36/8
endinye [← en] ✧ VT36/8
enye [← en] ✧ VT36/8
endoresse “in Middle-earth” [← Endor] atani koitar endoresse ✧ PE22/125
entasse [← enta] ✧ VT36/8
entanye [← enta] ✧ VT36/8
entesse [← ente] ✧ VT36/8
ensinye [← ente] ✧ VT36/8
entosse [← ento] ✧ VT36/8
entunye [← ento] ✧ VT36/8
falmarinesse [← Falmarin] ✧ PE21/36
fassesse [← fas] ✧ PE21/26
filekesse [← filet] ✧ PE21/35
[haht]esse [← hat] ✧ PE21/27
helemesse [← helen] ✧ PE21/34
hosse [← ] ✧ PE21/38
homesse [← hón] ✧ PE21/52
hrívesse “in the winter” [← hríve] lairesse nihare to tarassi, yu unta hrívesse landannar ✧ PE22/125
hunesse [← hún] ✧ PE21/24
ildumasse [← ilduma] ✧ PE21/4
[kaima]sambesse [← kaimasan] ✧ PE21/37
[kel]utesse [← kelut] ✧ PE21/35
untamosse [← untamo] ✧ PE21/5
lairesse “in the summer” [← laire¹] lairesse nihare to tarassi, yu unta hrívesse landannar ✧ PE22/125
lamnesse [← laman] ✧ PE21/28
lamusse [← laman] ✧ PE21/28
lassesse [← lasse] ✧ PE21/6
lassesse [← lasse] ✧ PE21/47
lassesse [← lasse] ✧ PE21/53
lindisse [← linde²] ✧ PE21/10
lúmesse “on the hour” [← lúme] Eleni silir lúmesse omentiemman, Elen silë lúmesse omentiemman ✧ RS/324
makse [← má¹] ✧ PE21/40
masse [← †má²] ✧ PE21/38
malesse [← mál] ✧ PE21/24
mallesse [← malle] ✧ PE21/44
[mal]usse [← malo²] ✧ PE21/12
Taniqetildesse “on Taniqetil” [← Manwe] Manwe háma Taniqetildesse ✧ PE22/125
[mard]esse [← mar] ✧ PE21/27
mintyesse [← mintye] ✧ PE21/44
[mui]yesse [← miue] ✧ PE21/13
kantelesse [← kantele] ✧ PE21/44
nēnesse [← nén] ✧ PE21/23
nenesse “in water” [← nén] niksi koitar nenesse ✧ PE22/125
ningesse [← nin] ✧ PE21/26
neresse [← nér] ✧ PE21/21
neresse [← nér] ✧ PE21/52
nildesse [← nil] ✧ PE21/26
ninqeruvesse [← ninqeru] ✧ PE21/15
nóresse “in ... land” [← nóre] aldar olar sana nóresse, aldar {alar >>} olar i·nóresse ✧ PE22/116
Nusse [← ] ✧ PE21/38
núresse “at night” [← #núre] Rana núresse {orya >>} orta silia; en e·orta silia! ✧ PE22/100
olaresse [← olar] ✧ PE21/33
ondosse [← ondo] ✧ PE21/5
orumesse [← oron] ✧ PE21/34
pesse [← ] ✧ PE21/38
[pel]taksesse [← peltas] ✧ PE21/37
pilindesse [← pilin] ✧ PE21/36
pilindesse [← pilin] ✧ PE21/52
polisse [← pole] ✧ PE21/13
polisse [← pole] ✧ VT28/8
qeletesse [← qelet] ✧ PE21/35
qendesse [← Qen] ✧ PE21/25
pilenesse [← pilen] ✧ PE21/34
qiliresse [← qilir] ✧ PE21/34
risse [← ] ✧ PE21/38
sangasse [← sanga] ✧ PE21/42
soronesse [← soron] ✧ PE21/34
sútesse [← sút] ✧ PE21/24
talesse [← tál] ✧ PE21/22
talatesse [← talat] ✧ PE21/35
tárisse [← tári] ✧ PE21/14
tauresse “in forests” [← taure] Orome tauresse fara ✧ PE22/116
tauresse “in forest” [← taure] Sinar Orome i·tauresse faralye ✧ PE22/116
pelkosse [← telko] ✧ PE21/48
telkosse [← telko] ✧ PE21/53
[pelk]osse [← telko] ✧ VT28/8
telumet(t)esse [← telumet] ✧ PE21/37
telumehtesse [← telumet] ✧ PE21/37
tetesse [← tet(ta)] ✧ PE21/24
