Neo-Sindarin Semantic Categories



1. Physical World

1.1 World

S., N. amar n. “world, the Earth, (lit.) settlement”
⚠️ᴱN. barth n. “world, earth”; see instead:
S. amar “world, the Earth, (lit.) settlement”
⚠️ᴱN. blador n. “world”; see instead:
S. amar “world, the Earth, (lit.) settlement”
⚠️G. mar n. “Earth, ground, soil”; see instead:
S. amar “world, the Earth, (lit.) settlement”

1.21 Earth, Land

⚠️ᴺS. [N.] ^cae n. “earth”; see instead:
S. ceven “*earth; Earth”
⚠️ᴺS. ^cefn adj. “of earth, earthen”; see instead:
N. cevn “of earth, earthen”
S. ceven n. “*earth; Earth”
N. cevn adj. “of earth, earthen”
⚠️N. coe n. “earth”; see instead:
S. ceven “*earth; Earth”

1.212 Ground, Soil

N. cef n. “soil”
⚠️G. grosgen n. “soil”; see instead:
N. cef “soil”

1.213 Dust, Powder

N. ast n. “dust”
ᴺS. !astren adj. “dusty”
⚠️G. thithrin adj. “dusty”; see instead:
ᴺS. !astren “dusty”

1.214 Mud, Mire

S., N. both n. “fen, marsh; [N.] puddle, small pool”

1.215 Sand, Grit

⚠️G. armin n. “desert, waste”; see instead:
N. eru “waste, desert”
N. eru n. “waste, desert”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

S. achad n. “rock ridge, neck (geographically)”
⚠️N. aclod adj. “sloping, tilted”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^adlod “sloping, tilted”
ᴺS. [N.] ^aegas n. “mountain peak”
S. #aeglir n. “line of peaks, [N.] range of mountain peaks; ⚠️[ᴱN.] peak, mountain top”
⚠️ᴱN. aiglir n. “peak, mountain top”; see instead:
S. #aeglir “line of peaks, [N.] range of mountain peaks; ⚠️[ᴱN.] peak, mountain top”
S., N., ᴱN., G. amon n. “hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; ⚠️[G.] steep slope”
⚠️ᴱN. amvinn n. “slope, incline, hillside”; see instead:
S. pind “crest, ridge”
S. avras n. “precipice”
⚠️ᴱN. bala n. “round hump, hump, hillock”
⚠️ᴱN. benn adj. “sloping, inclined, slanting, up or down hill”; see instead:
S. pend “slope, steep incline, hill side, [N.] declivity; [S.] sloping (down), steeply inclined”
⚠️ᴱN. binn n. “slope, hillside, bank”; see instead:
S. pind “crest, ridge”
S. brass n. “great cliff”
⚠️G. caum n. “knob”; see instead:
N. dolt¹ “round knob, boss”
S., N. cerin n. “circular mound, artificial hill; [N.] round enclosure”
S. coron n. “mound”
⚠️N., ᴱN., G. cum n. “mound, heap, ⚠️[G.] burial mound”; see instead:
S. haudh “(funeral) mound, grave, [N.] tomb; [orig.] heap, piled mound”
S. amon “hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; ⚠️[G.] steep slope”
⚠️N. dôl [nd-] n. “head, hill”; see instead:
S. dol(l) “head, hill”
S. dol(l) n. “head, hill”
⚠️G. dorm n. “summit”; see instead:
N. taen¹ “height, summit of high mountain”
N. egnas n. “sharp point, peak”
⚠️G. est(i)rin n. “pinnacle, tower”; see instead:
N. egnas “sharp point, peak”
S. barad “tower, great towering building, [N.] fort, fortress”
⚠️ᴱN. nod n. “head”; see instead:
S. dol(l) “head, hill”
⚠️G. nôl n. “head”; see instead:
S. dol(l) “head, hill”
⚠️N. oegas n. “mountain peak”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^aegas “mountain peak”
⚠️N. oeglir n. “range of mountain peaks”; see instead:
S. #aeglir “line of peaks, [N.] range of mountain peaks; ⚠️[ᴱN.] peak, mountain top”

1.23 Plain, Field

⚠️ᴱN. balt² n. “a plain”
⚠️G. bladwen n. “plain”; see instead:
S. talath “flat lands, plain”

1.24 Dale, Valley

⚠️N. cîl n. “cleft, pass between hills, gorge”; see instead:
S. cirith “cleft, ravine, defile, [N.] pass”
S., N. cirith n. “cleft, ravine, defile, [N.] pass”
S., N., G. criss n. “cleft, [N.] cut, slash, [G.] gash; ⚠️[N.] pass, [G.] gully, ravine”
N. dîn n. “opening, gap, pass in mountains”

1.25 Isle, Island

N. caer² n. “flat isle on a river”
S. #cast n. “cape, headland”
⚠️ᴱN. dol n. “island”; see instead:
S. tol(l) “island, (high steep-sided) isle”

1.31 Water

⚠️G. asc¹ n. “water”; see instead:
S. nen “water; lake, pool; (lesser) river, [ᴱN.] stream”
⚠️G. basbos n. “splash”; see instead:
ᴺS. !felaich “splash”
⚠️G. basbotha- v. “to splash”; see instead:
ᴺS. !felechia- “to splash”
ᴺS. [G.] ^duidhrad n. “canal”
ᴺS. [G.] ^duiniant n. “aqueduct”
⚠️G. duivrad n. “canal”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^duidhrad “canal”
⚠️G. duivrant n. “aqueduct”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^duiniant “aqueduct”

1.32 Sea

S. duinen n. “flood, high tide”

1.33 Lake, Pond

S. #ael n. “lake, pool”
⚠️G. ail n. “lake, pool”; see instead:
S. #ael “lake, pool”
⚠️ᴱN. ailin n. “lake”; see instead:
S. #ael “lake, pool”
⚠️G. ailion n. “lake, pool”; see instead:
S. #ael “lake, pool”
⚠️N. oel n. “pool, lake”; see instead:
S. #ael “lake, pool”
⚠️ᴱN., G. umboth n. “twilight, [G.] nightfall”; see instead:
S. uial “twilight, evendim”

1.34 Gulf, Bay

⚠️ᴱN. n. “bay, cove”; see instead:
N. hûb “haven, harbour, small landlocked bay”

1.35 Wave, Surge

⚠️G. craith n. “foam, froth, spume”
⚠️ᴱN. cruith n. “spume”
⚠️G. cwathli n. “plume, spray, tassel”; see instead:
ᴺS. !pesson “plume, feather”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

⚠️ᴱN., G. ach n. “waterfall”; see instead:
S. lanthir “waterfall”
⚠️G. acha n. “waterfall”; see instead:
S. lanthir “waterfall”
⚠️ᴺS. !cel n. “stream, little river”; see instead:
N. celeth “stream, *brook, rill, runlet; (lit.) a flowing”
N. celeth n. “stream, *brook, rill, runlet; (lit.) a flowing”
ᴺS. !celf n. “channel”
ᴺS. [Ilk.] ?celon n. “river”
ᴺS., G. [G.] ^celu n. “spring, source; ⚠️[G.] rill, stream, runlet”
⚠️N. celw n. “spring, source”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^celu “spring, source; ⚠️[G.] rill, stream, runlet”
⚠️G. duif (duiv-) n. “stream”; see instead:
N. celeth “stream, *brook, rill, runlet; (lit.) a flowing”
S., N. duin n. “(large) river; ⚠️[N.] water”
N. duirro n. “*river-bank”
⚠️N. eges n. “mouths”; see instead:
S. ethir¹ “mouth of a river, (lit.) outflow”

1.37 Spring, Well

⚠️ᴱN., G. aithl n. “spring, fount, source”; see instead:
S. eithel “source [of water], spring, well, [N.] issue of water, fountain”
⚠️G. aithla- v. “to spring (from), issue forth, bubble up”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^eithela- “to spring, well forth, *issue forth”
⚠️G. cectha- v. “to spout out”
⚠️ᴺS. !celos n. “spring”; see instead:
S. eithel “source [of water], spring, well, [N.] issue of water, fountain”
⚠️G. †ectha- v. “to spout, jet”
⚠️G. ecthel(uin) n. “fountain, fount”; see instead:
S. eithel “source [of water], spring, well, [N.] issue of water, fountain”
S., N. eithel n. “source [of water], spring, well, [N.] issue of water, fountain”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^eithela- v. “to spring, well forth, *issue forth”
⚠️ᴱN. #eithla- v. “to spring, well forth”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^eithela- “to spring, well forth, *issue forth”
⚠️ᴱN. eithlod n. “springing, welling forth”
⚠️ᴱN. eithlos n. “fountain”; see instead:
S. eithel “source [of water], spring, well, [N.] issue of water, fountain”

1.38 Whirlpool

⚠️N. chwinn n. “eddy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwind “eddy”

1.41 Woods, Forest

⚠️G. alos n. “forest”; see instead:
S. taur “forest, wood, [N.] great wood, [G.] dense wood”
⚠️G. drui n. “wood, forest”; see instead:
S. taur “forest, wood, [N.] great wood, [G.] dense wood”
ᴺS. !rostor n. “rainforest”

1.43 Wood, Timber

⚠️G. âl n. “wood (material)”; see instead:
S. taw¹ “wood as material”
⚠️G. âlog adj. “of wood, wooden”; see instead:
S. tawen “wood (of material), ?wooden (of make)”
⚠️N. drafn n. “hewn log”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dravn “hewn log”
⚠️ᴱN. dron n. “wood”; see instead:
S. taur “forest, wood, [N.] great wood, [G.] dense wood”
⚠️G. durog adj. “wooden”; see instead:
S. tawen “wood (of material), ?wooden (of make)”
⚠️G. duru n. “wood; pole, beam, log”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dravn “hewn log”

1.44 Rock, Stone

⚠️G. bringlast n. “alabaster”
S., N. brith n. “gravel”
S. ?brithon adj. “pebbly”
⚠️G. cloch n. “stone (small), stone of fruit”
⚠️G. clochiol adj. “stone”
⚠️G. clocthi n. “a pebble”
⚠️G. clogod n. “shingle beach”; see instead:
S. serni “shingle, pebble bank”
⚠️G. clogrin adj. “stony, stone-like”
⚠️G. clogwed adj. “stony, stone-covered”
⚠️G. closs n. “shingle”
⚠️G. dalech n. “(upright) stone”

1.51 Sky, Heavens

⚠️G. climli n. “sky, heaven”; see instead:
N. #ell “sky”
S. menel “the heavens, firmament, region of the stars”
⚠️ᴱN., G. dai n. and adj. “sky; high”; see instead:
N. #ell “sky”
S. menel “the heavens, firmament, region of the stars”
S. dae “shadow (cast by an object or form), [N.] shade”
N. #ell n. “sky”

1.52 Sun

S., N. Anor n. “Sun”
ᴺS. !anóren adj. “sunny”
⚠️G. augla n. “ray of sunlight, sunbeam”; see instead:
ᴺS. aglann “ray of light”
⚠️G. auglas n. “bright sunshine”; see instead:
S. glaw “sunshine; [N.] radiance”
⚠️G. áugwila adj. “sunny, sunlit”; see instead:
ᴺS. !anóren “sunny”
⚠️G. aur(a) n. “Sun”; see instead:
S. aur “(whole) day, sunlight, [N.] morning”
S. Anor “Sun”
⚠️G. auth n. “sunshine, warmth; noontide”; see instead:
S. glaw “sunshine; [N.] radiance”
ᴺS. ast “light or heat of the sun, *warmth”
ᴺS. ^laug “warm”
S. auth “dim shape, spectral or vague apparition”
N. auth “war, battle”

1.53 Moon

⚠️N. cúran n. “crescent moon”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cúron “crescent moon”
ᴺS. [N.] ^cúron n. “crescent moon”
S. cýron n. “new-moon”

1.54 Star

S., N. êl n. “star”
ᴺS. !elui adj. “starry”

1.55 Flash, Lightning

ᴺS. !agla- v. “to shine out, flash”
⚠️G. agla n. “flash”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^agol “flash”
ᴺS. [G.] ^agol n. “flash”
⚠️ᴱN. aithorn n. “lightning”
⚠️G. blectha- v. “to flash”

1.61 Light

ᴺS., ᴱN. [ᴱN.] aglann n. “ray of light”
S., N. calad n. “light, brightness, shining, ⚠️fire”
ᴺS. !celia- v. “to illuminate, light up; to illustrate”
ᴺS. !celias n. “(artificial) light, illumination”
⚠️G. cintha- v. “to light, set alight”; see instead:
N. nartha- “to kindle”
⚠️G. dantha- v. “to illuminate, light up, illustrate”; see instead:
ᴺS. !celia- “to illuminate, light up; to illustrate”
⚠️G. danthos n. “(artificial) light, illumination”; see instead:
ᴺS. !celias “(artificial) light, illumination”

1.62 Darkness

⚠️ᴱN. avosaith n. “gloomy places”
⚠️N. daw n. “night-time, gloom”; see instead:
S. “night, dimness; [N.] night-fall, late evening; ⚠️[S.] dim, dark”
N. maur “gloom”

1.622 Dark, Murky

⚠️ᴱN. danglarweb adj. “without light”
⚠️N. dofn adj. “gloomy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dovn “gloomy”
ᴺS. [N.] ^dovn adj. “gloomy”
⚠️ᴱN. drû adj. “dark”; see instead:
S. dûr “dark (with evil implications), gloomy, hellish”
S., N. dûr [nd-] adj. “dark (with evil implications), gloomy, hellish”

1.63 Shade, Shadow

S. auth n. “dim shape, spectral or vague apparition”
⚠️S., N. dae n. “shadow (cast by an object or form), [N.] shade”; see instead:
S. #morchant “dark shape, shadow cast by light”
S. gwath “shadow, dim light, [N.] shade”
S., N. dúath n. “night shadow, dark/black shadow, [N.] night-shade”
⚠️G. muil n. “tarn”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rim “cold pool or lake (in mountains)”

1.722 Storm

N. alagos n. “storm (of wind)”

1.723 Breeze

⚠️ᴱN., G. blith n. “breeze, [G.] zephyr; air”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwest “puff, breath, breeze”
ᴺS. ^gwelu “air (as a substance)”
⚠️N. chwest n. “puff, breath, breeze”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwest “puff, breath, breeze”

1.74 Mist, Fog, Haze

⚠️ᴱN. blaith n. “fog, gloomy mist”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hithu “fog”
⚠️ᴱN. blaithren adj. “foggy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hethu “foggy, obscure, vague”
⚠️G. drim n. “dew”; see instead:
S. mîdh “dew, *moisture, damp; ⚠️[ᴱN.] mist, drizzle”
⚠️G. huir adj. “foggy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hethu “foggy, obscure, vague”
⚠️G. huith n. “fog”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hithu “fog”

1.75 Rain (n)

N. eil- v. “to rain”
⚠️G. ubra- v. “to rain”; see instead:
N. eil- “to rain”

1.752 Rainbow

⚠️ᴺS. [N.] ^eiliant n. “rainbow, (lit.) sky-bridge”; see instead:
S. ninniach “rainbow”
⚠️N. eilian(w) n. “rainbow, (lit.) sky-bridge”; see instead:
S. ninniach “rainbow”
⚠️G. ilbrant n. “rainbow”; see instead:
S. ninniach “rainbow”

1.77 Ice, Frost

S. aeglos n. “snowthorn; icicle”
⚠️G. helfingl n. “icicle”; see instead:
S. aeglos “snowthorn; icicle”

1.78 Weather

ᴺS. !gwilwist n. “weather”

1.81 Fire (n)

N. bregedur n. “wild fire”
⚠️ᴱN. byr n. “fire”; see instead:
S. naur “fire”
⚠️G. n. “fire”; see instead:
S. naur “fire”

1.82 Flame (n)

⚠️G. blectha n. “a flame”; see instead:
S. lach “(leaping) flame”
⚠️G. bleg n. “a flame”; see instead:
S. lach “(leaping) flame”
S. bragollach n. “sudden flame; ?wild fire”
⚠️G. cantha n. “flame”; see instead:
S. lach “(leaping) flame”
⚠️G. cantharol adj. “glaring, flaming”
⚠️G. canthor n. “blaze, flare, glare”

1.83 Smoke (n)

⚠️G. usc n. “fog, mist”; see instead:
S. hîth “mist”
N. osp “smoke”

1.85 to Burn, Scorch

ᴺS. [G.] ^branna- v. “to scorch”
⚠️G. brantha- v. “to scorch”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^branna- “to scorch”
⚠️ᴺS. !dosta- v. “to burn”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^orna- “to blaze, burn”

1.99 Physical World (other)

ᴺS. [G.] ^dorgant [nd-] n. “landscape, scene, *(lit.) land-shape”
⚠️G. dorven [nd-] n. “landscape, scene, *(lit.) land-shape”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dorgant “landscape, scene, *(lit.) land-shape”

2. Mankind

2.1 Human Being

S. Adan n. “Man (as a race)”
⚠️G. an¹ n. “person, -body, one, anyone, someone, they; creature”

2.21 Man

⚠️G. anos n. “man (fullgrown), warrior”
⚠️G. anoth n. “manhood†; man (fullgrown), warrior”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^anwas “manhood, *manliness, masculinity”
N., G. benn n. “man, male, †husband”
S., N. dîr¹ [nd-] n. “man, [N.] adult male; agental suffix”
⚠️ᴱN. †nîr² n. “hero, prince, warrior-elf”; see instead:
N. callon “hero”
S. dîr¹ “man, [N.] adult male; agental suffix”

2.22 Woman

S. adaneth n. “(mortal) woman”
⚠️ᴱN. gweth n. “wife”; see instead:
N. herves “wife”

2.23 Male

⚠️G. anothrin adj. “adult (of men), fullgrown; manly”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^anwathren “manly, masculine”
ᴺS. [N.] ^anu n. and adj. “male (person or animal)”
⚠️N. anw n. and adj. “male (person or animal)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^anu “male (person or animal)”
ᴺS. [G.] ^anwas n. “manhood, *manliness, masculinity”
ᴺS. [G.] ^anwathren adj. “manly, masculine”

2.26 Girl

N. †dess n. “young woman”

2.27 Child

⚠️ᴱN., G. arn n. “child, [G.] son”; see instead:
S. hên “child”

2.31 Husband

⚠️G. bedhron n. “husband”; see instead:
N. herven “husband”
ᴺS. !bethron n. “spouse (m.)”
ᴺS. [N.] ^daer [nd-] n. “bridegroom”
⚠️N. doer [nd-] n. “bridegroom”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^daer “bridegroom”
⚠️G. hauthwaid n. “consort, wife or husband”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bethron “spouse (m.)”
ᴺS. !bethril “spouse (f.)”

2.32 Wife

⚠️G. †bedhril n. “wife”; see instead:
N. herves “wife”
S., N., G. bess n. “[N.] woman; [S.] wife”
ᴺS. !bethril n. “spouse (f.)”