[Tinúvi]ĕlesse [← Tinúviel] ✧ PE21/35
[tund]usse [← tundo] ✧ PE21/11
tyaliesse [← tyalie] ✧ PE21/44
[Vali]nŏresse [← Valinor] ✧ PE21/36
Valinoresse “in Valinor” [← Valinor] andalúme Eldar oianer Valinoresse, masse oiar sí? ✧ PE22/125
veaneresse [← veaner²] ✧ PE21/36
verusse [← veru¹] ✧ PE21/15
yasse [← #ya] yasse tintilar i{n} eleni ✧ VT28/11
yalúmesse “once upon a time” ← yalúme ✧ Ety/YA
yáresse “once upon a time” ← yáre ✧ Ety/YA
Ondoresse “in Gondor” [← Ondor] Tiristemindon hame Ondoresse ✧ PE22/125
Ondoresse “in Gondor” [← Ondor] Taras Mindolluin thāra Ondoresse ✧ PE22/126
nóressella “in your land” [← nóre] 2nd-pl-poss possessive-second malkar i·aldar i·ólar nóressella ✧ PE22/124
[ahtu]matse [← ahtumat] assimilated ✧ PE21/37
ambusse [← ambor] assimilated ✧ PE21/33
arakse [← arat] assimilated ✧ PE21/35
[Astul]akse [← Astulat] assimilated ✧ PE21/37
kasse “on high” [← kas¹] assimilated ✧ PE21/22
[Koivi]enente [← Kuiviénen] assimilated ✧ PE21/36
falmarinte [← Falmarin] assimilated ✧ PE21/36
fasse [← fas] assimilated ✧ PE21/26
filekse [← filet] assimilated ✧ PE21/35
filikse [← filet] assimilated ✧ PE21/35
†hetse “in the eye” [← hen] assimilated ✧ PE21/52
honse “in the centre” [← hón] assimilated ✧ PE21/23
humpe [← hón] assimilated ✧ PE21/23
hopse [← hón] assimilated ✧ PE21/52
hunte [← hún] assimilated ✧ PE21/24
[kel]utse [← kelut] assimilated ✧ PE21/35
lamusse [← laman] assimilated ✧ PE21/28
lamunte [← laman] assimilated ✧ PE21/28
[Lungu]makse [← Lunguma] assimilated ✧ PE21/41
nente [← nén] assimilated ✧ PE21/23
nerse [← nér] assimilated ✧ PE21/20
nerre [← nér] assimilated ✧ PE21/20
nesse [← nér] assimilated ✧ PE21/52
Oromekse [← Orome] assimilated ✧ PE21/41
[pel]takse [← peltas] assimilated ✧ PE21/37
qeletse [← qelet] assimilated ✧ PE21/35
[qel]itse [← qelet] assimilated ✧ PE21/35
qense [← Qen] assimilated ✧ PE21/25
qilesse [← qilir] assimilated ✧ PE21/34
sútse [← sút] assimilated ✧ PE21/24
talte “down at the foot (bottom)” [← tál] assimilated ✧ PE21/21
talse [← tál] assimilated ✧ PE21/21
[tal]atse [← talat] assimilated ✧ PE21/35
[Tamp]iokse [← Tampio] assimilated ✧ PE21/41
telumetse [← telumet] assimilated ✧ PE21/37
tetse [← tet(ta)] assimilated ✧ PE21/24
tekse [← tie] assimilated ✧ PE21/40
[Tinúv]ielse [← Tinúviel] assimilated ✧ PE21/35
tokse [← ] assimilated ✧ PE21/40
[Vali]norse [← Valinor] assimilated ✧ PE21/36
veanerse [← veaner²] assimilated ✧ PE21/36
yakse [← yat²] assimilated ✧ PE21/24
assanye(t) [← assa²] dual ✧ VT36/8
assinye(t) [← asse] dual ✧ VT36/8
assunye(t) [← asso] dual ✧ VT36/8
[kalm]asset [← kalma] dual ✧ PE21/52
[kalm]esset [← kalma] dual ✧ PE21/52
kiryasset [← kirya] dual ✧ PE21/4
kiryasset [← kirya] dual ✧ PE21/46
kiryasset [← kirya] dual ✧ PE21/54
[kiry]atosse [← kirya] dual ✧ VT28/8
[Earend]elusset [← Earendel] dual ✧ PE21/34
endisset [← en] dual ✧ VT36/8
esset [← en] dual ✧ VT36/8
enyet [← en] dual ✧ VT36/8
falmarinesset [← Falmarin] dual ✧ PE21/36
[falmarin]usset [← Falmarin] dual ✧ PE21/36
lamnusset [← laman] dual ✧ PE21/28
[lamn]esset [← laman] dual ✧ PE21/28
lamusset [← laman] dual ✧ PE21/28
lassesset [← lasse] dual ✧ PE21/6
lassesset [← lasse] dual ✧ PE21/48
lassesset [← lasse] dual ✧ PE21/54
[leps]usset [← let] dual ✧ PE21/26
lepsesset [← let] dual ✧ PE21/26
[lind]isset [← linde²] dual ✧ PE21/10
masset [← †má²] dual ✧ PE21/38
[nēn]usset [← nén] dual ✧ PE21/23
[nēn]esset [← nén] dual ✧ PE21/23
nerusset [← nér] dual ✧ PE21/21
neresset [← nér] dual ✧ PE21/21
olarusset [← olar] dual ✧ PE21/33
ondosset [← ondo] dual ✧ PE21/5
[Oro]mekset [← Orome] dual ✧ PE21/41
pesset [← ] dual ✧ PE21/38
qendusset [← Qen] dual ✧ PE21/25
risset [← ] dual ✧ PE21/38
sangasset [← sanga] dual ✧ PE21/43
[tal]usset [← tál] dual ✧ PE21/22
[tal]esset [← tál] dual ✧ PE21/22
tárisset [← tári] dual ✧ PE21/14
pelkosset [← telko] dual ✧ PE21/49
telkosset [← telko] dual ✧ PE21/54
[Tinúvi]elusset [← Tinúviel] dual ✧ PE21/35
[Tinúvi]elesset [← Tinúviel] dual ✧ PE21/35
[tund]usset [← tundo] dual ✧ PE21/11
verusset [← veru¹] dual ✧ PE21/15
honset [← hón] dual assimilated ✧ PE21/23
makset [← má¹] dual assimilated ✧ PE21/40
nentet [← nén] dual assimilated ✧ PE21/23
nerset [← nér] dual assimilated ✧ PE21/20
nerret [← nér] dual assimilated ✧ PE21/20
nesset [← nér] dual assimilated ✧ PE21/52
qenset [← Qen] dual assimilated ✧ PE21/25
taltet [← tál] dual assimilated ✧ PE21/21
talset [← tál] dual assimilated ✧ PE21/21
tekset [← tie] dual assimilated ✧ PE21/40
[Tinúv]ielset [← Tinúviel] dual assimilated ✧ PE21/35
yakset [← yat²] dual assimilated ✧ PE21/24
[andul]issen [← andul] plural ✧ PE21/34
[kalm]issen [← kalma] plural ✧ PE21/52
[kalm]essen [← kalma] plural ✧ PE21/52
karissen [← kas¹] plural ✧ PE21/22
kiryalissen [← kirya] plural ✧ PE21/4
[kiry]assen [← kirya] plural ✧ PE21/8
kiryassen [← kirya] plural ✧ PE21/46
[kiry]alisse(n) [← kirya] plural ✧ PE21/46
kiryassen [← kirya] plural ✧ PE21/53
kiryasser [← kirya] plural ✧ VT28/8
[kiryasse]n [← kirya] plural ✧ VT28/8
kiryalisse(n) [← kirya] plural ✧ VT28/8
homissen [← hón] plural ✧ PE21/23
ildumalissen [← ilduma] plural ✧ PE21/4
untamolissen [← untamo] plural ✧ PE21/5
lamnissen [← laman] plural ✧ PE21/28
lamussen [← laman] plural ✧ PE21/28
lassissen [← lasse] plural ✧ PE21/6
lasselissen [← lasse] plural ✧ PE21/6
lassissen [← lasse] plural ✧ PE21/47
lassessen [← lasse] plural ✧ PE21/47
lassessen [← lasse] plural ✧ PE21/53
[leps]issen [← let] plural ✧ PE21/26
[lind]issen [← linde²] plural ✧ PE21/10
massen [← †má²] plural ✧ PE21/38
mallissen [← malle] plural ✧ PE21/45
nerissen [← nér] plural ✧ PE21/20