2.321 Bride

ᴺS., N. [N.] [nd-] n. “woman, lady, ⚠️bride”
N. dineth [nd-] n. “bride”
N. dîs [nd-] n. “bride”
⚠️ᴱN. nain n. “woman”; see instead:
N. † “woman, bride, lady”
⚠️G. †nîr² n. “woman”; see instead:
N. † “woman, bride, lady”

2.33 to Wed, Marry

⚠️G. benna- v. “to wed”; see instead:
ᴺS. !besta- “to wed, marry”
ᴺS. !besta- v. “to wed, marry”

2.34 Wedding, Marriage

⚠️G. bedhgad n. “wedlock”; see instead:
ᴺS. !best “marriage, matrimony, wedlock, ⚠️wedding”
⚠️G. bedhin adj. “wedded, married”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bestannen “wedded, married”
⚠️G. †bedhiod n. “wedlock”; see instead:
ᴺS. !best “marriage, matrimony, wedlock, ⚠️wedding”
⚠️G. bedhri n. “wedding”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bestad “wedding, (lit.) marrying”
⚠️G. †bedhwen n. “matrimony”; see instead:
ᴺS. !best “marriage, matrimony, wedlock, ⚠️wedding”
ᴺS. !best n. “marriage, matrimony, wedlock, ⚠️wedding”
ᴺS. !bestad n. “wedding, (lit.) marrying”
ᴺS. !bestannen adj. “wedded, married”
⚠️ᴱN. gwedhw n. “matrimony”; see instead:
ᴺS. !best “marriage, matrimony, wedlock, ⚠️wedding”

2.35 Father

N., G. ada n. “father (hypocoristic), [G.] daddy”
S., N. adar n. “father”
⚠️G. †ador n. “father”; see instead:
S. adar “father”
S. atheg n. “(little) father; thumb”
⚠️G. athon n. “father”
⚠️G. bâb n. “father”
⚠️G. (n)ada n. “daddy, father”; see instead:
N. ada “father (hypocoristic), [G.] daddy”
⚠️G. nathon n. “father”

2.36 Mother

⚠️G. amil n. “mother”; see instead:
S. emel “mother”
⚠️G. babi n. “mummy, mamma”; see instead:
N. nana “mother (hypocoristic), *mommy”
S. emel n. “mother”
S. emig n. “(little) mother, *mommy”
⚠️N. †emil n. “mother”; see instead:
S. emel “mother”

2.41 Son

⚠️G. bo- pref. “son of”; see instead:
S. -ion¹ “-son”
⚠️G. bo(n) n. “son”; see instead:
S. ion(n) “son, *boy”
⚠️G. go-² pref. “son of”; see instead:
S. -ion¹ “-son”

2.46 Grandfather

ᴺS., G. [G.] dâd n. “grandfather”

2.56 Ancestor(s)

⚠️G. eithog n. “ancestor, †father, sire”

2.57 Descendant(s)

⚠️G. bôr n. “descendant”

2.65 Brother-in-Law

⚠️G. bedhren n. “brother in law, kinsman by marriage”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bethren “brother in law, kinsman by marriage”
ᴺS. [G.] ^bethren n. “brother in law, kinsman by marriage”

2.66 Sister-in-Law

⚠️G. bedhres n. “sister in law, *kinswoman by marriage”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bethres “sister in law, *kinswoman by marriage”
ᴺS. [G.] ^bethres n. “sister in law, *kinswoman by marriage”

2.82 Family

⚠️G. eithlos n. “family”; see instead:
ᴺS. gwaren “[nuclear] family”

3. Animals

3.11 Animal

⚠️G. cuid n. “animal, living creature”; see instead:
S. lavan “animal”

3.16 to Pasture

⚠️ᴱN. cig n. “cud”

3.18 Herdsman

ᴺS. !bavron n. “shepherd, herdsman”
⚠️G. mathron n. “herd, herdsman, shepherd”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bavron “shepherd, herdsman”
ᴺS. !lavor “flock, herd”

3.25 Sheep

ᴺS. !bam [mb-] n. “sheep”
⚠️G. moth n. “sheep”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bam “sheep”

3.41 Horse (generic)

⚠️ᴱN., G. brog n. “horse”; see instead:
S. roch “horse”

3.44 Mare

⚠️ᴱN. bregil n. “mare”
⚠️G. bros(s) n. “mare”

3.64 Bird

ᴺS. [G.] ^aedh n. “nest”
ᴺS. [G.] ^aevar n. “rookery, colony of birds”
S., N. aew n. “(small) bird”
S. #aewen adj. “of birds”
⚠️G. aidha n. “nest”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^aedh “nest”
⚠️G. aigli n. “bird”; see instead:
S. aew “(small) bird”
⚠️G. aivor n. “rookery, colony of birds”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^aevar “rookery, colony of birds”
⚠️ᴱN. aiw n. “bird”; see instead:
S. aew “(small) bird”
ᴺS., G. [G.] amosgarn n. “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
⚠️ᴱN. amrent n. “lark”
⚠️G. amrint n. “lark”
⚠️G. bil n. “bird”; see instead:
S. aew “(small) bird”
⚠️G. bilin(c) n. “small bird, sparrow”; see instead:
N. fileg “small bird, [Q.] *sparrow”
⚠️G. ciloba- v. “to twitter, chirp, chirrup”
⚠️G. cilobinc n. “robin”; see instead:
ᴺS. amosgarn “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
N., ᴱN. corch n. “crow”
S. craban n. “bird of crow-kind, *raven”
⚠️G. crinthammos n. “robin, (lit.) red-breast”; see instead:
ᴺS. amosgarn “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
⚠️ᴱN., G. crunc n. “crow”; see instead:
N. corch “crow”
N. cuen n. “small gull, petrel, sea-bird”
N. cugu n. “dove”
⚠️G. duil² n. “swallow”; see instead:
N. tuilinn “swallow, (lit.) spring-singer”
⚠️ᴱN., G. duilin n. “swallow”; see instead:
N. tuilinn “swallow, (lit.) spring-singer”
S., N. dúlin n. “nightingale”
N. emlin n. “yellow bird, (lit.) yellow hammer”
⚠️G. end n. “birds nest”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^aedh “nest”

3.71 Wolf

S., N. draug n. “wolf”
⚠️G. urc n. “wolf”; see instead:
S. draug “wolf”

3.73 Bear

N. brôg n. “bear”
⚠️ᴱN. gorch n. “bear; fierce fighter”; see instead:
N. brôg “bear”

3.75 Deer

S. aras n. “deer, hart, *stag”
ᴺS. !celef n. “deer, hind”

3.77 Elephant

N. annabon n. “elephant”
⚠️G. funt n. “elephant”; see instead:
N. annabon “elephant”

3.81 Insect

⚠️G. cing(win) n. “spider”; see instead:
S. ungol “spider”

3.83 Fly (n)

S. budhu n. “large fly”
ᴺS. !budhulug n. “dragonfly”
S. cáfru n. “?flea”
⚠️ᴱN. caifr n. “flea”; see instead:
S. cáfru “?flea”
⚠️G. sithagong n. “dragonfly”; see instead:
ᴺS. !budhulug “dragonfly”
⚠️G. sithaling n. “fly snake, dragonfly”; see instead:
ᴺS. !budhulug “dragonfly”

3.85 Snake

N. am- pref. “snake”

3.86 Swan

⚠️G. alfa n. “swan”; see instead:
S. alph “swan”
⚠️ᴱN., G. alfuilin n. “large white sea-bird, albatross, †swan”
S., N., ᴱN., G. alph n. “swan”
⚠️ᴱN. elflin n. “cygnet, *young swan”

3.99 Animals (other)

N. cabor n. “frog”
⚠️G. cwildred n. “bat (animal)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !pillor “bat (animal)”
⚠️G. doldrin [nd-] n. “mole”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dolweg “mole”
⚠️G. dolfa [nd-] n. “mole”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dolweg “mole”
⚠️G. dolmeg [nd-] n. “mole”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dolweg “mole”
ᴺS. [G.] ^dolweg [nd-] n. “mole”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.11 Body

⚠️G. baul n. “body, trunk”; see instead:
ᴺS. !polch “trunk, torso”

4.12 Skin, Hide

⚠️G. daf- v. “to strip, flay, peel skin”; see instead:
N. heltha- “to strip, *flay, peel skin; *to despoil, make bare”
⚠️G. dafros n. “bark, skin, peel”; see instead:
S. #flâd “skin”
S. #rîf “bark”
⚠️G. dauth n. “skin, hide”; see instead:
S. #flâd “skin”
N. helf “fur, *hide”
⚠️G. dôf n. “hide, skin”; see instead:
N. helf “fur, *hide”
S. #flâd “skin”

4.13 Flesh

⚠️G. cwim(ri) n. “body, flesh”; see instead:
S. rhond “body”
S. rhaw² “flesh”

4.14 Hair

⚠️G. cingra adj. “plaited”
⚠️G. cingra- v. “to plait”
⚠️G. cingrafindl n. “pigtail”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwirphin “braid, pigtail, (lit.) woven-tress”

4.143 Hair (other)

ᴺS., G. [G.] canga- v. “to tangle, *to go wrong”

4.15 Blood

⚠️S. #agar n. “blood”; see instead:
S. sereg “blood”
⚠️G. carna n. “gore, blood (especially fresh blood)”; see instead:
ᴺS. mechor “gore”
S. sereg “blood”

4.16 Bone

⚠️ᴺS. !ach n. “bone”; see instead:
ᴺS. asg “bone; ⚠️[G.] stone of fruit”
S. ach¹ “neck, *spine”
ᴺS., ᴱN., G. [ᴱN.] asg n. “bone; ⚠️[G.] stone of fruit”
⚠️ᴱN. asgatheb adj. “bony”

4.19 Back

⚠️ᴱN., G. alm n. “back (from shoulder to shoulder), [G.] shoulders”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^galf “back (from shoulder to shoulder), [G.] shoulders”
⚠️ᴱN. bost n. “back from shoulder to shoulder”

4.202 Skull

⚠️ᴱN., G. cas n. “skull, [G.] head”; see instead:
ᴺS. corob “skull”
S. dol(l) “head, hill”
ᴺS., G. [G.] corob n. “skull”

4.204 Face

⚠️ᴱN. annas n. “face, countenance”; see instead:
S. thîr “face, [N.] look, expression, countenance”
N. crann adj. and n. “ruddy (of face); face, blush, the cheeks”

4.207 Jaw

N. anc n. “jaw, row of teeth”
S., N. carach n. “jaws, rows of teeth”
⚠️G. gag n. “jaw”; see instead:
N. anc “jaw, row of teeth”

4.209 Chin

⚠️G. bectha n. “tip; chin”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bened “chin”
⚠️G. beg n. “chin”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bened “chin”
ᴺS. !bened n. “chin”

4.23 Nose

ᴺS. [N.] #^bond [mb-] adj. “snouted”
⚠️N. #bonn [mb-] adj. “snouted”; see instead:
ᴺS. #^bond “snouted”
ᴺS. [N.] ^bund [mb-] n. “snout, nose, cape”
⚠️N. bunn [mb-] n. “snout, nose, cape”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bund “snout, nose, cape”
⚠️G. crug n. “beak (espec. of a ship)”

4.25 Lip

⚠️G. cail n. “lip”; see instead:
ᴺS. !pemp “lip”

4.27 Tooth

⚠️G. carc n. “jag, point, fang”; see instead:
S. carch “fang, [N.] tooth”
S., N. carch n. “fang, [N.] tooth”
⚠️ᴱN. carch adj. “chilly”; see instead:
S. ring “cold, chill, [G.] cool”

4.28 Neck

S. ach¹ n. “neck, *spine”
N. ech n. “spine”

4.29 Throat

⚠️G. cwerc n. “throat”; see instead:
S. lang “passage; neck, *throat”

4.30 Shoulder

⚠️G. alan n. “shoulder”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^galf “back (from shoulder to shoulder), [G.] shoulders”
⚠️ᴱN. amoth n. “shoulder”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^galf “back (from shoulder to shoulder), [G.] shoulders”
⚠️G. egelmion adj. “broadshouldered”

4.32 Elbow

ᴺS., G. [G.] crig n. “elbow”

4.33 Hand

⚠️G. gob n. “hollow of hand”; see instead:
S. cam “(cupped) hand, holding hand; handful”
ᴺS. ^camlann “palm of hand”

4.332 Hand (other)

S., N. cam n. “(cupped) hand, holding hand; handful”
⚠️N. camland n. “palm of hand”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^camlann “palm of hand”
ᴺS. [N.] ^camlann n. “palm of hand”
⚠️N. dalf n. “palm of hand”; see instead:
S. plad “palm, flat of the hand”
S. dond n. “fist”
N., G. drambor n. “clenched fist; blow with a fist; [G.] thudder”

4.34 Finger

⚠️G. alepthog adj. “fingered, having fingers”; see instead:
ᴺS. !leberen “fingered, of fingers”
⚠️G. alewthion adj. “having fingers”; see instead:
ᴺS. !leberen “fingered, of fingers”

4.35 Leg

⚠️G. bactha n. “leg”; see instead:
ᴺS. !teleg “leg”

4.39 Nail, Claw

⚠️G. clam(p) n. “grasp, claw”; see instead:
S. gamp “hook, crook; [N.] claw”
S. mâb “hand, [N.] grasp”
⚠️G. cog n. “claw, fist”

4.392 Wing

⚠️G. bascovas n. “flapping and beating (especially of wings)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !blabed “flapping, beating (especially of wings)”
⚠️G. basga- v. “to flap”; see instead:
N. #blab- “to flap, beat (wings etc.)”
⚠️G. bass n. “wing, pinion”; see instead:
S. raw “wing”
S. roval “winged; [N.] pinion, great wing (of an eagle)”
N. #blab- v. “to flap, beat (wings etc.)”
ᴺS. !blabed n. “flapping, beating (especially of wings)”

4.41 Breast of Woman

⚠️G. am² n. “breast, front (chest)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ammos “*breast, chest, bosom; ⚠️breastplate”
⚠️G. ammogrint adj. “red-breast[ed]”; see instead:
ᴺS. amosgarn “robin, (lit.) red-breast”

4.44 Heart

⚠️G. elf n. “heart”; see instead:
S. ind “some particular purpose or intention of an individual; heart, [N.] inner thought, meaning”

4.46 Belly, Stomach

ᴺS. !com adj. and n. “bellied”
ᴺS. !cum n. “belly”

4.56 to Spit

ᴺS., ᴱN., G. [ᴱN.] crech n. “spittle”
⚠️G. crectha- v. “to spit”; see instead:
N. puia- “to spit”

4.61 to Sleep; Sleep

⚠️N. chwîn n. “giddyness, faintness”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwîn “giddyness, faintness”

4.63 to Wake

⚠️G. bractha- v. “to refresh; to revive, arouse, awaken”; see instead:
ᴺS. !laeda- “to refresh, revive”
⚠️ᴱN. cuivros n. “awakening”; see instead:
S. echui “awakening”
ᴺS. [G.] ^cui(w) adj. “awake, alert, ⚠️alive”
⚠️G. cwim adj. “awake, alert, alive”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cui(w) “awake, alert, ⚠️alive”
⚠️G. cwimp adj. “alert, vigilant”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cui(w) “awake, alert, ⚠️alive”
⚠️G. cwiv- v. “to be awake”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cui(w) “awake, alert, ⚠️alive”
⚠️G. cwivra- v. “to awaken (intr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !echuia- “to awaken, wake up (intran.)”
⚠️G. cwivros n. “awakening”; see instead:
S. echui “awakening”
S., N. echui n. “awakening”
ᴺS. !echuia- v. “to awaken, wake up (intran.)”
ᴺS. !echuida- v. “to wake up (trans.), waken, rouse”
⚠️ᴺS. !echuinu- v. “to awaken, wake up (intran.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !echuia- “to awaken, wake up (intran.)”

4.71 to Beget (of Father)

N. edonna- v. “to beget”

4.72 to Bear (of Mother)

⚠️ᴱN. bodamrost n. “resurrection”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

S., N. #cuia- v. “to live”
⚠️G. cuib adj. “alive”; see instead:
N. cuin “alive”
⚠️G. cuibri n. “vitality”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cuinas “vitality, liveliness”
⚠️ᴺS. !cuida- v. “to bring to life, enliven, energize”; see instead:
ᴺS. !echuida- “to wake up (trans.), waken, rouse”
⚠️ᴱN. cuif (cuiv-) adj. “alive”; see instead:
N. cuin “alive”
N., ᴱN., G. cuil n. “life, [G.] lifetime”
⚠️G. cuilborn n. “lifetime”; see instead:
ᴺS. cuilvorn “lifetime”
ᴺS. [G.] ^cuileb adj. “lively, ⚠️alive”
⚠️G. cuilog adj. “alive, lively”; see instead:
N. cuin “alive”
ᴺS. ^cuileb “lively, ⚠️alive”
⚠️G. cuilogri n. “liveliness”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cuinas “vitality, liveliness”
ᴺS., ᴱN. [ᴱN.] cuilvorn n. “lifetime”
N. cuin adj. “alive”
S., N. #cuina- v. “to be alive”
ᴺS. [G.] ^cuinas n. “vitality, liveliness”
ᴺS., G. [G.] cuith n. “life, the vital principle; living body”
⚠️G. cuitha- v. “to live, be alive”; see instead:
S. #cuina- “to be alive”
S. #cuia- “to live”
ᴺS. [G.] ^cuithas n. “life (period of life); living, livelihood”
⚠️G. cuithos n. “life (period of life); living, livelihood”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cuithas “life (period of life); living, livelihood”
⚠️ᴺS. !echuira- v. “to come to life”; see instead:
ᴺS. !echuiru- “to come to life”
ᴺS. !echuiru- v. “to come to life”

4.742 Immortal

S. alfirin adj. and n. “immortal, (lit.) not dying; a species of flower”

4.75 to Die; Dead; Death

ᴺS. [N.] ^delu adj. “hateful, deadly, fell”
⚠️ᴱN. delu adj. “horrible, loathly”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^delu “hateful, deadly, fell”
⚠️N. delw adj. “hateful, deadly, fell”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^delu “hateful, deadly, fell”

4.76 to Kill

S., N., ᴱN. #dag- [nd-] v. “to slay, [ᴱN.] kill”
S. dagnir [nd-] n. “slayer, bane”
ᴺS. !dagnis n. “slayer, bane (f.)”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^dagras [nd-] n. “slaughter”
⚠️ᴱN. dagros [nd-] n. “slaughter”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dagras “slaughter”
⚠️ᴱN. danc adj. “killed in battle”; see instead:
S. dangen “slain”
S., N. dangen [nd-] adj. “slain”
⚠️G. ecthadra- v. “to slay, put to the sword”; see instead:
S. #dag- “to slay, [ᴱN.] kill”

4.77 Corpse, Body

⚠️G. cweleg n. “corpse”; see instead:
N. daen “corpse”
N. daen [nd-] n. “corpse”
⚠️ᴱN. rhanc n. “corpse, body of one slain in battle”; see instead:
N. daen “corpse”

4.79 Grave, Tomb

⚠️G. dal n. “cairn”; see instead:
N. sarnas “cairn”

4.81 Strong, Mighty, Powerful

⚠️ᴱN. balt¹ n. “might”; see instead:
ᴺS. polod “power, might, authority”
⚠️ᴺS. !bel n. “strength”; see instead:
N. bellas “bodily strength”
S. belaith [mb-] adj. “mighty”
N. bellas n. “bodily strength”
N. belt adj. “strong in body”
⚠️G. drum adj. “stout, firm, strong”; see instead:
S. taug “firm, strong, (?withstand)”

4.83 Well; Health

S. *alu adj. “wholesome”

4.84 Sick; Sickness

N. cael n. “lying in bed, sickness”
N. caeleb adj. “bedridden, sick”
ᴺS., G. [G.] colu n. “pestilence”
⚠️G. coluid adj. “pestilent”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^colwed “pestilent”
ᴺS. [G.] ^colwed adj. “pestilent”
⚠️ᴱN. côm n. “sickness”; see instead:
N. paw “sickness, *illness, ailment”
⚠️G. côma n. “disease, illness”; see instead:
N. paw “sickness, *illness, ailment”
⚠️G. cômathol adj. “diseased, ill”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhaew “sick, sickly, ill”
N. caeleb “bedridden, sick”
⚠️G. cwam adj. “ill”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhaew “sick, sickly, ill”
⚠️G. cwanc adj. “sickly, poorly, seedy”; see instead:
N. gem “sickly”
⚠️G. cwancha- v. “to ail”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pavra- “to ail, *be ill”
⚠️G. cwanchri n. “ailment”; see instead:
N. paw “sickness, *illness, ailment”

4.85 to Wound; Wound; Wounded

ᴺS. !ammatha- v. “to maul”
⚠️G. famfa- v. “to maul”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ammatha- “to maul”

4.86 to Cure, Heal

S. athae n. and adj. “?healing”
S., N., ᴱN. athelas n. “kingsfoil, a healing herb”
S. athra-² v. “to treat medically”

4.87 Physician

ᴺS. !athor n. “doctor”

4.91 Tired, Weary

⚠️ᴱN. darw adj. “tired, weary”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lom “weary, *tired”
ᴺS., ᴱN., G. [ᴱN.] drauth adj. “[G.] weary, toilworn, tired; ⚠️[ᴱN.] labour”
ᴺS., G. [G.] drautha- v. “to weary, tire out”
⚠️ᴱN. dre adj. “wearisome, tiresome”

4.93 Bald

⚠️G. cafalon adj. “bald, *(lit.) head-naked”; see instead:
S. rûdh “bald”

4.94 Lame

⚠️G. caug¹ n. “hunchback”

4.97 Blind

⚠️ᴱN. dam(b) adj. “blind”
ᴺS., S. [S.] dom adj. “blind”

4.98 Drunk

⚠️ᴱN. balfaug adj. “drunken”

4.99 Naked, Bare

⚠️G. dautha adj. “naked, stripped”; see instead:
N. hell¹ “naked, *stripped”

5. Food and Drink

5.11 to Eat

⚠️G. baptha- v. “to feed; to take sup of”; see instead:
ᴺS. !media- “to feed”
⚠️G. dultha- v. “to dine”; see instead:
S. #mad- “to eat”

5.13 to Drink

⚠️G. bab- v. “to drink, quaff”; see instead:
N. #sog- “to drink”

5.21 to Cook

ᴺS., G. [G.] brant adj. “cooked, done; overdone”
ᴺS., G. [G.] brath- v. “to cook”

5.24 to Bake

⚠️G. bast- [mb-] v. “to bake”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^basta- “to bake”
ᴺS. [G.] ^basta- [mb-] v. “to bake”

5.25 Oven

⚠️G. bothli [mb-] n. “oven”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bothol “oven”
ᴺS. [G.] ^bothol [mb-] n. “oven”

5.26 Pot

⚠️N. calf n. “water-vessel”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^calph “water-vessel, [G.] bucket”
ᴺS., G. [G.] ^calph n. “water-vessel, [G.] bucket”
⚠️G. ceral n. “jar”

5.38 Knife

⚠️G. crî n. “knife”; see instead:
N. sigil “dagger, knife”

5.41 a Meal

⚠️G. dulwen n. “feast”; see instead:
S. mereth “feast, [N.] festival”

5.44 Dinner

⚠️G. dultha n. “supper, dinner”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dúvad “supper, dinner”
ᴺS. [G.] ^dúvad n. “supper, dinner”

5.51 Bread

N., ᴱN., G. basgorn [mb-] n. “loaf, [G.] loaf of bread, [ᴱN.] round loaf, cake”
S., N., ᴱN., G. #bas(t) [mb-] n. “bread”
⚠️G. corn n. “loaf”; see instead:
N. basgorn “loaf, [G.] loaf of bread, [ᴱN.] round loaf, cake”

5.52 Cake

N. cram n. “cake of compressed flour or meal”

5.61 Meat

N. aes n. “cooked food, meat”

5.71 Fruit

ᴺS. [G.] ^aebin n. “cherry (tree)”
⚠️G. aibin n. “cherry (tree)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^aebin “cherry (tree)”
ᴺS. !colof n. “orange [fruit]”

5.72 Apple

⚠️G. arwad n. “apple tree”
S. cordof n. “pippin, *(small red) apple”

5.77 Nut

⚠️G. codiof adj. “nutbearing”
⚠️G. codomla n. “*chestnut”
⚠️G. codorn n. “*nut tree”
⚠️G. codrin adj. “nutty”
⚠️G. codwalion n. “walnut, chestnut”
⚠️G. codwed adj. “nutbearing”
⚠️G. coth n. “nutshell, husk”

5.79 Oil

ᴺS., ᴱN. [ᴱN.] blîw n. “oil”
⚠️G. ilm n. “oil, fat, grease”; see instead:
ᴺS. blîw “oil”
ᴺS. !lûb “fat, (fat) flesh”

5.80 Berry

ᴺS., G. [G.] dod n. “berry”

5.88 Cheese

⚠️ᴱN. corn² n. “cheese”; see instead:
ᴺS. cûr “cheese”
N. corn “round, globed”
ᴺS., G. [ᴱN.] cûr n. “cheese”
ᴺS., G. [G.] curth n. “curd”
⚠️G. curtha- v. “to curdle, to make cheese (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cortha- “to turn sour, curdle, congeal”

5.89 Butter

⚠️G. cwîr n. “cream”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pîr “cream”

5.999 Food (Other)

⚠️G. bith n. “juice, sap”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^paich “juice, syrup, *sap”
ᴺS., ᴱN. [ᴱN.] blê n. and adj. “fat of meat; *fatty, oily, greasy”
⚠️G. ilbrin adj. “oily, fat, greasy”; see instead:
ᴺS. blê “fat of meat; *fatty, oily, greasy”

6. Clothing and Adornment

6.11 to Clothe, Dress

⚠️ᴱN. bai adj. “clad”; see instead:
ᴺS. !hammen “clad”
⚠️G. baidha- v. “to clothe”; see instead:
N. hamma- “to clothe”
⚠️G. bain adj. “clad”; see instead:
ᴺS. !hammen “clad”
⚠️G. braitha- v. “wrap, swathe”

6.12 Clothes, Clothing

⚠️ᴱN., G. baith n. “clothes, garments, dress”; see instead:
N. hammad “clothing, *clothes”
⚠️G. baithri n. “clothes, clothing”; see instead:
N. hammad “clothing, *clothes”

6.31 to Spin

⚠️N. chwinia- v. “to twirl, whirl, eddy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwinia- “to twirl, whirl, eddy”
⚠️N. chwiniol adj. “whirling, giddy, mad, fantastic”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwiniol “whirling, giddy, mad, fantastic”
⚠️G. cwir- v. “to stir, stir round, make spin”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pir- “to stir, stir round, make spin”
⚠️G. cwiruin n. “spinning wheel”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^piruin “spinning wheel”

6.32 Spindle

⚠️G. cwiril n. “spindle”; see instead:
ᴺS. gwiril “spindle”

6.36 Needle

ᴺS. [G.] ^egol adv. and n. “else, something else”

6.41 Cloak

⚠️G. brach n. “a shawl, plaid, wrap”
S. #coll¹ n. “cloak, mantle”
⚠️ᴱN., G. garob n. “robe, [G.] cloak, outer garment”; see instead:
S. #coll¹ “cloak, mantle”

6.43 Coat

ᴺS. [G.] ^bâch n. “jacket, coat”
⚠️G. bacha n. “jacket, coat”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bâch “jacket, coat”

6.55 Hat, Cap

N. carab n. “hat”

6.71 Adornment (personal)

S. cathrae n. “tressure, *net for containing hair”

6.72 Gem, Jewel

⚠️G. brithla n. “pearl”

6.73 Finger Ring

ᴺS. !corf n. “ring (for fingers)”

6.96 Mirror

S. cenedril n. “mirror, looking-glass, (lit.) looking-crystal”

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.11 to Live, Dwell

ᴺS. !bardhon n. “inhabitant, native”
ᴺS., G. [G.] barn² adj. “tilled, inhabited”
⚠️G. bar(n)a- [mb-] v. “to dwell in, till (land)”
N., G. dortha- [nd-] v. “to dwell, stay, [G.] settle”
⚠️G. gwadhron n. “inhabitant (m.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bardhon “inhabitant, native”

7.12 House

N. adab n. “building, house”
⚠️ᴱN. adob n. “building”; see instead:
N. adab “building, house”
⚠️G. bad¹ n. “building, outhouse, shed”; see instead:
N. adab “building, house”
S. barthan [mb-] n. “large building of masonry used as a dwelling”
⚠️G. baur [mb-] n. “house”; see instead:
S. bâr “home, house, dwelling; ⚠️[N.] earth”
N. baur “need”
⚠️G. †brann n. “dwelling, hall”; see instead:
S. barthan “large building of masonry used as a dwelling”
N. tham “hall, [G.] chamber, room”
N. car(dh) n. “house”

7.122 Home

⚠️G. -bar suf. “dweller; home, -ham”
S., N., ᴱN., G. bâr [mb-] n. “home, house, dwelling; ⚠️[N.] earth”
⚠️G. bara [mb-] n. “home, cottage”; see instead:
S. bâr “home, house, dwelling; ⚠️[N.] earth”
⚠️G. baravlid [mb-] adj. “homeless”
S. bardh [mb-] n. “home”
S. bardor [mb-] n. “home land, native land”
⚠️G. barod [mb-] adv. “homewards, home”
⚠️G. barthi [mb-] adv. “at home, home”; see instead:
S. bardh “home”
⚠️G. barwen [mb-] n. “homestead”
N. caew n. “lair, resting-place”

7.14 Tent

S. echad n. “camp”

7.22 Door, Gate

⚠️ᴺS. !and n. “gate, door”; see instead:
S. annon “(great) gate, door”
⚠️ᴱN., G. ann n. “door”; see instead:
S. fen(n) “door; [N.] threshold”
S. annon “(great) gate, door”
⚠️G. anna n. “door, opening”; see instead:
S. fen(n) “door; [N.] threshold”
S. annon “(great) gate, door”
S., N. annon n. “(great) gate, door”

7.26 Floor

⚠️G. blath n. “floor”; see instead:
N. talaf “ground, floor”

7.27 Wall

⚠️G. bant n. “wall”; see instead:
S. ram “wall”
S. cail n. “fence, palisade of spikes or sharp stakes”
S., N. caras n. “circular earthwall with dike, fort surrounded by bulwarks; [N.] city (built above ground)”

7.28 Roof

⚠️N. daedelu n. “canopy”; see instead:
S. esgal “veil, screen, hiding; cast shadow, shade”
N. orthelian “canopy”

7.31 Hearth, Fireplace

⚠️G. bordd n. “fireplace”; see instead:
S. ruist “fireplace, hearth”
⚠️G. tangar n. “hearthgrate, fireplace”; see instead:
S. ruist “fireplace, hearth”

7.412 Furniture (other)

S. #dim n. “stair”
N. dolt¹ [nd-] n. “round knob, boss”

7.42 Bed

⚠️G. cumli n. “couch”

7.43 Chair

⚠️S. arahadhw n. “throne, (lit.) high seat”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^archadhu “throne, (lit.) high seat”
ᴺS. [S.] ^archadhu n. “throne, (lit.) high seat”
⚠️ᴺS. !archam n. “throne”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^archadhu “throne, (lit.) high seat”
⚠️G. dorn n. “seat”; see instead:
S. hadhu “seat, *chair”
⚠️G. doros n. “throne”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^archadhu “throne, (lit.) high seat”
⚠️ᴱN. turhod n. “throne”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^archadhu “throne, (lit.) high seat”

7.45 Lamp

S. calar n. “(portable) lamp”
S., N. calardan n. “lampwright”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.22 to Dig, Delve

⚠️G. dol- [nd-] v. “to dig”; see instead:
ᴺS. !sab- “to dig, delve, excavate”

8.29 Blade, Share

ᴺS., G. [G.] cim n. “blade”

8.32 to Mow, Reap

N. critha- v. “to reap”

8.33 Scythe, Sickle

N. cerch n. “sickle”

8.43 Wheat

ᴺS., G. [G.] bloss [mb-] n. “wheat”

8.53 Plant, Herb

⚠️G. caltha n. “plant, herb”; see instead:
N. galas “plant, growth [of plants]”
N. salab “herb”
⚠️G. côl n. “herb, vegetable, edible plant; wort”

8.55 Branch

⚠️ᴱN. alt n. “bough, branch”; see instead:
N. golf “branch”
⚠️G. altha n. “shoot, sprig, scion, sapling”; see instead:
ᴺS. tuig “shoot, sapling, ⚠️sprout”
N. tui “sprout, bud”
⚠️G. calw n. “green shoot, sapling, sprout”; see instead:
ᴺS. tuig “shoot, sapling, ⚠️sprout”
N. tui “sprout, bud”
⚠️G. clann n. “branch”; see instead:
N. golf “branch”
⚠️G. eilian n. “branch”; see instead:
N. golf “branch”

8.57 Flower

S. amloth n. “uprising flower”
⚠️ᴺS. !edlothia- v. “to flower, blossom”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^losta-¹ “to bloom, blossom”
S. eirien n. “daisy”
S., N. elanor n. “a golden star-shaped flower, (lit.) sun-star”
S. elloth n. “single flower”

8.58 Rose

⚠️N. beril n. “rose”; see instead:
S. meril “rose”
S. meril n. “rose”

8.60 Tree (generic)

S. alaf n. “elm”
⚠️G. †alwen n. “tree”; see instead:
S. galadh “tree”
⚠️G. blantos n. “sycamore”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^mablanthas “sycamore”
⚠️G. cwileg n. “alder”
⚠️G. cwithwiros n. “poplar”; see instead:
N. tulus “poplar-tree”
ᴺS. !ecthelorn n. “spruce, fir-tree”
⚠️G. galdon n. “tree”; see instead:
S. galadh “tree”
⚠️N. lalf n. “elm-tree”; see instead:
S. alaf “elm”
⚠️G. lalm n. “elm, elm-wood”; see instead:
S. alaf “elm”
⚠️ᴱN. ólin n. “elm”; see instead:
S. alaf “elm”

8.61 Oak

N., G. doron n. “oak”

8.62 Beech

⚠️G. deldrinwed [nd-] adj. “beechen”
⚠️G. deldrogod [nd-] n. “beech nut”
⚠️G. deldron [nd-] n. “beech (tree)”; see instead:
S. neldor “beech”
⚠️G. deldron grondolas [nd-] n. “oakleaved beech”
⚠️ᴱN. delian n. “beech-tree”; see instead:
S. neldor “beech”
⚠️G. delmos n. “beech nuts, mast [= fruit of beech, oak, chestnut]”

8.63 Birch

S., N. brethil¹ n. “silver-birch; [N.] beech”

8.64 Pine

⚠️ᴱN., G. aigos n. “pine-tree”; see instead:
S. thôn “pine-tree”

8.67 Vine

ᴺS. [G.] ^edol n. “ivy”
⚠️G. ethl(in) n. “ivy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^edol “ivy”

8.99 Vegetation (other)

⚠️G. aithog adj. “thorny”; see instead:
ᴺS. eitheb “thorny, *(orig.) full of points; ⚠️sharp”
⚠️G. aithos n. “thorn bush”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^eithos “thorn bush”
⚠️ᴱN., G. aithr² n. “thorn, sword”; see instead:
N. êg “thorn”
ᴺS. ^aith “spear-point, [ᴱN.] spear, ⚠️thorn”
⚠️N. chwann n. “sponge, fungus”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwand “sponge, fungus”
⚠️G. clum(mi) n. “mushroom”; see instead:
ᴺS. !telum “mushroom”
⚠️G. cod n. “nut”
⚠️G. criscolas n. “holly”; see instead:
S. ereg “holly, [N.] holly-tree, ⚠️[S.] thorn”
⚠️ᴱN. daneitheb adj. “thornless”
ᴺS. [G.] ^eithos n. “thorn bush”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

S., N., ᴱN. car- v. “to do, make”
⚠️ᴱN. cara- v. “to make, do, perform, act (trans. and abs.)”; see instead:
S. car- “to do, make”
⚠️G. cara n. “deed, act”; see instead:
S. #carth “deed”
⚠️ᴱN. carbh n. “deed”; see instead:
S. #carth “deed”
S. #cared n. “action”
⚠️G. cariod(wen) n. “activity”; see instead:
ᴺS. !carthas “activity”
⚠️G. carm n. “deed, act, exploit”; see instead:
S. #carth “deed”
⚠️S. #carn n. “deed”; see instead:
S. #carth “deed”
S., N. #carth n. “deed”
ᴺS. !carthas n. “activity”
S. carweg adj. “active; busy”
ᴺS. !caur n. “action, doing, making; verb”
S., N. echad- v. “to form, make, shape, cut out, [N.] fashion; [S.] (lit.) to shape out”

9.112 Doer, Agent

ᴺS. !caron n. “actor, agent, doer, maker”
N. ceredir n. “doer, maker, *crafter (m.)”
N. #-dis suf. “female agent”

9.12 Work, Labor

ᴺS., G. [G.] drab n. “labour, toil, irksome work”
ᴺS. [G.] ^drabol adj. “labouring”
⚠️G. drabri adj. “labouring”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^drabol “labouring”
ᴺS. [G.] ^drauthas n. “toil, weariness from labour”
⚠️G. drauthiol adj. “arduous, labourious”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^drauthol “arduous, labourious”
ᴺS. [G.] ^drauthol adj. “arduous, labourious”
⚠️G. drauthos n. “toil, weariness from labour”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^drauthas “toil, weariness from labour”

9.13 to Work, Toil

ᴺS., G. [G.] drab- v. “to labour, work; (impersonal) to irk, annoy”

9.14 to Bend

⚠️G. cam(m)a- v. “to stoop, bend, bow, cower; to submit”; see instead:
ᴺS. !loera- “to stoop, bow, cower; to submit”
⚠️G. caug² adj. “humped, bulging; bent”; see instead:
ᴺS. !tomp “humped, bulging”
N. cûn “bowed, bent, bow-shaped, [G.] concave”
⚠️G. cav- v. “to bend, make stoop”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loetha- “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”
⚠️ᴱN. crib- v. “to bend”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loetha- “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”
⚠️G. crictha- v. “to bend”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loetha- “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”
⚠️ᴱN. crimtha- v. “to bend (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loetha- “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”
⚠️G. crinc adj. and n. “bent and thin; crescent”; see instead:
N. cûn “bowed, bent, bow-shaped, [G.] concave”
S. “bow; [N.] arch, crescent; ⚠️[G.] waxing or waning moon”
N., G. cûn adj. “bowed, bent, bow-shaped, [G.] concave”
⚠️G. cuptha- v. “to bend (tr).”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loetha- “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”

9.18 Chain (n)

⚠️ᴱN. angath n. “fetters”; see instead:
N. angwedh “chain, fetter, (lit.) iron-bond”
N. angwedh n. “chain, fetter, (lit.) iron-bond”

9.21 to Hit, Strike, Beat

N. batha- v. “to trample”
N., ᴱN. dram n. “heavy stroke, heavy blow”
N. dringa- v. “to beat”

9.22 to Cut

ᴺS., G. [G.] crista- v. “to slash, cut, slice”
⚠️ᴱN. daila- v. “to cleave”; see instead:
N. hasta- “to hack through, *cleave”

9.25 Ax

⚠️ᴱN. dail n. “axe (blade)”; see instead:
S. hathol “axe”
N. hathel “broadsword-blade, axe-blade”
S. dail “beautiful, fine, delicate, lovely”

9.29 to Flay, Skin

⚠️G. dauth(r)a- v. “to strip, flay”; see instead:
N. heltha- “to strip, *flay, peel skin; *to despoil, make bare”

9.33 to Draw, Pull

⚠️G. cilt n. “jerk”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rinc “twitch, jerk, sudden move”
⚠️G. ciltha- v. “to tug, jerk (out)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rítha-¹ “to jerk, twitch, snatch; [G.] to contort, twist, confuse, disarrange, upset”

9.41 Craft, Trade

⚠️G. aurin adj. “made (by craft of hand), wrought, fashioned”; see instead:
ᴺS. !tavnen¹ “made (by craft of hand), wrought, fashioned”
S., N., ᴱN., G. curu n. “skill (of the hand), craft; power, ability; [N.] cunning; [ᴱN.] magic”

9.42 Artisan, Craftsman

ᴺS. !ceredis n. “crafter (f.)”

9.422 Tool

ᴺS. !carf n. “tool, implement, weapon”
⚠️G. gaig n. “weapon, tool”; see instead:
ᴺS. !carf “tool, implement, weapon”

9.44 to Build

ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^adaba- v. “to build, establish”
⚠️ᴱN. adag- v. “to build, establish”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^adaba- “to build, establish”
⚠️G. bada- v. “to build”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^adaba- “to build, establish”
⚠️G. benn² n. “shape, cut, fashion, shapeliness”; see instead:
S. #cant “shape; [N.] outline”
S. #rest “[N.] cut”
⚠️G. bentha- v. “to cut, fashion, shape”; see instead:
S. echad- “to form, make, shape, cut out, [N.] fashion; [S.] (lit.) to shape out”
⚠️ᴱN. edebion n. “builder”; see instead:
N. thavron “carpenter, wright, builder”
⚠️ᴱN. edengion n. “builder”; see instead:
N. thavron “carpenter, wright, builder”

9.45 to Hew

N. drava- v. “to hew”
ᴺS. [N.] ^dravn n. “hewn log”
⚠️G. flig- v. “to hew”; see instead:
N. drava- “to hew”
⚠️G. pelectha- v. “to hew”; see instead:
N. drava- “to hew”

9.49 Hammer (n)

N. dam [nd-] n. “hammer”
N. damma- [nd-] v. “to hammer”
S., N. #dring n. “hammer, *beater”
⚠️G. odrum n. “hammer”; see instead:
N. dam “hammer”

9.51 Beam

ᴺS., ᴱN., G. [ᴱN.] bang n. “staff”

9.64 Gold

⚠️G. †culu n. “gold”; see instead:
S. malt “gold (as metal)”
⚠️G. culwin adj. “golden”; see instead:
S. #glóriel “golden”
S. mallen “golden, [N.] of gold”

9.65 Silver

⚠️ᴱN. celaith adj. “of silver”; see instead:
N. celevon “*of silver”
S., N., ᴱN., G. celeb n. “silver”
⚠️N., ᴱN. celebren adj. “of silver, like silver”; see instead:
S. celebrin “like silver (in hue or worth), ⚠️[G.] of silver”
S., G. celebrin adj. “like silver (in hue or worth), ⚠️[G.] of silver”
⚠️G. celebriol adj. “like silver”; see instead:
S. celebrin “like silver (in hue or worth), ⚠️[G.] of silver”
⚠️G. celeptha adj. “silvern”; see instead:
N. celevon “*of silver”
N. celevon adj. “*of silver”

9.67 Iron

S., N., ᴱN., G. ang n. “iron”
⚠️ᴱN. angeb adj. “like iron”
S., N., ᴱN. angren adj. “of iron”
⚠️G. angrin adj. “of iron, iron”; see instead:
S. angren “of iron”

9.69 Tin, Tin-Plate

ᴺS., G. [G.] ladog n. “tin (metal)”
⚠️ᴺS. !thint n. “tin (metal)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ladog “tin (metal)”

9.71 Potter

⚠️G. arin(g) n. “kiln”
N. cennan n. “potter”
N. cevnas n. “earthenware”
⚠️N. cevnor n. “potter”

9.74 Glass

S. [Ilk.] ?bril n. “glass, crystal”
⚠️ᴱN. brin n. “dwarf-glass”
⚠️G. brin(in) n. “glassy substance”
⚠️G. celc n. “glass, a glass”; see instead:
S. heledh “glass”
⚠️ᴱN. celch n. “glass”; see instead:
S. heledh “glass”
⚠️G. celchin adj. “of glass”; see instead:
ᴺS. !heledhren “glassy, like glass, of glass”
⚠️G. celchwed adj. “glassy”; see instead:
ᴺS. !heledhren “glassy, like glass, of glass”
⚠️G. †celeg n. “glass”; see instead:
S. heledh “glass”
⚠️G. celegrin adj. “glassy, like glass”; see instead:
ᴺS. !heledhren “glassy, like glass, of glass”