nerissen [← nér] plural ✧ PE21/52
niessen [← nie] plural ✧ PE21/6
ondolissen [← ondo] plural ✧ PE21/5
[ond]ossen [← ondo] plural ✧ PE21/8
[ondo]lisse [← ondo] plural ✧ PE21/8
polisser [← pole] plural ✧ VT28/8
qendissen [← Qen] plural ✧ PE21/25
sangalissen [← sanga] plural ✧ PE21/42
sangassen [← sanga] plural ✧ PE21/43
sangalisse [← sanga] plural ✧ PE21/44
talissen [← tál] plural ✧ PE21/21
tárilissen [← tári] plural ✧ PE21/14
pelkossen [← telko] plural ✧ PE21/48
telkossen [← telko] plural ✧ PE21/53
[pelk]osser [← telko] plural ✧ VT28/8
[pelkosse]n [← telko] plural ✧ VT28/8
[tund]ussen [← tundo] plural ✧ PE21/11
tyaliessen [← tyalie] plural ✧ PE21/47
verŭlissen [← veru¹] plural ✧ PE21/15
[veru]lisse [← veru¹] plural ✧ PE21/15
yassen [← #ya] plural yassen elli atintillinar ✧ VT28/11
yakissen [← yat²] plural ✧ PE21/24
kassen [← kas¹] plural assimilated ✧ PE21/22
honsen [← hón] plural assimilated ✧ PE21/23
nersen [← nér] plural assimilated ✧ PE21/20
nerren [← nér] plural assimilated ✧ PE21/20
nessen [← nér] plural assimilated ✧ PE21/52
sutsen [← sút] plural assimilated ✧ PE21/24
talten [← tál] plural assimilated ✧ PE21/21
talsen [← tál] plural assimilated ✧ PE21/21
yaksen [← yat²] plural assimilated ✧ PE21/24
yeksen [← yé²] plural assimilated ✧ PE21/40
númessier “They are in the West” [← númen] stative plural ar antaróta mannar {Valion númenyaron >>} Valion: númessier ✧ LR/72

References ✧ PE21/50-51

Elements

assimilated locative
s-case

Element In


ᴱQ. locative grammar.

Examples (locative)
alkarasse [← alkara] {alkarisse oilimasse >> oilimasse alkarisse >>} oilimisse alkarasse ✧ PE16/62
alkarasse [← alkara] oilimisse alkarasse ✧ PE16/62
alkarisse [← alkara] ✧ PE16/67
alkarasse [← alkara] oilimisse alkarasse ✧ PE16/72
alkarasse [← alkara] alkarasse {oilimasse >> wanyarasse >>} panyarasse ✧ PE16/72
alkarasse [← alkara] ✧ PE16/76
alkarisse [← alka] alkarisse oilimasse ✧ PE16/62
kasse “on the ... head (or top)” [← kas] tára·kasse Taniqetildo, tára·kassisse hu·sórie ✧ PE14/78
kasse “on (one’s) head, on top of” ← kas- ✧ PE14/79
kasse “on top, on top of (with genitive)” ← kas ✧ PE15/78
kasse [← kas] ✧ PE16/113
kasse “on the ... head” [← kar] tārak|asse Tan|īqet|ildo || tārak|asse tu|·sōrie, tārak|asse Tan|īqet|ildo || tārak|asse tu|·sōrie ✧ PE14/46
kasse “on the head, on top of” [← kar] ✧ PE14/47
kiryasse “upon a ship” [← kirya] kiryasse Earendil or vea ✧ MC/216
kiryasse “on board (place)” ← kirya ✧ PE14/46
kiryasse “onboard, aboard” [← kirya] ✧ PE15/70
kiryasse “upon a ship” [← kirya] kiryasse Earendil or vea ✧ PE16/100
kirjasse [← kirya] kirjasse Earendil or vea ✧ PE16/104
kiryasse [← kirya] ✧ PE16/113
enkesse ← enke ✧ PE14/55
enqisse ← enqi ✧ PE14/55
entasse ← enta ✧ PE14/55
kaimasse “a-bed” [← kaima] kaimassea ✧ PE14/79