9.76 Basket

ᴺS., G. [G.] ^colch n. “box, chest”
⚠️ᴱN. côn n. “box”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^colch “box, chest”

9.87 Painting, Picture

ᴺS. !em n. “picture, image”

9.90 Thing

⚠️G. cith n. “affair, matter, thing”

9.93 Need, Necessity

N. baur [mb-] n. “need”
ᴺS. [N.] ^boe [mb-] v. “I must”
⚠️N. bui [mb-] v. “I must”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^boe “I must”

9.943 Fitting, Suitable

ᴺS. !camma- v. “to make fit, suit, accommodate, adapt”

9.95 Can, May

ᴺS. !poltha- v. “to (physically) enable”

9.96 Easy

S. ath- pref. “easily”
S. athgar adj. “easy (easy to do)”

9.97 Difficult

⚠️ᴱN. amvenn adj. and adv. “uphill; arduous, difficult, tiresome”; see instead:
N. amben “uphill; [ᴱN.] arduous, difficult, tiresome”
⚠️G. archod n. “difficulty”; see instead:
N. tarias “stiffness, toughness, difficulty”
S. dîr² adj. “hard, difficult”
S. dirbedui adj. “hard to utter, difficult to pronounce”
⚠️G. diriol adj. “tedious”

9.98 to Try

S. dev- [nd-] v. “to try, *experiment, test”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.12 to Turn

ᴺS. [G.] ^drinna- v. “to turn, twist”
ᴺS., G. [G.] drint n. “twist, wrench, turn”
⚠️G. drintha- v. “to turn (tr.), twist”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^drinna- “to turn, twist”

10.21 to Rise

⚠️ᴱN., G. amra- v. “*to rise; [G.] to go up and down, live in the mountains, wander”; see instead:
N. eria- “to rise”
ᴺS. ^renia-¹ “to stray, wander”
⚠️ᴱN. amros adj. “rising, soaring, lofty”; see instead:
S. taer “lofty, *high”
S. brasta- v. “to tower up, loom”

10.23 to Fall

S. danna- v. “to fall”
ᴺS. !dannad n. “falling”
N. dannen adj. “fallen”
⚠️N. dant- v. “to fall”; see instead:
S. danna- “to fall”
S., N. dant n. “*fall”
⚠️ᴱN. dathanc adj. “unsteady”
⚠️G. dodri n. “falling”; see instead:
ᴺS. !dannad “falling”
⚠️G. dont n. “fall, bump, drop”; see instead:
S. dant “*fall”
⚠️G. lantha- v. “to fall onto, settle on, alight”; see instead:
S. danna- “to fall”

10.24 to Drop

ᴺS., G. [G.] dod- v. “to drop, ⚠️fall down”
ᴺS. !dúda- [nd-] v. “to lower [something]”

10.26 to Shake

⚠️G. cwas- v. “to shake, wag, nod, flap”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pasta- “to shake, wag, nod, flap”
⚠️G. cwast adj. “shaking”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^past “shaking”
⚠️G. cwathra- v. “to shake (intr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pasta- “to shake, wag, nod, flap”

10.32 to Flow

ᴺS. !cell adj. “flowing”
⚠️G. celu- v. “to trickle”
S. dannen [nd-] n. “ebb, lowtide”

10.33 to Sink

⚠️G. cavra- v. “to stoop, cower”; see instead:
ᴺS. !loera- “to stoop, bow, cower; to submit”
ᴺS. !cov- v. “to bow”
⚠️ᴱN. dadnuin adj. “sinking (down)”; see instead:
S. annûn “sunset, west; (lit.) going down”
⚠️ᴱN. dadnuv- v. “*to sink, go down”; see instead:
ᴺS. !duia- “to descend, sink, set [of sun]”
ᴺS. !duia- [nd-] v. “to descend, sink, set [of sun]”
⚠️G. num- v. “to sink, decline, slope down, descend”; see instead:
ᴺS. !duia- “to descend, sink, set [of sun]”
ᴺS. ^adlanna- “to slope, slant”
⚠️ᴱN. #nuv- v. “to sink, set”; see instead:
ᴺS. !duia- “to descend, sink, set [of sun]”

10.37 to Fly

⚠️G. biltha- v. “to flutter, flit”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwilwa- “to flutter, flit”
⚠️G. duil¹ n. “flight, power of flight; having power of flight, fledged”
⚠️G. duila- v. “to fly”
⚠️G. duileg adj. “having power of flight, fledged”

10.43 to Jump, Leap

S., G. #cab- v. “to leap, [G.] jump”
⚠️G. camp n. “leap”; see instead:
S. cabed “leap”
⚠️ᴱN. hab- v. “to jump”; see instead:
S. #cab- “to leap, [G.] jump”

10.432 Leaping

S. cabed n. “leap”
⚠️ᴱN. cais n. “leap”; see instead:
S. cabed “leap”

10.45 to Walk

⚠️G. bactha- v. “to walk”; see instead:
N. batha- “to trample”
S. padra- “to walk”

10.47 to Go

N., G. *bad- v. “*to tread, ⚠️[G.] travel”
⚠️ᴺS. !bannen adj. “gone”; see instead:
S. gwanwen “departed, *gone, lost [to time], past”
ᴺS. !lîdh n. “journey”

10.48 to Come

⚠️S. dadwen- [nd-] v. “to return, go back”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dammen- “to return, go back”
ᴺS. [S.] ^dammen- [nd-] v. “to return, go back”
S. dandol- [nd-] v. “to return, come back”

10.51 to Flee

S. #drega- v. “to flee”

10.52 to Follow

S. aphad- v. “to follow”
ᴺS. !aphadol adj. “following”
S. #echil n. “follower”
⚠️G. obra- v. “to follow; to succeed”; see instead:
S. aphad- “to follow”
⚠️G. obra adj. “close behind (of place), following, succeeding, next behind or after (time or place)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !aphadol “following”

10.54 to Overtake

⚠️G. croctha- v. “to catch, snare, trap”; see instead:
N. gad- “to catch”

10.56 to Approach

S. #anglenna- v. “to approach”
ᴺS. !anglennol adj. “approaching, coming”
⚠️G. artha- v. “to approach”; see instead:
S. #anglenna- “to approach”
⚠️G. lendriol adj. “coming, approaching”; see instead:
ᴺS. !anglennol “approaching, coming”
⚠️G. lentha- v. “to come towards speaker, approach, draw near”; see instead:
S. #anglenna- “to approach”

10.61 to Bear, Carry

ᴺS. !col- v. “to bear, carry, wear”
ᴺS. !colron n. “bearer”
⚠️ᴺS. !cyll n. “bearer”; see instead:
ᴺS. !colron “bearer”

10.71 Road

⚠️G. adhwen n. “approach, avenue”

10.72 Path

N., ᴱN., G. bâd n. “beaten track, pathway, [ᴱN.] way, [G.] path”
⚠️G. dronn [nd-] n. “race, course, track”; see instead:
S. north “riding, race (of people running), charge or gallop”
S. rant “course, water-channel; lode, [N.] vein”
N. bâd “beaten track, pathway, [ᴱN.] way, [G.] path”

10.75 Cart, Wagon, Carriage

⚠️G. brada n. “wain, waggon, cart”; see instead:
S. rasg “wain, *wagon, cart”
⚠️G. drogla n. “cart”; see instead:
S. rasg “wain, *wagon, cart”

10.76 Wheel

⚠️G. drô n. “wheel track, rut”; see instead:
N. bâd “beaten track, pathway, [ᴱN.] way, [G.] path”

10.81 Ship

S., ᴱN. cair n. “ship”
⚠️N. ceir n. “ship”; see instead:
S. cair “ship”
S., N. círdan n. “shipbuilder, shipwright”
⚠️N. ciriaeth n. “shipwright”; see instead:
S. círdan “shipbuilder, shipwright”

10.82 Sailor

ᴺS. !cirion n. “sailor, shipman”

10.83 Boat

⚠️G. bent n. “small boat”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lunt “boat”

10.87 Mast

N. breth n. “mast”

10.88 Sail (n)

ᴺS., ᴱN., G. [ᴱN.] belon n. “sail”

10.90 Port, Harbor

⚠️N. cirban n. “haven”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^círbann “haven”
ᴺS. [N.] ^círbann n. “haven”

10.99 Motion (other)

⚠️G. amraith n. “nomand, wanderer (f.)”; see instead:
S. randir “wanderer, wandering man, pilgrim”
⚠️G. amrod adj. “wandering, living in wilds”
⚠️G. amrog n. “nomand, wanderer”; see instead:
S. randir “wanderer, wandering man, pilgrim”
⚠️G. amrog-dorn n. “brown wanderer, gipsy”

11. Possession and Trade

11.14 to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of

⚠️G. clamfa- v. “to grab, claw at”

11.15 to Hold

⚠️ᴱN., G. bail n. “sheath, [G.] case, cover; pod”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gwael “sheath, case, cover; pod”

11.16 to Get, Obtain

ᴺS. !cav- v. “to receive, *accept”
ᴺS. !cavren v. “acceptable”
⚠️ᴱN. ? “[unglossed]”
⚠️G. tû- v. “to get, receive, take; to become”; see instead:
ᴺS. !cav- “to receive, *accept”
⚠️G. tuvrin adj. “acceptable”; see instead:
ᴺS. !cavren “acceptable”

11.21 to Give

S. ann¹ n. “gift”
S., N. #anna- v. “to give, †add to”
ᴺS. !anneth n. “(act of) giving”
⚠️N. ant n. “gift”; see instead:
S. ann¹ “gift”
⚠️G. antha- v. “to give”; see instead:
S. #anna- “to give, †add to”
⚠️G. ôn² n. “gift”; see instead:
S. ann¹ “gift”

11.22 to Return, Give Back

⚠️G. abod adv. “again; in return, in exchange; back”; see instead:
S. dan “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
ᴺS. !dananna- [nd-] v. “to give back, return [something]”

11.23 to Restore

⚠️ᴱN. bodamros adj. “that lives again, renewed, renovated”; see instead:
S. cŷr “renewed”
S. cŷl n. “*renewal”
S. cŷr adj. “renewed”
S. cýra- v. “to renew”

11.24 to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe

⚠️ᴱN. alaith n. “shielding, warding off, protect(ion)”
⚠️ᴱN. alanc adj. “*shielded, protected”
ᴺS. !barn¹ adj. “safe, protected, secure”
N. beria- v. “to protect”
⚠️ᴱN. elaig- v. “to shield, ward off, protect”
⚠️G. muin¹ adj. “safe, secure”; see instead:
ᴺS. !barn¹ “safe, protected, secure”

11.25 to Save, Rescue

S. edraith n. “rescue, saving”

11.27 to Destroy

S. dangar- [nd-] v. “to undo”

11.29 to Spoil

⚠️G. cwel- v. “to fade, wither”; see instead:
S. #pel- “to fade, wane”
⚠️G. cweloth n. “fading”; see instead:
S. #peleth “waning, *fading”
⚠️G. drib- [nd-] v. “to rot, decay, wear out”

11.31 to Seek

⚠️ᴱN. #argen- v. “?to search over”
ᴺS. !cesta- v. “to seek, search for, look for”
ᴺS. !cestaed adj. “curious, seeking, inquisitive”
ᴺS. !cestaedas n. “curiousity”
ᴺS. !ceth- v. “to examine, search, interrogate”

11.33 to Lose

S. eglan adj. “forsaken”

11.34 to Release

⚠️N. †#adleg- v. “*to release”; see instead:
S. #leithia- “to release, [N.] set free”
⚠️N. adleitha- v. “*to release”; see instead:
S. #leithia- “to release, [N.] set free”
⚠️N. adleithian n. “*release, freeing”; see instead:
S. leithian “release from bondage, [N.] release, freeing”
⚠️G. blid- v. “to free, rid”
⚠️G. botheb- v. “to untie, undo, unloose”; see instead:
ᴺS. !únod- “to untie, undo, unloose”
N. breitha- v. “to break out suddenly”

11.42 Wealth, Riches

⚠️G. ausin adj. and n. “rich; fortune”; see instead:
ᴺS. !maeligeb “wealthy, rich”
S. maelig “wealth, abundance”
⚠️ᴱN. awes adj. “rich”; see instead:
ᴺS. !maeligeb “wealthy, rich”

11.48 Heir

S. advir n. “heirloom”
⚠️ᴺS. !dŷr [nd] n. “successor”; see instead:
S. dŷr “mistaken, off point, not right”
S. #hîl “heir”

11.57 Thief

⚠️ᴱN. difedhui adj. “?outlaw”; see instead:
ᴺS. !uwedhen “outlaw, outcast”
⚠️G. nifedhin adj. and n. “outlaw, outcast”; see instead:
ᴺS. !uwedhen “outlaw, outcast”
ᴺS. !uwedhron “outlaw, outcast”

11.79 to Earn

ᴺS. !ammuia- v. “to work (hard) for, to earn”

11.82 to Sell

⚠️ᴱN., G. bag- v. “to sell, trade”; see instead:
N. banga- “to trade, *sell”

11.83 to Trade

⚠️ᴱN. bagod n. “trade, trading”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bangad “trade, trading”
⚠️G. banc n. “trade”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bangad “trade, trading”
N. banga- [mb-] v. “to trade, *sell”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^bangad n. “trade, trading”

11.84 Merchant, Tradesman

N. bachor [mb-] n. “pedlar, *trader, merchant”
⚠️G. badweg n. “traveller; pedlar”; see instead:
N. bachor “pedlar, *trader, merchant”
⚠️G. bagron n. “trader”; see instead:
N. bachor “pedlar, *trader, merchant”
⚠️ᴱN. be(i)gion n. “trader”; see instead:
N. bachor “pedlar, *trader, merchant”

11.85 Market (place)

N. bach [mb-] n. “article (for exchange), ware, thing”
⚠️ᴱN. bagarth n. “market”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bangath “market”
⚠️G. bageth n. “market”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bangath “market”
⚠️G. bagri n. “wares”; see instead:
N. bach “article (for exchange), ware, thing”
⚠️ᴱN. bagru n. “wares”; see instead:
N. bach “article (for exchange), ware, thing”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^bangath n. “market”

11.87 Price

ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^bauch n. “price, cost”
⚠️ᴱN. bog n. “price, cost”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bauch “price, cost”

11.88 Dear, Expensive

⚠️G. bâl adj. “worthy, important; great, mighty”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ball “worthy, important; ⚠️great, mighty”
ᴺS. !baladh n. “worth, importance”
ᴺS. [G.] ^ball adj. “worthy, important; ⚠️great, mighty”
ᴺS. !balla- v. “to matter; to be of significance, worth, moment”
⚠️ᴱN. bogodog adj. “dear”
ᴺS. !coltha- v. “to bear up; to weigh, balance it on scales; to be worth, value or be equivalent to; ⚠️to endure”
⚠️G. gultha- v. “to bear up; to weigh, balance it on scales; to be worth, value or be equivalent to; to endure”; see instead:
ᴺS. !coltha- “to bear up; to weigh, balance it on scales; to be worth, value or be equivalent to; ⚠️to endure”
N. brenia- “to endure”

11.89 Cheap

⚠️ᴱN. bogligen adj. “cheap”
⚠️ᴱN. dammog adj. “valueless”

12. Spatial Relations

12.14 to Lie, Recline

ᴺS. [N.] ^adlanna- v. “to slope, slant”
ᴺS. [N.] ^adlod adj. “sloping, tilted”
⚠️N. atlanna- v. “to slope, slant”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^adlanna- “to slope, slant”
⚠️G. cum- v. “to lie (down)”; see instead:
ᴺS. haw- “to lie”
ᴺS. !dov- v. “to lie heavy”

12.15 to Stand

⚠️G. daltha- v. “to erect, set up”

12.16 to Stay, Wait, Remain

N. dartha- v. “to wait, stay, remain, last, endure”

12.18 to Leave, Relinquish

N. awarth n. “abandonment”
N. awartha- v. “to forsake”
S. ego interj. “be off!”
⚠️G. hai³ interj. “go!, hence, begone, away”; see instead:
S. ego “be off!”
⚠️G. haiva interj. “hence!, begone, be off; (as av.) away, hence, off”; see instead:
S. ego “be off!”

12.19 Quiet (adj)

⚠️G. cwîl adj. “quiet, peaceful, gentle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pell “still, quiet, hushed”
ᴺS. !sídheb “peaceful, full of peace”
ᴺS. muig² “soft, gentle”
⚠️G. cwira- v. “to rustle”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lhossa- “to whisper, rustle”
⚠️G. cwitha- v. “to murmur, whisper”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lhossa- “to whisper, rustle”
⚠️G. cwithri n. “whisper”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhoss “whispering or rustling sound”
S. dîn n. and adj. “silence; silent, quiet”
S., N. dínen adj. “silent”

12.21 to Gather, Collect

S. cova- v. “to come together, meet; to gather, assemble”
S. covad(a)- v. “to bring together, make meet”
⚠️G. crib- v. “to gather, pluck”; see instead:
ᴺS. hosta- “to gather, collect”
ᴺS. leb- “to pick, pluck, take or feel or touch with fingers, cull”

12.22 to Join, Unite

S. #adertha- v. “to reunite”
S., N. aderthad n. “reuniting”
⚠️G. arthaid- v. “to join”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ianna- “to join, connect”

12.221 Together

⚠️G. carpa adv. “together, in a bunch, bunched-up”
⚠️G. criptha adj. and adv. “together, in a bunch, bunched-up”

12.222 And

S., N. conj. “and; †by, near, beside”

12.223 Also

⚠️ᴺS. !aich adv. “also”; see instead:
S. eithro “*also”
⚠️G. arthi adv. “also, as well, besides, too”; see instead:
S. eithro “*also”

12.23 to Separate

S. edregol adv. “in especial, *especially”

12.24 to Open

ᴺS. [G.] ^belen adj. “expanded, unrolled, unfurled, set (of sails)”
⚠️G. belin adj. “expanded, unrolled, unfurled, set (of sails)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^belen “expanded, unrolled, unfurled, set (of sails)”
⚠️G. beltha- v. “to open out (transitive), expand, unroll, set sail”; see instead:
ᴺS. belu- “to unroll, unfurl, belly (of sails), swell, *set sail”
ᴺS., G. [G.] belu- v. “to unroll, unfurl, belly (of sails), swell, *set sail”
S., N. edra- v. “to open (out)”

12.27 to Hide, Conceal

N. delia- v. “to conceal”
N. doltha- v. “to conceal”

12.272 Hidden, Concealed

S., N. dolen adj. “hidden, [N.] secret”
⚠️G. furion adj. “secret, concealed, hidden”; see instead:
S. thurin “secret, hidden”

12.31 High

⚠️ᴱN. aig adj. “high, steep”; see instead:
S. #aeg “sharp, [N.] pointed, piercing”
N. baradh “steep”
⚠️G. alw(eg) adj. “lofty (of living things, trees, men)”; see instead:
S. *alu “wholesome”
S. taer “lofty, *high”
⚠️G. annor(in) adj. “lofty”; see instead:
S. taer “lofty, *high”
⚠️G. anthor(in) adj. “lofty (of mountains)”; see instead:
S. taer “lofty, *high”
⚠️ᴱN., G. adj. “high”; see instead:
S. taer “lofty, *high”
⚠️G. dara adj. “lofty”; see instead:
S. taer “lofty, *high”

12.33 Top

⚠️ᴱN. n. “top”; see instead:
N. caw “top”
N. caw n. “top”
⚠️ᴱN. dain² n. “height, summit; height, loftiness, sublimity”; see instead:
N. taen¹ “height, summit of high mountain”

12.34 Bottom

⚠️G. clib- v. “to uphold, support; to lean”

12.352 Point

⚠️G. aitha- v. “to prick, sting”; see instead:
S. eitha-¹ “to prick with a sharp point, stab; to treat with scorn, insult”
N. #caraes n. “*jagged hedge of spikes”
N. carag n. “spike, tooth of rock”
S., N. ceber n. “stake, spike; ⚠️[N.] ?limestone, -rock”
⚠️ᴱN., G. daroth n. “top, peak, point, tip, spike, [G.] summit”; see instead:
N. taen¹ “height, summit of high mountain”
ᴺS. ^aegas “mountain peak”
⚠️N. ecthel n. “?point (of spear)”; see instead:
N. thela “point (of spear)”
S. naith “spearhead, gore, wedge, narrow prominitory; angle”
N. êg n. “thorn”
⚠️G. eg¹ n. “point”; see instead:
S. till “point, spike, (sharp) horn, tine, ending”
N. êg “thorn”
S. eitha-¹ v. “to prick with a sharp point, stab; to treat with scorn, insult”
ᴺS., ᴱN. [ᴱN.] eitheb adj. “thorny, *(orig.) full of points; ⚠️sharp”
⚠️ᴱN. eithra- v. “to prick, stab”; see instead:
S. eitha-¹ “to prick with a sharp point, stab; to treat with scorn, insult”

12.353 Edge

⚠️ᴱN. cant n. “edge”; see instead:
S. #cant “shape; [N.] outline”
S. lanc¹ “sharp edge (not of tools), sudden end”
S. glân² “hem, border”
⚠️G. cilm n. “rim, brink, edge”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rîw “brink, brim”

12.37 Middle

⚠️S. enaid adj. “central, middle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^enaidh “central, middle”
ᴺS. [S.] ^enaidh adj. “central, middle”
S., N. enedh n. “centre, middle; [N.] core”
ᴺS. !enedhren adj. “central, essential”

12.391 In, Inside

⚠️G. a(d) prep. “into”; see instead:
ᴺS. ! “(to the) inside; into”
⚠️G. ba prep. “in”; see instead:
S. mi “*in”
⚠️G. bi prep. “in”; see instead:
S. mi “*in”

12.392 Out, Outside

⚠️G. ed prep. “close by”; see instead:
S. ed¹ “out, out of, [N.] forth”
S. nef “hither, on this (the speaker’s) side of; †beyond [loose translation]; *near”
S., N. ed¹ prep. and pref. “out, out of, [N.] forth”
⚠️G. edh prep. “outside, near borders of, near, hard by, beside”; see instead:
S. ed¹ “out, out of, [N.] forth”
ᴺS. !sa² “beside, along side, next (to)”
ᴺS. !edren adj. “outer”
⚠️ᴱN. or- pref. “privative prefix, without, -less”; see instead:
S. ú- “no, not, negative; impossible; ⚠️[N.] bad-”
⚠️G. ufra adj. “outer”; see instead:
ᴺS. !edren “outer”

12.393 Across, Athwart

⚠️N. ad prep. “*against”; see instead:
S. dan “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
⚠️G. adr prep. and adv. “across, athwart”; see instead:
S. thar “across, athwart, over”
⚠️G. adr(a) adj. “lying athwart; situated on far side”; see instead:
S. thar “across, athwart, over”
⚠️G. adros n. “crossing, ford”; see instead:
S. athrad “ford, crossing”
⚠️N. ath- pref. “on both sides, across”; see instead:
S. thar “across, athwart, over”
S. athra-¹ v. “to cross (to and fro)”
S., N. athrad n. “ford, crossing”
N. athrada- v. “to cross, traverse”
ᴺS. !dadhren adj. “opposing, facing, opposite”
⚠️G. hadra adj. “opposing, facing, opposite; equivalent”; see instead:
ᴺS. !dadhren “opposing, facing, opposite”
⚠️G. hadron prep. and adv. “opposite”; see instead:
ᴺS. !dadhren “opposing, facing, opposite”
N. hadron “thrower (of spears and darts)”
⚠️N. iath prep. “across”; see instead:
S. thar “across, athwart, over”
⚠️N. iathrad n. “crossing, ford”; see instead:
S. athrad “ford, crossing”

12.394 Up, Above, Over

S., N., ᴱN., G. #am adv. “up, [G.] upwards, ⚠️towards head of, above”
N. amben adj. and adv. “uphill; [ᴱN.] arduous, difficult, tiresome”
⚠️G. amon² adv. “uphill, against stream”; see instead:
N. amben “uphill; [ᴱN.] arduous, difficult, tiresome”
⚠️G. antha adj. “upper”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^orth “upper”
⚠️G. anthos adv. “up, above”; see instead:
N. or “above; [G.] onto, ⚠️on top, on”
S. bo prep. “*on”

12.395 Down, Below, Beneath

ᴺS. [N.] ^adlant adj. “oblique, slanted”
⚠️N. atlant adj. “oblique, slanted”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^adlant “oblique, slanted”
N., ᴱN. dad adv. “down”
N. dadben adj. and adv. “downhill, inclined, prone; [ᴱN.] (figuratively) easy-going, easy, not arduous”
⚠️ᴱN. dadvenn adj. and adv. “downhill; (figuratively) easy-going, easy, not arduous”; see instead:
N. dadben “downhill, inclined, prone; [ᴱN.] (figuratively) easy-going, easy, not arduous”
⚠️ᴱN. dadvinn n. “downhill slope; rash course, impetus, path to destruction”; see instead:
N. dadben “downhill, inclined, prone; [ᴱN.] (figuratively) easy-going, easy, not arduous”
S., N. di¹ [nd-] prep. “beneath, under; ⚠️[N.] in”
⚠️ᴱN. tleth adj. “sloping, slanting, leaning”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^adlant “oblique, slanted”

12.3955 In Front

⚠️ᴱN., G. ant n. “face, front, forward surface; [G.] cheek”; see instead:
N. nîf “front, face”
N. crann “ruddy (of face); face, blush, the cheeks”
N. ant “gift”

12.396 Behind, At the Rear

⚠️G. abont adv. “back; backwards”
N. adel prep. “behind, in rear (of)”
⚠️ᴱN. bod adv. “back”; see instead:
S. dan “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
⚠️G. bod adv. “behind, back, of time ago, ‘a while back’”; see instead:
S. dan “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
⚠️ᴱN., G. bod- pref. “back, [G.] again; un- (= backwards)”; see instead:
S. #ad- “back, again, re-”
S. dan “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
⚠️G. bodra adj. “back(ward), hinder, rear”
⚠️G. bodron adv. “behind, further back”
⚠️ᴱN. bôn n. “back”
⚠️G. bont adv. “back(wards)”

12.397 Beyond

⚠️G. adron adv. “further, beyond, over; on other side”; see instead:
N. athan “beyond”
N. athan prep. “beyond”

12.398 To, Towards

⚠️G. ar¹ prep. “at; to, towards”
⚠️ᴱN. athra- v. “to face, look in a certain direction, oppose”; see instead:
ᴺS. !dadhra- “to face, oppose, stand in way; to resist, thwart”
ᴺS. ^nevra- “to face, go forward”
S. athra-¹ “to cross (to and fro)”
⚠️G. cint adv. “hither”; see instead:
S. nef “hither, on this (the speaker’s) side of; †beyond [loose translation]; *near”

12.399 From, Away

⚠️G. prep. “from”; see instead:
S. o “from, of”
⚠️G. adv. “away, off”
⚠️G. baron [mb-] adv. “from home, out, away, abroad”; see instead:
S. palan “afar, abroad, far and wide”

12.42 Left (vs. Right)

⚠️N. crom adj. “left”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hair “left (hand)”
⚠️N. crum n. “left hand”; see instead:
S. harvo “left hand, left side”
⚠️N. crumui adj. “left-handed”; see instead:
N. harwed “left-handed”

12.43 Near (adj)

S., N., G. ar- pref. “[N.] outside; [S.] without; ⚠️by, beside, [G.] along with, compared with”
⚠️G. art adv. “beside, along side of”; see instead:
ᴺS. !sa² “beside, along side, next (to)”
⚠️G. artha prep. “alongside (of)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !sa² “beside, along side, next (to)”
⚠️G. adv. “here”
⚠️G. edhos prep. “just without, close by”; see instead:
ᴺS. !sa² “beside, along side, next (to)”

12.44 Far (adj)

⚠️G. annai adv. “far away”; see instead:
S. hae “far, (very) far away”
⚠️ᴱN. ech adv. “far away”; see instead:
S. hae “far, (very) far away”
⚠️ᴱN., G. eg adv. “far, †wide; [G.] far away, wide, distant, far off”; see instead:
S. hae “far, (very) far away”
⚠️G. egiont adj. “further, farther”
⚠️ᴱN. egos n. “distance”; see instead:
S. haered “remoteness, (remote) distance”
⚠️G. egra adj. “distant, far away”; see instead:
S. haer “remote, *distant”
⚠️ᴱN. egren adj. “distant”; see instead:
S. haer “remote, *distant”
⚠️G. egros adv. “distant, far away”; see instead:
S. hae “far, (very) far away”
⚠️G. egwed adj. “far, distant”; see instead:
S. haer “remote, *distant”

12.45 East

S., N. amrûn n. “sunrise, east, (lit.) of the uprising”

12.46 West

S. annui adj. “west[ern]”
S., N. annûn n. “sunset, west; (lit.) going down”
S., N. dûn [nd-] n. “west”
N. dúven [nd-] n. “*western”
⚠️ᴱN. nuin² n. “sinking, going down; west”; see instead:
S. annûn “sunset, west; (lit.) going down”
⚠️G. nûmin adj. “the west, sinking”; see instead:
S. annûn “sunset, west; (lit.) going down”

12.51 Form, Shape (n)

⚠️ᴱN. cadog adj. “?shapely”; see instead:
N. cadwor “shapely”
ᴺS. [N.] ^cadu adj. “shaped, formed”
⚠️N. cadw adj. “shaped, formed”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cadu “shaped, formed”
N. cadwor adj. “shapely”
S. #cannas n. “[abstract] shape”
S., N. #cant n. “shape; [N.] outline”

12.53 to Grow

⚠️G. altha- v. “to shoot up, grow (high)”
⚠️G. calon adj. “grown (of plants), budd[ing], in blade (of corn)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^galen “grown (esp. of plants)”
⚠️G. caltha- v. “to wax, grow, flourish”; see instead:
S. gala- “to grow”
S. theria- “to be vigorous, flourish”
⚠️G. calwed adj. “flourishing, adolescent”; see instead:
ᴺS. !theriol “flourishing”
ᴺS. !gwidhren “adolescent”

12.55 Big, Large, Great

S., N., ᴱN., G. beleg adj. “great, mighty; large, big, [ᴱN.] huge”
S. daer¹ adj. “great, large”

12.56 Small, Little

S. cidinn adj. “small”
S. cinnog adj. “small”
⚠️G. nictha- v. “to rain, hail, snow”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nítha-¹ “to snow, hail, ⚠️rain”
N. eil- “to rain”
ᴺS. [G.] ^nítha-¹ v. “to snow, hail, ⚠️rain”
ᴺS. !nítha-² v. “to reduce, make small”
ᴺS. !níthannen v. “reduced, minor”

12.57 Long

S., N. anann adv. “(for) long”
S. and adj. “long”
ᴺS. !annas n. “length”
⚠️G. dîr adj. “long (of time)”
⚠️G. in(d)ra adj. “long (also used of time)”; see instead:
S. and “long”
⚠️G. lenwi n. “length, distance”; see instead:
ᴺS. !annas “length”

12.58 Tall

N. baradh adj. “steep”
S. brand¹ adj. “towering, tall and massive, [N.] high; lofty, noble, fine”

12.61 Wide, Broad

⚠️ᴱN. egall adj. “very broad”; see instead:
S. iaun “wide, extensive, large, roomy, vast, huge”
⚠️ᴱN. eglann adj. “very wide”; see instead:
S. iaun “wide, extensive, large, roomy, vast, huge”
⚠️G. egrin adj. “wide, vast, broad; far”; see instead:
S. iaun “wide, extensive, large, roomy, vast, huge”

12.62 Narrow

N. agor adj. “narrow”

12.63 Thick (in Dimension)

⚠️ᴱN. dolch adj. “stout, thick”; see instead:
N. tûg “thick, fat”
⚠️G. polc adj. “thick, fat”; see instead:
N. tûg “thick, fat”

12.64 Thick (in Density)

ᴺS., S. [S.] delch [nd-] adj. “dense”

12.67 Deep

⚠️G. dolc [nd-] adj. “deep”; see instead:
N. nûr² “deep”

12.71 Flat

⚠️G. amlad n. “surface”; see instead:
N. palath¹ “surface”
⚠️G. blant adj. “flat, open, expansive, candid, blunt (of words)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^plant “candid, blunt (of words); †flat, open, expansive”
⚠️N. dalw adj. “flat”; see instead:
S. #laden “flat, *level, [N.] flat and wide; open, cleared; [G.] fair, equitable; ⚠️[ᴱN.] smooth”

12.72 Hollow, Concave

S. coll² adj. “hollow”
⚠️G. cub adj. “hollow”; see instead:
S. coll² “hollow”
⚠️G. dûl [nd-] adj. “hollow”; see instead:
S. coll² “hollow”

12.74 Crooked

⚠️G. craig adj. “crooked”; see instead:
ᴺS. rhaen “crooked”

12.75 Hook, Crook

⚠️G. crog n. “hook”; see instead:
S. gamp “hook, crook; [N.] claw”
⚠️G. crogin adj. “hooked”

12.76 Angle, Corner

N. bennas n. “angle”

12.78 Square (n)

ᴺS. !canthil n. “square”
⚠️G. cantrib n. “square”; see instead:
ᴺS. !canthil “square”

12.81 Round (adj)

N. corn adj. “round, globed”
⚠️G. corol adj. “round, circular; rolling”; see instead:
N. corn “round, globed”
ᴺS. ^rend “circular”
⚠️ᴱN. crigen adj. “circular”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rend “circular”
⚠️G. crithog adj. “circular”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rend “circular”
⚠️ᴱN. crithui adj. “circular”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rend “circular”
⚠️G. crôl adj. “round”; see instead:
N. corn “round, globed”

12.82 Circle

S. cor n. “ring, circle”
⚠️G. corm n. “ring, circle, disc”; see instead:
S. cor “ring, circle”
⚠️ᴱN. craith n. “circle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rind “circle”
⚠️G. crithla- v. “to encircle; to circle, go round”
⚠️ᴱN., G. crithos n. “ring; [G.] circle”; see instead:
S. cor “ring, circle”
⚠️G. †drinn n. “ring, disc”; see instead:
S. cor “ring, circle”
S. echor n. and adj. “outer circle; encircling”
⚠️G. gorin n. “circle of trees”; see instead:
S. cerin “circular mound, artificial hill; [N.] round enclosure”
⚠️ᴱN. gwerin n. “enclosure”; see instead:
S. cerin “circular mound, artificial hill; [N.] round enclosure”

12.83 Sphere

⚠️ᴱN. corn¹ n. “round ball”; see instead:
N. coron “globe, ball”
N. corn “round, globed”
N. coron n. “globe, ball”
⚠️G. cross n. “ball”; see instead:
S. coron “mound”
⚠️G. crost n. “lump, ball, cake”; see instead:
S. coron “mound”
N. basgorn “loaf, [G.] loaf of bread, [ᴱN.] round loaf, cake”

12.85 Hole

N. dath n. “hole, pit; steep fall, abyss”
⚠️G. dolm [nd-] n. “pit”; see instead:
N. dath “hole, pit; steep fall, abyss”

12.91 Equal, Alike

⚠️ᴺS. !aif adj. “same”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ain “same, identical”
ᴺS. !ain adj. “same, identical”
⚠️G. argulthion adj. “equal, equivalent”; see instead:
ᴺS. !asgolui “equivalent, (lit.) beside-bear-able”
ᴺS. !asgolui adj. “equivalent, (lit.) beside-bear-able”
ᴺS. !bíleb adj. “equal”
ᴺS. !bilebra- v. “to equal”
ᴺS. !bilebren adj. “equable”
ᴺS. !bileutha- v. “to make equal, equalize”
⚠️G. felectha- v. “to make equal, equalize”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bileutha- “to make equal, equalize”
⚠️G. feleg adj. “equal”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bíleb “equal”
S. feleg “cave, mine, underground dwelling”
⚠️G. felegra- v. “to equal”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bilebra- “to equal”
⚠️G. felegrin adj. “equable”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bilebren “equable”
⚠️G. inco pron. “the same, the identical”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ain “same, identical”
S. im¹ “I, I myself; reflexive, self(same)”

12.92 Like, Similar

⚠️ᴱN. a prep. “like”; see instead:
S. #be “as, like; ⚠️in”
S. #be prep. “as, like; ⚠️in”
ᴺS. !bída- v. “to compare, liken”
ᴺS. !bîl n. “likeness, similarity”
ᴺS. !biltha- v. “to resemble, seem like; to seem likely, be probable”
⚠️G. fel prep. and adv. “like; (as av.) as, like”; see instead:
S. #be “as, like; ⚠️in”
ᴺS. !bîl “likeness, similarity”
⚠️G. feltha- v. “to resemble, seem like; to seem likely, be probable”; see instead:
ᴺS. !biltha- “to resemble, seem like; to seem likely, be probable”

12.93 to Change

⚠️G. bart¹ n. “change”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwist “change”
⚠️G. bartha- v. “to change, exchange, alter”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwista- “to change, alter, vary”
N. bartha- “to doom”
⚠️G. bridol adj. “changing, varying, variable”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwistol “changing, varying, variable”
⚠️G. brigla- v. “to change, vary”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwista- “to change, alter, vary”
⚠️G. brigli n. “variation”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwistanneth “alteration, variation”
⚠️G. elt¹ n. “change”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwist “change”
⚠️G. eltha- v. “to alter, change”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwista- “to change, alter, vary”

12.99 Spatial Relations (other)

S. daur n. “league; †stop, pause”
⚠️N. daur adj. “great, large”; see instead:
S. daer¹ “great, large”
S. daur “league; †stop, pause”

13. Quantity and Number

13.11 Amount, Quantity

S., N. arnediad adj. “unnumbered, [N.] without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”
S., N. †arnoediad adj. “unnumbered, without reckoning”
S. arod adj. “noble”
⚠️N. aronoded adj. “innumerable, countless, endless”; see instead:
S. arnediad “unnumbered, [N.] without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”
⚠️ᴱN. inathui adj. “innumerable”; see instead:
S. arnediad “unnumbered, [N.] without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”
⚠️ᴱN. ornoth adj. “innumerable, without number, countless, numberless”; see instead:
S. arnediad “unnumbered, [N.] without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”
⚠️G. udathnarol adj. “countless, innumerable”; see instead:
S. arnediad “unnumbered, [N.] without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”
⚠️G. udathriol adj. “countless”; see instead:
S. arnediad “unnumbered, [N.] without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”

13.12 Number

⚠️G. beleth(os) n. “144, a gross; a great number”; see instead:
N. host “gross (144)”

13.13 Whole

⚠️G. cwant adj. “the whole, all the (with article); full”; see instead:
S. #pant “full; [G.] (with article) the whole, all the”

13.15 Much, Many

⚠️G. egriol adj. “excessive”

13.16 More

ᴺS. !am adv. and adj. “more”
ᴺS., N. [N.] dae adv. “very”
⚠️G. dai² adv. “very, exceedingly”; see instead:
ᴺS. dae “very”
⚠️ᴱN. diant adv. “most”

13.17 Few, Little

⚠️G. -(a)vlid suf. “less”; see instead:
S. pen¹ “without, lacking, -less”

13.19 Crowd, Multitude

⚠️ᴱN. drim n. “host, countless number”; see instead:
S. rim “host, great number, people (of one kind or origin), [N.] crowd”
⚠️G. grim n. “host, folk”; see instead:
S. rim “host, great number, people (of one kind or origin), [N.] crowd”
⚠️G. lim¹ adj. “many”; see instead:
S. rim “host, great number, people (of one kind or origin), [N.] crowd”

13.192 Other Collective Words

⚠️G. carp n. “bundle, bunch”

13.21 Full

⚠️ᴺS. !adbanna- v. “to refill”; see instead:
ᴺS. !adbathra- “to refill”
ᴺS. !adbathra- v. “to refill”
⚠️G. cwintha- v. “to fill”; see instead:
N. pathra- “to fill”

13.22 Empty

⚠️N. caun² n. “empty, void”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^covn “empty, void”
ᴺS. [N.] ^covn n. “empty, void”
ᴺS. !covra- v. “to empty”
ᴺS. !lad n. “nothing, zero”

13.24 Half

⚠️G. elef n. “half, half a ...”; see instead:
N. perin “half”
⚠️G. elfeg adj. “half”; see instead:
N. perin “half”

13.25 Fraction, Division

S. canath n. “quarter”
S. enchui num. ord. “sixth”

13.33 Alone, Only

S. air adj. “lonely”

13.34 First

ᴺS. [G.] ^caetheb n. “original”
⚠️G. caithonwed adj. “original”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^caetheb “original”

13.37 Second (ordinal)

S. edwen num. ord. “second”

13.38 Double, Twice

S. adu adj. “double”
S. edaid adj. “double”
⚠️N. tadol adj. “double”; see instead:
S. edaid “double”

13.54 Cardinal Number

⚠️S. caen num. card. “ten”; see instead:
S. pae “ten”
⚠️N. caer¹ num. card. “ten”; see instead:
S. pae “ten”
⚠️ᴺS. !cambaen num. card. “forty”; see instead:
ᴺS. !caphaen “forty”
⚠️ᴺS. !canab num. card. “fourteen”; see instead:
ᴺS. !paegan “fourteen”
S., N. canad num. card. “four”
⚠️G. cant num. card. “four”; see instead:
S. canad “four”
ᴺS. !caphaen num. card. “forty”
⚠️G. elf(in) num. card. “five”; see instead:
S. leben “five”
⚠️ᴺS. !enebaen num. card. “sixty”; see instead:
ᴺS. !enephaen “sixty”
S., N., ᴱN. eneg num. card. “six”
⚠️ᴺS. !enem num. card. “sixteen”; see instead:
ᴺS. !paeneg “sixteen”
⚠️ᴺS. !eneph num. card. “sixteen”; see instead:
ᴺS. !paeneg “sixteen”
ᴺS. !enephaen num. card. “sixty”