kaimasse “abed” [← kaima] kaimassea ✧ PE15/70
mallesse [← malle] ✧ PE16/113
marde “at home” ← mar ✧ PE15/74
oilimasse [← oilima] {ailim’ >>} ailinisse {te} oilimasse ✧ PE16/62
oilimisse [← oilima] {alkarisse oilimasse >> oilimasse alkarisse >>} oilimisse alkarasse ✧ PE16/62
oilimasse [← oilima] ailisse oilimasse ✧ PE16/62
oilimasse [← oilima] ailinisse oilimasse ✧ PE16/62
oilimisse [← oilima] oilimisse alkarasse ✧ PE16/62
oilimasse [← oilima] alkarisse oilimasse ✧ PE16/62
oilimasse [← oilima] ✧ PE16/67
oilimasse [← oilima] äilisse oilimasse ✧ PE16/72
oilimasse [← oilima] äilinisse oilimasse ✧ PE16/72
oilimisse [← oilima] oilimisse alkarasse ✧ PE16/72
oilimasse [← oilima] ✧ PE16/73
oilimasse [← oilima] ✧ PE16/76
oilimisse [← oilima] ✧ PE16/76
nengisse [← nen²] ✧ PE16/113
nerisse [← ner] ✧ PE16/113
nisse [← ni¹] ✧ PE14/54
ninqeruvisse “upon a white horse” [← ninqeru] San ninqeruvisse lútier ✧ MC/216
ninqeruvisse “upon a white horse” [← ninqeru] San ninqeruvisse lútier ✧ PE16/100
ninkveruvisse [← ninqeru] San ninkveruvisse luutier ✧ PE16/104
ondosse [← ondo] ✧ PE16/113
óresse “in the ... morning” [← óre] óresse oilima ✧ MC/214
panyarasse [← #panyara] alkarasse {oilimasse >> wanyarasse >>} panyarasse ✧ PE16/72
wanyarasse [← #panyara] ✧ PE16/73
pilindisse [← pilin] ✧ PE16/113
sasse ← sa ✧ PE14/55
qisse “there” ← qi ✧ PE14/55
talde “at foot (of)” [← tala¹] ✧ PE14/47
talde “at (one’s) foot, on the bottom of” ← tal- ✧ PE14/79
talde “at the bottom (of)” ← tal ✧ PE15/71
tulusse [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/128
tyesse ← tye- ✧ PE14/55
veasse “of the sea” [← vea²] veasse lúnelinqe ✧ MC/220
veasse [← vea²] lutilya {veasse >> laiqa veasse >>} lúne veasse ✧ PE16/56
veasse [← vea²] lutsilya lúne veasse ✧ PE16/57
veasse [← vea²] lutsilya lúne veasse ✧ PE16/60
veasse [← vea²] lutsilya móre veasse ✧ PE16/60
veasse “in the ... sea” [← vea²] veasse lúnelinqe ✧ PE16/62
veässe [← vea²] veässe luunelinkve ✧ PE16/72
veasse [← vea²] veasse {luunelinqe >>} lúnelinqe ✧ PE16/74
kiryassea “that is on board a ship” [← kirya] adjectival ✧ PE14/79
kiryasset [← kirya] dual ✧ PE16/114
mallesset [← malle] dual ✧ PE16/114
ondosset [← ondo] dual ✧ PE16/114
pilindisset [← pilin] dual ✧ PE16/114
alkaraisen [← alkara] plural ✧ PE16/76
alkaraisen [← alkara] plural ✧ PE16/80
alkarissen “in the ... rays of light” [← alka] plural alkarissen oilimain ✧ MC/221
alkarissen [← alka] plural {alkarasse >> alkaraisen >>} alkarissen oilimain ✧ PE16/74
alkarissen [← alka] plural alkarissen {oilimaisen >>} oilimain ✧ PE16/77
andalissen [← ande(a)] plural ondoisen andalissen ✧ PE16/57
andalissen [← ande(a)] plural ondoisen andalissen ✧ PE16/60
kassisse(n) [← kas] plural ✧ PE14/78
kassisse “on the ... peaks” [← kas] plural tára·kasse Taniqetildo, tára·kassisse hu·sórie ✧ PE14/78