13.55 Ordinal Number

S. canthui num. ord. “fourth”

14. Time

14.12 Age

ᴺS. [N.] ^andrann n. “cycle, age, (lit.) long cycle”
⚠️N. anrand n. “cycle, age, (lit.) long cycle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^andrann “cycle, age, (lit.) long cycle”
⚠️ᴱN., G. born n. “great age, age, period”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^andrann “cycle, age, (lit.) long cycle”
S. born¹ “hot, red”

14.13 New

⚠️G. brag adj. “fresh”; see instead:
S. laew “fresh”
⚠️G. brageth n. “freshness”; see instead:
ᴺS. !laeweth “freshness”
S. cîw adj. “fresh, new, renewed”
N. echain adj. “new, built again”
N. eden adj. “new, begun again”

14.15 Old

N. brûn adj. “old (has long endured)”
⚠️G. dribin adj. “worn out”; see instead:
N. gern “worn, old, decrepit (of things)”
S. einior adj. “elder”

14.21 Fast, Swift, Quick

N. alag adj. “rushing, impetuous”
⚠️ᴱN., G. arog adj. “swift, [G.] rushing, torrential”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lagor “swift, rapid”
N. alag “rushing, impetuous”
N. asgar adj. “violent, rushing, impetuous”
ᴺS. !brêg adj. “lively, sudden, quick”
N. breged n. “violence, suddenness”
S., N. #bregol adj. “quick, sudden, [N.] violent, *fierce”
⚠️N. breig adj. “wild, fierce”; see instead:
S. #bregol “quick, sudden, [N.] violent, *fierce”
⚠️ᴱN. caiw adj. “lively, quick”
S., N. celeg adj. “hasty; [N.] agile, swift”
⚠️ᴱN. graim adj. “?fierce”; see instead:
S. #bregol “quick, sudden, [N.] violent, *fierce”
⚠️G. grum adj. “fierce”; see instead:
S. balch “fierce, ferocious; [N.] cruel”

14.24 to Delay

⚠️G. bodra- v. “to hinder, delay, tarry”
ᴺS. !hebia- v. “to delay, retain, keep (temporarily)”

14.252 to Last

S. andreth n. “long-suffering, patience”
ᴺS. !andrethui adj. “patient, long suffering”
N. brenia- v. “to endure”
N. brona- v. “to last, survive”
ᴺS. !bronad n. “survival”
N. bronadui adj. “enduring, lasting”
N. bronwe n. “endurance”
⚠️G. bronweth n. “constancy”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bronnas “steadfastness, constancy”
⚠️G. ômgulwen n. “patience”; see instead:
S. andreth “long-suffering, patience”

14.27 to Finish

⚠️G. carn adj. “done, finished”; see instead:
ᴺS. !carnen “done, finished”
ᴺS. !carnen adj. “done, finished”
⚠️G. cartha- v. “to finish, make”; see instead:
S. car- “to do, make”
ᴺS. !tel- “to end, finish, be done”
⚠️G. carthion adj. “complete, perfect”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cranthannen “complete, perfect”
⚠️ᴱN. crann- v. “to finish, complete, accomplish”; see instead:
ᴺS. crantha- “to finish, complete, accomplish, achieve”
⚠️G. cranta- v. “to finish, achieve, accomplish, complete”; see instead:
ᴺS. crantha- “to finish, complete, accomplish, achieve”
ᴺS., G. [ᴱN.] crantha- v. “to finish, complete, accomplish, achieve”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^cranthannen adj. “complete, perfect”
⚠️ᴱN. cranthir adj. “perfect”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cranthannen “complete, perfect”

14.28 to Cease

S., N. #dar- v. “[N.] to stop, halt”

14.31 Always

⚠️G. bóra adv. “always, ever, continuously”; see instead:
S. ui “ever”
N. brûn “old (has long endured)”
⚠️G. bront adv. “perpetually”; see instead:
S. ui “ever”
⚠️G. brontha adj. “continual, continuous, unceasing; everlasting”; see instead:
N. bronadui “enduring, lasting”
N. uireb “eternal”

14.35 Again

S., N. #ad- pref. “back, again, re-”
⚠️ᴱN. avod adv. “again, back again, in return”; see instead:
S. dan “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
S. dan [nd-] prep. “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”

14.36 Before (temporal)

⚠️ᴱN. dim adj. “bygone, past, ancient”; see instead:
S. gwanwen “departed, *gone, lost [to time], past”
⚠️G. dim adj. “past, over, former”; see instead:
S. gwanwen “departed, *gone, lost [to time], past”
⚠️G. dîn adv. “once (up a time), long ago, formerly”
⚠️G. diradhin adv. “once upon a time”
S., N. #eb prep. “?before”
⚠️G. ob prep. “after, close behind (time and place)”; see instead:
S. #ab “after”

14.37 After

S. #ab prep. “after”
S. atha- v. “will (future)”
S., N. #cad adv. “*after”

14.41 Day

N. ar-² pref. “day”
⚠️N. arad n. “daytime, a day”; see instead:
S. calan “day(light)”
S., N. aur n. “(whole) day, sunlight, [N.] morning”
S. calan n. “day(light)”
⚠️G. dana n. “day (24 hours)”; see instead:
S. aur “(whole) day, sunlight, [N.] morning”

14.412 Daily

⚠️G. danoriol adj. “daily”; see instead:
S. ilaurui “*daily”

14.42 Night

S., N. n. “night, dimness; [N.] night-fall, late evening; ⚠️[S.] dim, dark”

14.43 Dawn

⚠️G. am(b)ros(t) n. “dawn”; see instead:
S. amrûn “sunrise, east, (lit.) of the uprising”
S. minuial “(dawn) twilight”
⚠️ᴱN., G. amrost n. “rising, (esp.) sunrise, [G.] dawn”; see instead:
S. amrûn “sunrise, east, (lit.) of the uprising”
ᴺS. !cethaeg n. “horizon”

14.45 Noon

⚠️G. authmadri n. “midday meal”; see instead:
ᴺS. !nedhwad “lunch, (lit.) middle-meal”
⚠️G. authmeg n. “midday, high noon”; see instead:
ᴺS. !nedhor “mid-day, noon”
ᴺS. !avnedhor n. “afternoon”
⚠️G. nuiri n. “afternoon”; see instead:
ᴺS. !avnedhor “afternoon”

14.462 Dusk

S. aduial n. “(evening) twilight, *evening”
⚠️G. cwelm n. “dusk”; see instead:
S. moth “dusk”

14.47 Today

⚠️G. ain² n. “today”; see instead:
S. sír “*today, this day”
⚠️G. aindana n. “today”; see instead:
S. sír “*today, this day”
⚠️G. aindanathon adj. “today”; see instead:
S. sír “*today, this day”
⚠️G. cîrin adj. “present (place or time), modern”

14.48 Tomorrow

ᴺS. !abor n. “tomorrow, (lit.) after-day”
⚠️G. nôn n. “tomorrow, the next day on from one mentioned or in thought, the morrow”; see instead:
ᴺS. !abor “tomorrow, (lit.) after-day”

14.49 Yesterday

⚠️G. dimborn n. “the past, past days, olden times”
⚠️ᴱN. #dimvorn n. “past ages”

14.61 Week

⚠️N. Ardórin n. “?Day of Kings”; see instead:
S. Rodyn “alternate name of the last day of the Eldarin six-day week”
⚠️G. caineglad n. “fortnight”

14.62 Sunday

⚠️N. Aranor n. “*Sun-day”; see instead:
S. Oranor “(lit.) *Sun-day, Sunday”

14.63 Monday

⚠️N. Arithil n. “*Moon-day”; see instead:
S. Orithil “*Moon-day, Monday”

14.64 Tuesday

⚠️N. Argalad n. “Tree Day”; see instead:
S. Orgaladh “Day of the Tree, *Tuesday”
⚠️N. Argaladath n. “*Day of the Trees”; see instead:
S. Orgaladhad “Day of the Two Trees, *Tuesday”

14.65 Wednesday

⚠️N. Arvenel n. “*Heavens-day”; see instead:
S. Ormenel “*Heavens-day, Wednesday”

14.66 Thursday

⚠️N. Aroeren n. “Sea-day”; see instead:
S. Oraeron “Sea-day, *Thursday”

14.67 Friday

⚠️N. Arvelain n. “*Day of the Valar”; see instead:
S. Orbelain “*Day of the Valar, Friday”

14.68 Saturday

⚠️N. Argilion n. “*Star-day”; see instead:
S. Orgilion “*Star-day, Saturday”

14.71 Month

S., N. Cerveth n. “July”

14.72 Names of the Months

⚠️S. Cadlaer n. “July, *After-summer”; see instead:
S. Cerveth “July”
⚠️N. Cadloer n. “July, *After-summer”; see instead:
S. Cerveth “July”
⚠️N. Cathriw n. “January, *After-winter”; see instead:
S. Narwain “January, (lit.) *New Fire”
⚠️S. Eblaer n. “June, ?Before-summer”; see instead:
S. Nórui “June, *Fiery”
⚠️N. Ebloer n. “June, ?Before-summer”; see instead:
S. Nórui “June, *Fiery”

14.73 Year

ᴺS. !coranor n. “solar year, (lit.) sun-round”

14.75 Spring

S. echuir n. “early Spring, (lit.) stirring”
N. echuir n. “early Spring, (lit.) stirring”

14.76 Summer

⚠️G. aust n. “summer”; see instead:
S. laer¹ “summer”
⚠️ᴱN. awest n. “summer”; see instead:
S. laer¹ “summer”
⚠️G. ost² n. “summer”; see instead:
S. laer¹ “summer”

14.77 Autumn

⚠️N. dannas n. “autumn”; see instead:
S. iavas “autumn, *harvest”
⚠️G. dodri·lassion n. “autumn, (lit.) *falling of leaves”; see instead:
S. iavas “autumn, *harvest”
ᴺS. ^lasbelin “leaf-fall, autumn”

14.99 Time (other)

⚠️N. bereth² n. “feast, festival”; see instead:
S. mereth “feast, [N.] festival”
⚠️N. edinar n. “anniversary day”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^edinor “anniversary day”
ᴺS. [N.] ^edinor n. “anniversary day”

15. Sense Perception

15.24 Smell (n, obj)

⚠️G. drith- v. “it smells, smacks of, savours of”

15.25 Fragrant, Good Smelling

⚠️G. drith [nd-] n. “savour, smell, flavour; suggestion, inkling”

15.31 to Taste (subj)

⚠️G. cautha-¹ v. “to taste (of the taster or person); to get flavour of, perceive, notice”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cauda- “to get flavour of, perceive, notice; ⚠️to taste (of the taster or person)”
S. caw- v. “to taste”

15.32 to Taste (obj)

⚠️G. caf- v. “to taste (used of the thing)”; see instead:
S. caw- “to taste”
ᴺS. [G.] ^cauda- v. “to get flavour of, perceive, notice; ⚠️to taste (of the taster or person)”
ᴺS. [G.] ^caudol adj. “tasteful, endowed with good taste; discreet, circumspect”

15.33 Taste (n, subj)

⚠️G. cafwen n. “sense of taste, taste, judgement”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^caweth “sense of taste, taste, judgement”
⚠️G. cauthiol adj. “tasteful, endowed with good taste; discreet, circumspect”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^caudol “tasteful, endowed with good taste; discreet, circumspect”
ᴺS. [G.] ^caweth n. “sense of taste, taste, judgement”

15.34 Taste (n, obj)

ᴺS. !caust n. “savour, flavour”
⚠️G. côf n. “savour, smack, odour”; see instead:
ᴺS. !caust “savour, flavour”
N. ûl “odour, *smell, scent”

15.38 Sour, Acidic

⚠️G. caura adj. “sour (of milk)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !cordh “sour (of milk), curdled”
⚠️ᴱN., G. cîr adj. “sour, curdled”; see instead:
ᴺS. !cordh “sour (of milk), curdled”
⚠️ᴱN. cirtha- v. “to turn sour (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cortha- “to turn sour, curdle, congeal”
ᴺS. !cordh n. “sour (of milk), curdled”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^cortha- v. “to turn sour, curdle, congeal”
⚠️G. cur- v. “to turn sour, curdle, congeal”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cortha- “to turn sour, curdle, congeal”
⚠️ᴱN. #curan- v. “to curdle (intr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cortha- “to turn sour, curdle, congeal”

15.44 Sound (n)

S., N. #brui adj. “loud, *noisy”
⚠️ᴺS. !dang n. “noise”; see instead:
S. lhôn “noise, *sound”
⚠️G. rum n. “noise”; see instead:
S. lhôn “noise, *sound”

15.51 to See

S. alae interj. “?behold”
S. #cen- v. “to see, perceive, look”
⚠️G. thê- v. “see”; see instead:
S. #cen- “to see, perceive, look”

15.52 to Look

S. #cened¹ n. “looking, *seeing”

15.54 Sight (obj), Look (obj), Appearance

S. athgen adj. “easily seen”

15.56 to Shine, Glisten

⚠️ᴱN. agladhren adj. “radiant”; see instead:
S. aglareb “glorious, brilliant, *radiant”
S. #cal- v. “to shine”

15.57 Bright

⚠️G. blenc adj. “brilliant”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^celair “brilliant, *shining”
ᴺS. [N.] ^celair adj. “brilliant, *shining”
⚠️N. celeir adj. “brilliant”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^celair “brilliant, *shining”

15.61 Color

ᴺS., G. [G.] crui n. “colour”
⚠️G. cruim adj. “coloured”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cruin “coloured”
ᴺS. [G.] ^cruin adj. “coloured”
ᴺS., G. [G.] cruith n. “colour, complexion, appearance”
⚠️G. cwil n. “hue, tint”; see instead:
ᴺS. crui “colour”

15.62 Light in Color

⚠️G. cwiliog adj. “bright-hued”; see instead:
S. calen “green; †bright, [N.] bright colored; ⚠️[S.] fresh, vigorous”
⚠️ᴱN. lhui adj. “pale”

15.65 Black

⚠️G. colw adj. “black”; see instead:
S. morn “black, dark; ⚠️night”

15.66 Red

S., N. caran adj. “red”
⚠️G. carn(in) adj. “scarlet”; see instead:
S. caran “red”
N. coll adj. “red, scarlet”
ᴺS. !collorn n. “laburnum, *(lit.) orange-tree”
⚠️G. crintha adj. “rosy, pink”
ᴺS. !culuin adj. “golden-red, orange (in color)”
N. donn adj. “swart, swarthy; shady, shadowy”
⚠️N. dost ? “?brown/?burn”; see instead:
S. baran “brown, golden-brown; [N.] swart, dark brown”
ᴺS. ^orna- “to blaze, burn”

15.67 Blue

ᴺS. [N.] ^elu adj. “(pale) blue”
⚠️N. elw adj. “(pale) blue”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^elu “(pale) blue”

15.68 Green

S., N. calen adj. “green; †bright, [N.] bright colored; ⚠️[S.] fresh, vigorous”

15.69 Yellow

S., N. baran adj. “brown, golden-brown; [N.] swart, dark brown”

15.71 to Touch

ᴺS. !apha- v. “to touch”
⚠️G. fab- v. “to handle, touch, feel”; see instead:
N. matha- “to stroke, feel, handle”
ᴺS. !apha- “to touch”

15.73 Touch (n)

ᴺS. !aphas n. “(sence of) touch”
⚠️G. fabli n. “sense of touch”; see instead:
ᴺS. !aphas “(sence of) touch”

15.74 Hard

S. dern adj. “tough, thrawn”
S. dorn adj. “tough, stiff, thrawn, obdurate”
⚠️S. #norn adj. and n. “hard; dwarf”; see instead:
S. dorn “tough, stiff, thrawn, obdurate”

15.75 Soft

⚠️G. bless [mb-] n. “grace, kindness, good feeling”; see instead:
ᴺS. list “grace, favour, kindness”
⚠️G. blethrin [mb-] adj. “gracious, kind”; see instead:
S. raen² “smiling, gracious, sweet-faced”
N. milui “friendly, loving, kind”

15.76 Rough

⚠️ᴱN. arch adj. “rough”; see instead:
S. tarch “stiff, rough (or tough)”
⚠️ᴱN. archos n. “roughness, ruggedness, rudeness”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tarchas “roughness, ruggedness, rudeness”

15.78 Sharp

S. #aeg adj. “sharp, [N.] pointed, piercing”
⚠️G. aisc adj. and n. “sharp, bitter; sharp edge of a blade”; see instead:
S. #aeg “sharp, [N.] pointed, piercing”
N. saer “bitter”
⚠️G. aitheb adj. “sharp, piercing”; see instead:
S. #aeg “sharp, [N.] pointed, piercing”
⚠️G. †aith(i)or n. “warrior, swordsman”; see instead:
S. #magor “swordsman”
N. maethor “warrior”
⚠️G. aithra adj. “piercing, sharp; thorny”; see instead:
S. #aeg “sharp, [N.] pointed, piercing”
ᴺS. eitheb “thorny, *(orig.) full of points; ⚠️sharp”
⚠️G. crisc adj. “sharp”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^crisg “sharp [edged]”
ᴺS. [G.] ^crisg adj. “sharp [edged]”
⚠️N. oeg adj. “sharp, pointed, piercing”; see instead:
S. #aeg “sharp, [N.] pointed, piercing”

15.81 Heavy, Weighty

S. caul n. “(great) burden; affliction”
ᴺS. !coleb adj. “burdensome”
S. cûl n. “load”
⚠️G. gaul¹ n. “burden”; see instead:
S. caul “(great) burden; affliction”
N. gaul “wolfhowl”
⚠️G. gumriol adj. “burdensome”; see instead:
ᴺS. !coleb “burdensome”

15.82 Light, Nimble

ᴺS. !colui adj. “light (to carry), not heavy, (lit.) carryable”
⚠️ᴱN. dalhung adj. “not heavy”

15.84 Dry, Arid

⚠️N. afarch adj. “arid, very dry”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^apharch “arid, very dry”
ᴺS. [N.] ^apharch adj. “arid, very dry”
⚠️G. arp adj. “barren, dry, desert”; see instead:
N. parch “dry”

15.85 Hot, Warm

ᴺS., S. [S.] ast n. “light or heat of the sun, *warmth”
S. born¹ [mb-] adj. “hot, red”
N. brass n. “white heat, *extreme heat”
N. brassen adj. “white-hot, *very hot”
⚠️G. cluim adj. “warm, cosy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^laug “warm”
⚠️G. cluimri n. “pleasant warmth, cosiness”

15.88 Dirty, Soiled

⚠️ᴱN. dafuig adj. “dirty”; see instead:
N. gwaur “soiled, dirty”

16. Emotion

16.11 Soul, Spirit

⚠️G. blaith n. “spirit”; see instead:
S. fae “incarnate spirit, *soul”
S. faer “spirit (in general)”

16.13 Passion

ᴺS. !baltha- v. “to excite, rouse, stir up, agitate”
ᴺS. !balthannen n. “excited, agitated”
ᴺS. !balthol v. “exciting; excitable”
ᴺS. !balu n. “excitement, emotion”
⚠️G. cwibra- v. “to arouse (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !baltha- “to excite, rouse, stir up, agitate”
⚠️G. cwiptha- v. “to arouse (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !baltha- “to excite, rouse, stir up, agitate”
⚠️G. ictha- v. “to egg on, excite, arouse, agitate”; see instead:
ᴺS. !baltha- “to excite, rouse, stir up, agitate”
⚠️G. ig n. “excitement, fuss, ado”; see instead:
ᴺS. !balu “excitement, emotion”
⚠️G. igin adj. “excited, agitated”; see instead:
ᴺS. !balthannen “excited, agitated”
⚠️G. igol adj. “exciting; excitable”; see instead:
ᴺS. !balthol “exciting; excitable”

16.15 Wonder, Astonishment

⚠️G. elma- v. “to marvel at, admire”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^elva- “to marvel at, admire”
⚠️G. elm(en) n. “wonder; singular, marvelous or unique thing; something strange”; see instead:
ᴺS. elven “wonder, wonderment”
S. elo interj. “behold!”
⚠️G. el(u)m interj. “think of that!”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^elva- “to marvel at, admire”
ᴺS. [G.] ^elva- v. “to marvel at, admire”
ᴺS., ᴱN. [ᴱN.] elvain adj. “wondrous, marvelous, wonderful; ⚠️wonder(ful thing), marvel”
ᴺS., ᴱN. [ᴱN.] elven n. “wonder, wonderment”
⚠️ᴱN. elvennai adj. “wonderful, marvelous”; see instead:
ᴺS. elvain “wondrous, marvelous, wonderful; ⚠️wonder(ful thing), marvel”

16.17 Fortune (Good or Bad)

S., N., ᴱN. amarth n. “fate, doom”
S. amartha- v. “to define, decree, destine”
ᴺS. !amarthannen adj. “decreed, destined, ordained”
⚠️ᴱN. am(b)red adj. “fated”; see instead:
N. barad² “doomed, *fated”
⚠️G. ausirol n. “fortune”; see instead:
S. maelig “wealth, abundance”
N. barad² [mb-] adj. “doomed, *fated”
ᴺS. !bilthadren adj. “probable”
⚠️G. brith- v. “to chance”
⚠️G. felthadrin adj. “probable”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bilthadren “probable”
⚠️ᴱN. garthant adj. “placed, appointed, ordained, decreed”; see instead:
ᴺS. !amarthannen “decreed, destined, ordained”
⚠️G. martion adj. “fated, doomed, fey”; see instead:
N. barad² “doomed, *fated”
⚠️G. mart(os) n. “fate, portion, lot”; see instead:
S. amarth “fate, doom”
⚠️G. umbart n. “fate”; see instead:
S. amarth “fate, doom”

16.18 Good Fortune

ᴺS. !alvar n. “(good) luck, fortune”
S. alwed adj. “prosperous, fortunate”
⚠️G. avos n. “wealth, fortune, prosperity; luck”; see instead:
S. maelig “wealth, abundance”
ᴺS. !eliad n. “blessing”
ᴺS. !elias n. “blessedness”
⚠️G. gwalt n. “good luck, any providential occurrence or thought”; see instead:
ᴺS. !alvar “(good) luck, fortune”

16.19 Misfortune

⚠️ᴱN. balhant n. “illfated stroke”
N. bartha- [mb-] v. “to doom”

16.23 Glad, Joyful

⚠️N. beren² adj. “festive, gay, joyous”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^meren “festive, gay, joyous”

16.24 Happy; Happiness

⚠️S. al-² pref. “well, happily”; see instead:
S. mae “well; excellent, admirable”
⚠️G. dairog adj. “merry (of persons)”; see instead:
S. gelir “merry”

16.25 to Laugh, Smile

⚠️G. cacha- v. “to laugh”; see instead:
S. #lala- “to laugh”
⚠️G. cag n. “joke, jest”; see instead:
ᴺS. !glaudh “joke, jest”
⚠️G. cagri n. “joke, jest”; see instead:
ᴺS. !glaudh “joke, jest”
⚠️G. cagrin adj. “funny, amusing”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lallen “funny, amusing”
⚠️G. cagriol adj. “jocular”; see instead:
ᴺS. !glodhren “jocular”
⚠️G. canc n. “laughter, mirth, merriment”; see instead:
S. lalaith “laughter”
⚠️G. dairiol adj. “merry (of things), funny”; see instead:
S. gelir “merry”
ᴺS. !lallen “funny, amusing”
⚠️G. dairwed adj. “merry, funny (common)”; see instead:
S. gelir “merry”
ᴺS. !lallen “funny, amusing”
⚠️G. dairwen n. “mirth”

16.26 to Play

⚠️G. dair n. “play, merriment”
⚠️G. dairtha- v. “to play, amuse”; see instead:
N. telia- “to play”

16.29 to Kiss

⚠️G. cailtha- v. “to kiss”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^mýtha- “to kiss, bill”
⚠️G. cailthi n. “kiss”; see instead:
ᴺS. mib “(little) kiss, peck”

16.31 Pain, Suffering

⚠️ᴱN. aidh n. “pain, anguish, woe”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^naegos “anguish”
ᴺS. [OS.] ^ammal n. “(death) agony”
⚠️G. bal [mb-] n. “anguish, pain; evilness”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^naegos “anguish”
N. naeg “pain”
S. rhû¹ “evil, wicked”
N. baug [mb-] adj. “tyrannous, cruel, oppressive”
N. baugla- [mb-] v. “to oppress”
S., N. bauglir [mb-] n. “constrainer; tyrant, oppressor”
N. baul [mb-] n. “torment”
⚠️N. palw n. “agony”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^naegos “anguish”
ᴺS. ^ammal “(death) agony”

16.36 Sad

⚠️ᴱN. dangair adj. “mirthless”
ᴺS., Ilk. [Ilk.] dem adj. “sad, gloomy”
ᴺS., Ilk. [Ilk.] dim n. “gloom, sadness”

16.41 Hate (n)

ᴺS. !dêl n. “disgust”
N. deleb adj. “horrible, abominable, loathsome”
S., N. deloth n. “abhorrence, [N.] detestation, loathing”

16.42 Anger

⚠️G. archos n. “savagery, evil temper”

16.43 Rage, Fury

⚠️G. arc adj. “fierce, harsh, ill tempered; awkward, difficult”; see instead:
S. rhanc “awkward, hard”
S., N. balch adj. “fierce, ferocious; [N.] cruel”
⚠️ᴱN. boir [mb-] adj. and n. “hot, raging; heat, rage”; see instead:
N. brassen “white-hot, *very hot”
⚠️ᴱN. bordh [mb-] n. and adj. “heat, rage; hot, raging, wroth”
⚠️ᴱN. brann adj. “fierce”; see instead:
S. #bregol “quick, sudden, [N.] violent, *fierce”
⚠️ᴱN. branwen n. “ferocity”; see instead:
N. bregolas “fierceness, *ferocity”
N. bregolas n. “fierceness, *ferocity”
ᴺS. !dagrassaeb adj. “bloodthirsty, (lit.) slaughter-hungry”
ᴺS. !dagrassaeg n. “bloodthirstiness, (lit.) slaughter-hunger”
⚠️G. grui adj. “ferocity, horror”; see instead:
N. bregolas “fierceness, *ferocity”
⚠️G. magrusaig adj. “bloodthirsty”; see instead:
ᴺS. !dagrassaeb “bloodthirsty, (lit.) slaughter-hungry”
⚠️G. magrusaith n. “bloodthirstiness”; see instead:
ᴺS. !dagrassaeg “bloodthirstiness, (lit.) slaughter-hunger”

16.44 Envy, Jealousy

⚠️ᴱN. ballam adj. “with evil malicious tongue”

16.45 Shame (n)

ᴺS., G. [G.] agrech n. “contempt”
⚠️G. agrectha- v. “to despise, contemn”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^agreitha- “to despise, contemn”
⚠️G. agrectharol adj. “despicable, contemptible”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^agreitharol “despicable, contemptible”
⚠️G. agrecthion adj. “despised”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^agreithannen “despised”
ᴺS. [G.] ^agreitha- v. “to despise, contemn”
ᴺS. [G.] ^agreithannen adj. “despised”
ᴺS. [G.] ^agreitharol adj. “despicable, contemptible”
⚠️G. cactha- v. “to deride, mock, make fun of, laugh at”; see instead:
ᴺS. !iaeda- “to mock, deride, make fun of, laugh at”
S. eithad n. “*insult”

16.47 Fame, Glory

S., N., ᴱN., G. aglar n. “glory, brilliance, splendour, radiance”
S., N., ᴱN. aglareb adj. “glorious, brilliant, *radiant”
⚠️G. aglar(i)ol adj. “glorious”; see instead:
S. aglareb “glorious, brilliant, *radiant”
⚠️G. †aglath n. “glory”
⚠️S. aglor adj. “brilliant, glorious”; see instead:
S. aglareb “glorious, brilliant, *radiant”
N. claur adj. and n. “splendid; †splendour, glory”
⚠️G. emfeg adj. “infamous, of evil name”; see instead:
ᴺS. !othestannen “infamous, of evil name, (lit.) ill-named”

16.48 Proud

⚠️ᴱN. balthanc adj. “obstinate”
⚠️ᴱN. balvlaud n. “overweening pride”
ᴺS., ᴱN. [ᴱN.] blaud n. “pride”
ᴺS., ᴱN. [ᴱN.] blodren adj. “arrogant, *proud”
⚠️G. cam adj. “bent, bowed; submissive, humble”; see instead:
N. cûn “bowed, bent, bow-shaped, [G.] concave”
ᴺS. ^hogren “lowly, humble, mean”

16.51 to Dare

N. bertha- v. “to dare”
ᴺS. !berthas n. “adventure, bold undertaking”
ᴺS. !berthian n. “challenge; daring, audacity”

16.52 Brave, Courageous

N. bara adj. “fiery, eager”
N. beren¹ adj. “bold”
⚠️ᴺS. [N.] ^cand adj. “bold”; see instead:
N. beren¹ “bold”
⚠️N. cann adj. “bold”; see instead:
N. beren¹ “bold”
⚠️N. caun¹ n. “valour”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^thalas “valour, courage”
⚠️G. driod [nd-] n. “heroism, valour”; see instead:
N. caun¹ “valour”
ᴺS. ^thalas “valour, courage”
⚠️G. driodwen [nd-] n. “heroism, valour”; see instead:
N. caun¹ “valour”
ᴺS. ^thalas “valour, courage”
⚠️G. driog [nd-] adj. “valiant”; see instead:
N. beren¹ “bold”
N. thala “stalwart, steady, firm, [ᴱN.] hardy, valiant, bold”

16.53 Fear, Fright

⚠️ᴺS. !achas n. “dread, fear”; see instead:
S. goe “terror, great fear, [N.] dread”
N. angos n. “horror”
S. anwar adj. “awe”
⚠️G. barc n. “dread, terror”; see instead:
S. goroth “horror, dread”
⚠️ᴱN. barch n. “horror”; see instead:
S. goroth “horror, dread”
⚠️ᴱN. barcheb adj. “horrible”; see instead:
S. gorthob “horrible”
⚠️G. barchol adj. “terrible, awful”; see instead:
S. gorthob “horrible”
⚠️G. brig- v. “to fear, be afraid of”; see instead:
N. gosta- “to fear exceedingly”
⚠️G. brigol adj. “afraid; fearful, timid”; see instead:
ᴺS. !thossui “fearful, afraid”
⚠️G. captha- v. “to startle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cotha- “to startle”
ᴺS. [G.] ^cotha- v. “to startle”
S. dae- [nd-] pref. “dreadful, abominable, detestable”
S. daedelos [nd-] n. “horrible fear”
S. dael [nd-] n. “horror”
⚠️S. daer² [nd-] adj. “dreadful, abominable, detestable”; see instead:
S. naer “dreadful, horrible, unendurable; [N.] lamentable, ⚠️sad”
S. #gaer¹ “awful, fearful, [N.] dreadful”
S., N. del n. “horror”

16.62 to Desire

S. #aníra- v. “to desire, *long for”

16.622 Desire

⚠️G. avosaith n. “avarice, money-greed, greed of gold”; see instead:
ᴺS. !milu “greed”
⚠️G. buin n. “desire, wish”
⚠️ᴱN. coth n. “wish”; see instead:
N. iest “wish”
⚠️G. hôth (hôdh-) n. “expectation, hope”; see instead:
S. amdir “hope [based on reason], *expectation, (lit.) looking up”

16.63 Hope (n)

S. amdir n. “hope [based on reason], *expectation, (lit.) looking up”

16.65 Faithful

S. astor n. “loyalty”
S. astorad n. “loyalty”
S. ?born² adj. “[stead]fast”
⚠️ᴱN. boron adj. “steadfast”; see instead:
N. bôr “steadfast; trusty man, faithful vassal”
ᴺS., ᴱN., G. [ᴱN.] brond adj. “firm, [G.] steadfast, *faithful, constant”
ᴺS. !bronnas n. “steadfastness, constancy”
⚠️G. bronniol adj. “constant, faithful”; see instead:
ᴺS. brond “firm, [G.] steadfast, *faithful, constant”
⚠️ᴱN. bronnuin n. “steadfastness”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bronnas “steadfastness, constancy”
⚠️ᴱN. nuimrond n. “steadfastness”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bronnas “steadfastness, constancy”

16.67 Lie, Falsehood

ᴺS. !cauth n. “deception, lie”

16.68 Deceit

⚠️ᴱN. bland n. “deceit, lie”; see instead:
ᴺS. !cauth “deception, lie”
ᴺS. !cútha- v. “to deceive, lie”
⚠️G. fûr n. “lie”; see instead:
ᴺS. !cauth “deception, lie”

16.69 to Forgive

S. #díhena- v. “*to forgive”

16.71 Good

S. ein- pref. “excellent, admirable”

16.72 Bad

N. crumguru n. “wiley, sinister, guilty”
⚠️ᴱN. damor adj. “no good”

16.73 Right (adj)

⚠️G. (be)bilfir n. “conscience”

16.74 Wrong (adj)

⚠️G. aul adv. “ill, badly”
⚠️G. aulin adj. “wrong”; see instead:
S. ogol “bad, evil, wrong; gloom(y)”
ᴺS. ^raeg “wrong, [G.] awry, twisted, distorted, perverse, leering (of face)”
⚠️ᴱN. bal- [mb-] pref. “evil-”; see instead:
S. rhû¹ “evil, wicked”
⚠️ᴱN. balthir n. “evil king”
⚠️ᴱN. balwidhion n. “?bad husband”; see instead:
N. herven “husband”
⚠️G. curdhu n. “sin, wickedness, evil”; see instead:
S. rhû¹ “evil, wicked”
S. rhugar “evil deed, *sin”
⚠️G. cwarth (cwardh-) adj. “evil, bad, wicked”; see instead:
S. ogol “bad, evil, wrong; gloom(y)”

16.75 Sin, Impiety

⚠️G. curdhweg n. “sinner [m.]”; see instead:
ᴺS. !rhugaron “sinner”
⚠️G. curdhwin n. “sinner [f.]”; see instead:
ᴺS. !rhugaron “sinner”

16.76 Fault, Guilt

⚠️G. aidra- v. “to expiate”
⚠️G. aidros n. “expiation”

16.77 Error, Mistake

⚠️ᴺS. !athranna- v. “to wrong, mistake”; see instead:
S. #neitha- “to wrong, deprive”
S. dýgar “mistaken act; doing a wrong thing”
⚠️G. cinga- v. “to go wrong, get tangled”; see instead:
ᴺS. canga- “to tangle, *to go wrong”
S. dýgar n. and adj. “mistaken act; doing a wrong thing”
S. dŷl n. “mistake”
S. dŷr adj. “mistaken, off point, not right”

16.79 Praise (n)

⚠️G. belectha- v. “to extol, magnify”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^beleitha- “to extol, magnify”
ᴺS. [G.] ^beleitha- [mb-] v. “to extol, magnify”
⚠️ᴺS. !daetha- v. “to praise”; see instead:
S. #egleria- “to glorify”
S. #egleria- v. “to glorify”

16.81 Beautiful

S. bain adj. “beautiful; good, wholesome, favorable; ⚠️fair, fair-haired”
ᴺS. !banath n. “beauty”
⚠️ᴺS. !baneth n. “beauty”; see instead:
ᴺS. !banath “beauty”
⚠️N. bein adj. “fair, beautiful”; see instead:
S. bain “beautiful; good, wholesome, favorable; ⚠️fair, fair-haired”
ᴺS. !beinas n. “beauty”
⚠️G. benin adj. “shapely, pretty”; see instead:
S. maed¹ “shapely, *pretty”
⚠️G. *cli adj. “?attractive”
S. dail adj. “beautiful, fine, delicate, lovely”
S. edhelvein adj. “elven fair”
⚠️G. gwandra adj. “beautiful”; see instead:
S. bain “beautiful; good, wholesome, favorable; ⚠️fair, fair-haired”
⚠️ᴱN. gwannen adj. “?beautiful”; see instead:
S. bain “beautiful; good, wholesome, favorable; ⚠️fair, fair-haired”

16.99 Emotion (other)

⚠️G. balc adj. “cruel, evil”; see instead:
S. balch “fierce, ferocious; [N.] cruel”
⚠️ᴱN. elirdhi n. “cruelty”

17. Mind and Thought

17.13 to Think, Reflect

⚠️G. cuctha n. “consideration”
⚠️G. cucthol adj. “painstaking”
⚠️G. cug- v. “to ponder, resolve, think, consider”
⚠️G. cunghol adj. “painstaking”
⚠️G. cuno n. “care, thought, ‘pains’”

17.151 Guess, Suppose

⚠️ᴺS. !ae conj. “if ”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ce “may(be), might”
ᴺS. !pi “if”
S. aen adv. “should be; ?may it be that”
ᴺS. !ce adv. “may(be), might”
⚠️ᴺS. ! conj. and adv. “may, might, maybe, perhaps, if”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ce “may(be), might”
ᴺS. !pi “if”

17.171 Knowledge, Science

⚠️G. ais n. “knowledge, wisdom”; see instead:
N. ist “lore, knowledge; ⚠️[G.] feeling, sensation; notion”
S. dorgannas n. “shapes of the lands, *geography”

17.18 to Seem

ᴺS. !nem adj. “seeming, evident, probably but not necessarily so”
ᴺS. !nemmas adj. “evidence”
ᴺS. !nev- adj. “to seem, appear”

17.21 Wise

ᴺS. [N.] ^coru adj. “cunning, wily”
⚠️N. corw adj. “cunning, wily”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^coru “cunning, wily”

17.22 Stupid, Foolish

ᴺS., G. [G.] cang adj. and n. “tangled, confused, mixed up, awry; tangle, confusion, mêllay”

17.28 School

ᴺS. !golbar [ng-] n. “school, university, (lit.) wisdom-house”

17.32 to Forget

ᴺS. !dadhren- [nd-] v. “to forget”

17.34 Clear, Plain (to the Mind)

⚠️G. brinc adj. “clear, transparent”

17.35 Obscure

N. doll [nd-] adj. “obscure, dark, dusky, hidden, secret”
ᴺS. !gorchanui adj. “complicated, enigmatic, cryptic, hard to understand”

17.36 Secret

⚠️G. cwist n. “secret”; see instead:
S. thurin “secret, hidden”
⚠️ᴱN. dîr n. “secret”; see instead:
S. thurin “secret, hidden”
⚠️G. dum adj. “secret, not to be spoken”

17.42 Cause, Reason

ᴺS. [G.] ^caeth n. “cause, reason, motive”
⚠️ᴺS. !caethad n. “reason, cause”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^caeth “cause, reason, motive”
ᴺS. [G.] ^caethas n. “causation”
⚠️G. caith n. “cause, reason, motive”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^caeth “cause, reason, motive”
⚠️G. caithl n. “source, fount, origin”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^celu “spring, source; ⚠️[G.] rill, stream, runlet”
⚠️G. caithos n. “causation”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^caethas “causation”
ᴺS. !ceiria- v. “to cause, bring about”

18. Language and Music

18.12 to Sing

⚠️G. dala- [nd-] v. “to sing or ring”; see instead:
S. linna- “to sing, chant”
N. nella- “to sound (of bells), *ring”
⚠️G. dólin n. “song”; see instead:
S. lind¹ “song, chant, singing, ⚠️[N.] air, tune; [N. and S.] singer”
S. dolen “hidden, [N.] secret”

18.13 to Shout, Cry Out

⚠️G. auba n. “shout”
S. can- v. “to cry out, shout, call”
S. caun² n. “outcry, clamour”

18.14 Various Cries

S. interj. “O!”
S., N., ᴱN., G. ai¹ interj. “hail, ⚠️[ᴱN.] cry of pain or woe, [G.] oh!”
S. baw² [mb-] n. “howling”

18.21 to Speak, Talk

ᴺS. !athrabed- v. “to discuss, exchange words”
S. athrabeth n. “conversation, debate, (lit.) interchange of words”
S. athragared n. “interaction”
⚠️S. carfa- v. “to talk, speak, use tongue”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^paetha- “to utter, speak, talk”

18.22 to Say

S. adbed- v. “to rephrase”
⚠️G. cwed- v. “to say, tell”; see instead:
S. ped- “to say, speak”
⚠️G. cwess n. “saying, proverb”; see instead:
ᴺS. pess¹ “saying, [G.] proverb”

18.23 to be Silent

⚠️ᴱN. daw interj. “hush, be silent”

18.25 Dialect

⚠️G. Cweneglin n. “*Elvish (Qenya)”

18.26 Word

⚠️G. cweth n. “word”; see instead:
S. peth “word”

18.28 Name

⚠️G. em adj. “named, called by name”; see instead:
ᴺS. !estannen “named, called”
⚠️G. embrin adj. “by name, named”; see instead:
ᴺS. !estannen “named, called”
S. #en- v. “*to name”
ᴺS. [G.] ^enas n. “title”
S. eneth n. “*name”
⚠️G. enn n. “name”; see instead:
S. eneth “*name”
⚠️G. enos n. “title”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^enas “title”
⚠️G. entha- v. “to name, call, indicate, point out”; see instead:
S. #en- “*to name”

18.31 to Question, Inquire

ᴺS. !amman adv. “why, (lit.) for what”
⚠️G. dos adv. “when”; see instead:
S. ir “?when, while”
ᴺS. !mallú “when, (orig.) what time”
⚠️G. dui adv. “where”; see instead:
ᴺS. !mivan “where, (lit.) in/at what”

18.32 to Answer

⚠️S. aphed- v. “to answer”; see instead:
ᴺS. !dambed- “to answer”
S. adbed- “to rephrase”
ᴺS. !dambed- v. “to answer”
⚠️S. danbeth [nd-] n. “*answer, (lit.) back-word”; see instead:
S. dangweth “answer, (lit.) *back-report”
S. dangweth [nd-] n. “answer, (lit.) *back-report”