kiryalissen [← kirya] plural ✧ PE16/115
kiryaisen [← kirya] plural ✧ PE16/115
vainolisse [← Vai] plural ✧ PE16/78
ailissen “upon the ... beaches” [← ailin²] plural ailissen oilimaisen ✧ MC/221
ailinisse “upon the ... shore” [← ailin²] plural ailinisse alkarain ✧ MC/221
ailinisse “upon the ... shore” [← ailin²] plural {ailim’ >>} ailinisse {te} oilimasse ✧ PE16/62
ailisse [← ailin²] plural ailisse oilimasse ✧ PE16/62
ailinisse [← ailin²] plural ailinisse oilimasse ✧ PE16/62
äilisse [← ailin²] plural äilisse oilimasse ✧ PE16/72
äilinisse [← ailin²] plural äilinisse oilimasse ✧ PE16/72
ailissen [← ailin²] plural ailissen {oilimasse >>} oilimaisen ✧ PE16/74
ailinisse [← ailin²] plural {oilimisse >>} ailinisse alkarain ✧ PE16/74
ailinissen [← ailin²] plural ailinissen oilimaisen ✧ PE16/77
ailinissen [← ailin²] plural ailinissen {alkaraisen >>} alkarain ✧ PE16/77
laikven [← laiqa] plural ma kaire laikven ondolissen kirya maita? ✧ PE16/77
laivarisse [← laivar] plural {vainolisse >>} laivarisse luunelinkve talaliinen tinwelindon ✧ PE16/77
mallissen [← malle] plural ✧ PE16/115
mallísen [← malle] plural ✧ PE16/115
oilimaisen “last” [← oilima] plural ailissen oilimaisen ✧ MC/221
oilimaisen [← oilima] plural ailissen {oilimasse >>} oilimaisen ✧ PE16/74
oilimaisen [← oilima] plural ✧ PE16/75
oilimaisen [← oilima] plural ailinissen oilimaisen ✧ PE16/77
oilimaisen [← oilima] plural ✧ PE16/80
ondolissen “on the ... rocks” [← ondo] plural laiqa ondolissen ✧ MC/214
ondoisen “upon the rocks” [← ondo] plural Kaire laiqa’ondoisen kirya; ✧ MC/221
ondoisen [← ondo] plural ondoisen andalissen ✧ PE16/57
ondoisen [← ondo] plural ondoisen andalissen ✧ PE16/60
ondoisen “upon the ... rocks” [← ondo] plural {ondoise laiqa kainer >>} kaire laiq’ ondoisen kirya ✧ PE16/62
ondoise [← ondo] plural ✧ PE16/65
öndöisen [← ondo] plural käire laikv’ öndöisen kirja ✧ PE16/72
ondoisen [← ondo] plural kaire laiq’ ondoisen kirya ✧ PE16/74
ondolissen [← ondo] plural ma kaire laikven ondolissen kirya maita? ✧ PE16/77
ondolissen [← ondo] plural ✧ PE16/115
ondoisen [← ondo] plural ✧ PE16/115
pilindissen “on the arrows” [← pilin] plural ✧ PE14/47
pilindissen “on the arrows” [← pilin] plural ✧ PE14/79
pilindissen [← pilin] plural ✧ PE16/115
[pilind]isten [← pilin] plural ✧ PE16/115
tussen [← tu¹] plural ✧ PE14/54
tyalielissen [← tyalie] plural ✧ PE16/115
assari “on bones” [← as] plural r-locative píke assari silde ✧ MC/214
ránar “in the moon” [← Rána] r-locative silda-ránar ✧ MC/213
ránar “in the moon” [← Rána] r-locative minga-ránar ✧ MC/213
ránar “in the moon” [← Rána] r-locative lanta-ránar ✧ MC/214
vear “in the sea” [← vea²] r-locative lúnelinqe vear ✧ MC/213

References ✧ PE16/113

Elements

r-locative

Element In