18.37 to Refuse

S. #ava- v. “will not, do not”
S. avad n. “refusal, reluctance”

18.38 to Forbid

S. ablad n. “prohibition, refusal”
S. boda- v. “to ban, prohibit, refuse, forbid”

18.53 Letter of the Alphabet

S. andaith n. “long-mark”
⚠️N. andeith n. “long-mark”; see instead:
S. andaith “long-mark”
S. angerthas n. “runic alphabetic, (lit.) long rune-rows”
S. certh n. “rune”
S. certhas n. “runes-rows, runic alphabet”

18.68 Tale, Story

⚠️G. cwedri n. “telling (of tales)”

18.70 Instrument

ᴺS. !cungan n. “violin, (lit.) bow-harp”
ᴺS. !cungan(d) n. “viol(in), (lit.) bow-harp”

19. Social Relations

19.11 Country ('European')

⚠️S. aranarth n. “*kingdom”; see instead:
S. arnad “*kingdom”
S. arnad n. “*kingdom”
S., N., ᴱN., G. dôr [nd-] n. “land, [N.] region where certain people live, [ᴱN.] country; ⚠️[G.] people of the land”

19.14 Region, Territory

⚠️N. ardh n. “realm”; see instead:
S. arthor “realm”
S. gardh “region”
S. arthor n. “realm”
⚠️G. bardha n. “realm”; see instead:
S. arthor “realm”
⚠️ᴱN., G. garth n. “place, [G.] district”; see instead:
S. sad “place, spot”
S. gardh “region”
N. garth “fort, fortress”

19.16 Village

⚠️G. baros [mb-] n. “hamlet”

19.17 Boundary

S. cai n. “hedge”
⚠️ᴱN. cai ? “[unglossed]”
⚠️G. cortheb n. “bounds, boundary”; see instead:
S. glan(n) “boundary”
ᴺS. [N.] ^edrain n. “*(outer) border”
⚠️N. edrein n. “*(outer) border”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^edrain “*(outer) border”

19.21 People, Populace

ᴺS. !covas n. “community”
⚠️ᴺS. !govannas n. “community”; see instead:
ᴺS. !covas “community”

19.31 to Rule, Govern

ᴺS., G. [G.] bardha- v. “to rule, reign”

19.32 King

S., N. aran n. “king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)”
ᴺS. !aranas n. “kingship”
ᴺS. !ar(an)eg n. “kinglet”
⚠️G. bridhon n. “king, prince”; see instead:
S. aran “king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)”
S. ernil “prince”
S., N. -dor suf. “*king, lord”
⚠️G. turioth n. “kingship”; see instead:
ᴺS. !aranas “kingship”

19.33 Queen

S., N. bereth n. and adj. “queen, spouse; supreme, sublime”
⚠️G. bridh(n)ir n. “queen, princess”; see instead:
S. bereth “queen, spouse; supreme, sublime”
S. brethil² “princess, (lit.) queen-daughter”

19.35 Prince

S. brethil² n. “princess, (lit.) queen-daughter”
S. caun¹ n. “prince, chief, head”
ᴺS. [N.] ^†cund n. “prince”
⚠️N. †cunn n. “prince”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^†cund “prince”
⚠️ᴱN. thing n. “prince”; see instead:
S. ernil “prince”

19.352 Other Titles of Nobility

S. condir n. “mayor, (lit.) *chief-man”
⚠️ᴱN. doirion n. “lord (of a certain district), chief”; see instead:
S. hîr “lord, master”

19.36 Noble, Nobleman

S., N. ar(a)- pref. “noble, royal, high”
N. arnen n. “?royal”
S. arphen n. “noble, knight”
⚠️ᴺS. !arwen n. “noble lady”; see instead:
S. heryn “lady”
S. besain [mb-] n. “the Lady, breadgiver”
N. callon n. “hero”
⚠️ᴱN. dain¹ adj. “high, noble, lofty, sublime, divine”; see instead:
S. raud¹ “noble, eminent; lofty, high, tall; excellent”
N. taur² “vast, mighty, overwhelming, awful, huge; high, sublime”
ᴺS. !balaen “divine”

19.41 Master

N. brannon n. “lord”
⚠️G. bridhweg n. “liege (m.)”; see instead:
S. hîr “lord, master”
⚠️G. bridhwig n. “liege (f.)”; see instead:
S. heryn “lady”

19.412 Lady

N. brennil n. “lady”

19.42 Slave

⚠️ᴱN., G. drog n. “slave”; see instead:
N. mûl “slave, thrall”
⚠️G. drogod n. “slavery, bondage, thraldom”
⚠️G. drogwed adj. “servile, slavish; base, mean”
⚠️G. drogwin n. “slave woman”

19.43 Servant

N. buia- v. “to serve, hold allegiance to”
ᴺS. !bŷl n. “(single) service or favour”
ᴺS. [N.] ^bŷr n. “follower, vassal”

19.44 Free (adj)

⚠️G. balt adj. “rid, soluit, free”; see instead:
S. pen¹ “without, lacking, -less”
⚠️ᴱN. darhod adj. “not free”

19.45 to Order, Command

ᴺS. !conui adj. “commanding”

19.47 to Let, Permit

N. dâf n. “permission”
ᴺS. !dav-¹ v. “to allow, yield, permit”

19.48 to Compel

ᴺS. [G.] ^caetha- v. “to make to do or be, cause, compel, induce, bring about”
⚠️G. caitha- v. “to make to do or be, cause, compel, induce, bring about”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^caetha- “to make to do or be, cause, compel, induce, bring about”

19.51 Friend

S. #-dil suf. “friend, lover”

19.52 Foe, Enemy

S., N. #coth n. “enemy, foe; [N.] enmity”
S. #cûd n. “foe”
⚠️G. goth n. “war, strife”; see instead:
N. auth “war, battle”
S. #coth “enemy, foe; [N.] enmity”

19.53 Companion

S. aphadon n. “follower”
⚠️N. beor n. “follower, vassal”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bŷr “follower, vassal”
N. bôr adj. and n. “steadfast; trusty man, faithful vassal”

19.55 Stranger

S. edlon n. “outsider, stranger, *foreigner”
ᴺS. !edlonui adj. “foreign”
ᴺS. !egel adj. “other”
⚠️ᴺS. !eithor adj. “other, another”; see instead:
ᴺS. !egel “other”
⚠️G. elc adv. and n. “else, something else”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^egol “else, something else”
⚠️ᴺS. [G.] ^elch adv. and n. “else, something else”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^egol “else, something else”
⚠️ᴺS., G. [G.] eleg adj. “other, else”; see instead:
ᴺS. !egel “other”
⚠️ᴺS. [G.] ^elegren adj. “different, strange”; see instead:
ᴺS. !egelren “different, strange”
⚠️G. elegrin adj. “different, strange”; see instead:
ᴺS. !egelren “different, strange”
⚠️G. elfel adj. “different, like something else”; see instead:
ᴺS. !egelren “different, strange”
⚠️G. faronwed adj. “foreign”; see instead:
ᴺS. !edlonui “foreign”

19.58 to Help, Aid

⚠️S. eitha-² v. “to ease, assist”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ethia- “to ease, assist”
S. elia- v. “to cause to prosper, bless (a work), help one”

19.59 to Hinder, Prevent

N. dîl n. “stopper, stopping, stuffing”
N. dilia- v. “to stop (up)”

19.62 Strife, Quarrel

N. cost n. “quarrel, *dispute”

20. Warfare and Hunting

20.12 Battle (n)

S., N. dagor [nd-] n. “battle”
N. dagra- [nd-] v. “to battle”

20.13 War

N. auth n. “war, battle”
⚠️ᴱN. oith n. “feud”

20.15 Army

S. dírnaith [nd-] n. “wedge-shaped battle-formation, (lit.) man-spearhead”

20.17 Soldier

⚠️ᴱN. †aithr¹ n. “spearman, warrior”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^eithron “*spearman, ⚠️[ᴱN.] warrior”
⚠️G. aithrog n. “warrior”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^eithron “*spearman, ⚠️[ᴱN.] warrior”
N. maethor “warrior”
⚠️G. aithron n. “warrior, †swordsman”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^eithron “*spearman, ⚠️[ᴱN.] warrior”
S. #magor “swordsman”
N. maethor “warrior”
⚠️G. aithweg n. “warrior”; see instead:
N. maethor “warrior”
N. daug [nd-] n. “warrior, soldier [with evil connotations]”
⚠️G. †drio [nd-] n. “hero, warrior”; see instead:
N. callon “hero”
S. dîr¹ “man, [N.] adult male; agental suffix”
⚠️G. driodweg [nd-] n. “hero, warrior”; see instead:
N. callon “hero”
⚠️G. ecthor n. “warrior, swordsman”; see instead:
S. #magor “swordsman”
N. maethor “warrior”
⚠️ᴱN. e(i)ngion n. “spearman, †warrior”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^eithron “*spearman, ⚠️[ᴱN.] warrior”
ᴺS., ᴱN. [ᴱN.] ^eithron n. “*spearman, ⚠️[ᴱN.] warrior”

20.24 Bow

⚠️G. brant² n. “bow (for shooting)”; see instead:
N. peng “bow (for shooting)”
S., N., G. n. “bow; [N.] arch, crescent; ⚠️[G.] waxing or waning moon”
⚠️G. cwing n. “bow”; see instead:
N. peng “bow (for shooting)”
⚠️G. cwingfim adj. “skilled at archery”
⚠️G. cwingfimli n. “skill at archery”
⚠️G. cwinglios n. “archery”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pengas “archery”
⚠️G. cwingron n. “archer”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pengron “archer”

20.26 Spear

ᴺS., ᴱN., G. [ᴱN.] ^aith n. “spear-point, [ᴱN.] spear, ⚠️thorn”
⚠️ᴱN. anc n. “spear”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^aith “spear-point, [ᴱN.] spear, ⚠️thorn”
⚠️N. eith n. “spear-point”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^aith “spear-point, [ᴱN.] spear, ⚠️thorn”
⚠️G. engan n. “spear”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^aith “spear-point, [ᴱN.] spear, ⚠️thorn”

20.27 Sword

⚠️G. aith² n. “sword”; see instead:
S. megil “sword, longsword”
S., N., G. crist n. “cleaver; ⚠️[N.] sword; [G.] knife; slash, slice”
⚠️ᴱN. dailir n. “cleaver”; see instead:
S. crist “cleaver; ⚠️[N.] sword; [G.] knife; slash, slice”
⚠️G. ectha n. “sword”; see instead:
S. megil “sword, longsword”

20.32 Corslet, Breastplate

⚠️ᴱN. am(b)os n. “breastplate”; see instead:
ᴺS. ammos “*breast, chest, bosom; ⚠️breastplate”
ᴺS., G. [ᴱN.] ammos n. “*breast, chest, bosom; ⚠️breastplate”
ᴺS. !barf n. “armor”

20.33 Helmet

S. castol n. “helmet”
⚠️G. cathor n. “helmet, (lit.) head-ward”; see instead:
S. castol “helmet”
⚠️ᴱN. caul n. “helmet”; see instead:
S. castol “helmet”

20.34 Shield

⚠️ᴱN. alch n. “shield”; see instead:
S. #thand “shield”

20.36 Tower

S., N. barad n. “tower, great towering building, [N.] fort, fortress”
S. brand² n. “steeple”

20.41 Victory

⚠️G. abair n. “victory”; see instead:
N. tûr “mastery, victory”
ᴺS. !degil [nd] n. “victor, winner”
ᴺS. !tor- v. “to win, have victory”

20.42 Defeat (n)

ᴺS. !dadhra- v. “to face, oppose, stand in way; to resist, thwart”
S. #dew- v. “to fail, miss”
⚠️G. hadra- v. “to face, oppose, stand in way; to resist, thwart”; see instead:
ᴺS. !dadhra- “to face, oppose, stand in way; to resist, thwart”

21. Law and Judgment

21.16 to Judge

N. #badh- [mb-] v. “to judge”
⚠️ᴺS. !dav-² v. “to judge”; see instead:
N. #badh- “to judge”

21.162 to Decide

ᴺS. !cil- v. “to choose, select”
ᴺS. !cilu n. “choice, choosing, *selection”

21.17 Judgment

N. baudh [mb-] n. “judgement”

21.18 Judge (n)

N. badhor [mb-] n. “judge”
N. badhron [mb-] n. “judge”
ᴺS. !bedhril n. “judge (f.)”

21.37 Penalty, Punishment

S. #achar- v. “to avenge, do back, react, requite”
S. achared n. “vengeance”
S. acharn n. “vengeance, (an act of) revenge”
⚠️ᴱN. bodruith n. “revenge”; see instead:
S. acharn “vengeance, (an act of) revenge”
⚠️G. bodruith n. “revenge”; see instead:
S. acharn “vengeance, (an act of) revenge”
⚠️G. hadruith n. “revenge”; see instead:
S. acharn “vengeance, (an act of) revenge”

21.38 Fine, Settlement

S. danwedh [nd-] n. “ransom”

21.39 Jail, Prison

S., N., ᴱN., G. band [mb-] n. “prison, custody, [N.] duress; ⚠️[ᴱN.] hell”

21.44 Rape, Violation

ᴺS. !avaeth n. “ravishment; seizure”
ᴺS. !avaetha- v. “to ravish, seize (forcibly)”
ᴺS. !avaethron n. “seizer, ravisher”
⚠️ᴱN. maith n. “ravishment; seizure”; see instead:
ᴺS. !avaeth “ravishment; seizure”
⚠️ᴱN. maithion n. “seizer, ravisher”; see instead:
ᴺS. !avaethron “seizer, ravisher”
⚠️ᴱN. maithweg n. “ravisher”; see instead:
ᴺS. !avaethron “seizer, ravisher”

21.999 Law (other)

ᴺS. [N.] ^edledhia- v. “to go into exile”
ᴺS. [N.] ^edledhron n. “exile”
S. edlen(n) adj. “exiled”
⚠️N. egledhia- v. “to go into exile”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^edledhia- “to go into exile”
⚠️N. egledhron n. “exile”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^edledhron “exile”
⚠️N. eglenn adj. “exiled”; see instead:
S. edlen(n) “exiled”

22. Religion and Beliefs

22.11 Religion

ᴺS. !aedaith n. “reverence, worship, religion”
⚠️G. aist n. “reverence, awe”; see instead:
S. anwar “awe”
ᴺS. !aedaith “reverence, worship, religion”
⚠️G. aista- v. “to revere”; see instead:
ᴺS. !aeda- “to revere, worship”
⚠️G. aistog adj. “holy, revered, awful”; see instead:
S. aer “*hallowed, holy”
S. gorn¹ “revered”

22.12 God

ᴺS. !aenor n. “god”
⚠️G. ain¹ n. “god”; see instead:
ᴺS. !aenor “god”
⚠️G. ainil n. “(female) god”; see instead:
ᴺS. !Aeni “(female) angel”
⚠️G. ainos n. “(male) god”; see instead:
ᴺS. !Aenu “(male) angel”
S. bal- v. “*to have power”
⚠️ᴺS. !bâl¹ n. “divinity, divine power”; see instead:
ᴺS. !balas “divinity, divine power”
⚠️ᴺS. !bâl² adj. “divine”; see instead:
ᴺS. !balaen “divine”
ᴺS. !balaen adj. “divine”
S., N. Balan n. “Vala, [N.] Power, ⚠️God”
ᴺS. !balas n. “divinity, divine power”
⚠️G. Ban¹ n. “god, one of the Valar”; see instead:
S. Balan “Vala, [N.] Power, ⚠️God”
⚠️G. Gwala n. “one of the gods”; see instead:
S. Balan “Vala, [N.] Power, ⚠️God”

22.13 Temple

⚠️G. alc(hor) n. “shrine, fane, temple”; see instead:
N. iaun “holy place, fane, sanctuary, *shrine, temple”

22.16 to Worship

ᴺS. !aeda- v. “to revere, worship”

22.183 Monk

ᴺS. !aeron n. “saint”

22.19 Holy, Sacred

S. aer adj. “*hallowed, holy”
S. aerlinn n. “*hymn, (lit.) holy song”
⚠️G. †air(in) adj. “holy, sacred”; see instead:
S. aer “*hallowed, holy”

22.24 to Curse

S. daebeth [nd-] n. “blasphemy”

22.31 Heaven

⚠️G. daimoth n. “heaven”; see instead:
S. menel “the heavens, firmament, region of the stars”

22.33 Angel

ᴺS. !Aeni n. “(female) angel”
ᴺS. !Aenu n. “(male) angel”

22.37 Idol

ᴺS. !codhon n. “idol”
⚠️G. dungort n. “(evil) idol”
⚠️G. gort n. “idol”; see instead:
ᴺS. !codhon “idol”

22.42 Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery

N. †angol¹ n. “deep lore, magic”
⚠️G. curusôn n. “witchcraft”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lúthad “enchantments, sorcery”
S. guldur “black arts, sorcery”
⚠️G. curuthli n. “enchantments, sorcery”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lúthad “enchantments, sorcery”
S. guldur “black arts, sorcery”
⚠️N. durgul n. “sorcery”; see instead:
S. guldur “black arts, sorcery”

22.43 Witch, Sorceress

ᴺS. [G.] ^curunis n. “witch”
⚠️G. curus n. “witch”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^curunis “witch”

22.431 Sorcerer, Wizard

⚠️G. curug n. “wizard”; see instead:
S. curunír “wizard, [N.] man of craft”
S., N. curunír n. “wizard, [N.] man of craft”

22.44 Elf, Nymph, Fairy

S. cadhad n. “dwarf”
⚠️G. Cwenn n. “Elf”; see instead:
S. †penedh “Elf”
N. Dân [nd-] n. “Green-elf”
S. Edhel n. “Elf”
⚠️N. Edhel n. “firstborn, eldest”; see instead:
S. Edhel “Elf”
S. edhellen adj. “elvish”
⚠️G. Egla n. “fairy, (lit.) being from outside”; see instead:
S. †Eglan “Forsaken (Elf)”
S. Edhel “Elf”
S., N. †Eledh n. “Elf”
S. †Ell n. “Elf”
S. Elleth n. “Elf-maid”
S. Ellon n. “Elf-man”
⚠️ᴱN. Uidhel n. “elf, fairy”; see instead:
S. Edhel “Elf”

22.441 Goblin, Monster

N. amlug n. “dragon”

22.47 Omen

ᴺS. !abgen- v. “to foresee, expect”
S. albeth n. “(word of) good omen”

23. Grammar

23.2 Negation

S., N. al-¹ pref. “no, not”
⚠️ᴺS. !alben pron. “no one”; see instead:
ᴺS. !alphen “no one, nobody”
ᴺS. !alhad pron. “nowhere”
ᴺS. !alnad pron. “nothing”
ᴺS. !alphen pron. “no one, nobody”
⚠️ᴱN. au adv. “*negative”; see instead:
S. ú- “no, not, negative; impossible; ⚠️[N.] bad-”
S. baw¹ interj. “no, do not!”
⚠️ᴱN. †dan- pref. “negative prefix attached to adjectives”
⚠️ᴱN. i- pref. “negative”; see instead:
S. al-¹ “no, not”
S. ú- “no, not, negative; impossible; ⚠️[N.] bad-”
⚠️G. il- pref. “the opposite, the reversal”; see instead:
S. al-¹ “no, not”
S. ú- “no, not, negative; impossible; ⚠️[N.] bad-”
⚠️G. û- v. “not to be, not to do”
⚠️G. ug- v. “negative verb”

23.3 Preposition

ᴺS. !aden prep. “until”
S., N., G. an prep. “to, for; ⚠️[N. and G.] of”
⚠️ᴱN. a(n) prep. “of (the)”
N. an- pref. “with, by”
ᴺS. !ben prep. “according to”
⚠️G. da prep. “?with, into”; see instead:
S. di¹ “beneath, under; ⚠️[N.] in”
S. di² “with, *by means of”
S. di² prep. “with, *by means of”
⚠️ᴱN. dir prep. “through, over”
ᴺS. !eb prep. “save, except”
S. en¹ prep. “of the”
⚠️G. li prep. “with; and”; see instead:
S. di² “with, *by means of”

23.4 Pronoun

⚠️G. a-¹ pron. “it, they; 3rd-person pronoun”
S. ai² pron. “*those who”
⚠️G. atha¹ pron. “they, 3rd pl. pronoun”
S. ci pron. “thou”
ᴺS. !cin pron. “you (sg. fam.)”
ᴺS. !cîn pron. “your (sg. fam.)”
S. de pron. “you”
⚠️G. deg pron. “what (n[euter])”; see instead:
S. man “*what, who”
⚠️G. dir pron. “who (f.)”; see instead:
S. man “*what, who”
⚠️G. don pron. “who”; see instead:
S. man “*what, who”
S. e pron. “he”
S. ech pron. “?you, yourself (singular)”
S. -ed² suf. “3rd person singular possessive suffix”
S. ed² pron. “*it”
S. -eg² suf. “2nd person singular familiar possessive suffix”
S. -egir suf. “2nd person plural familiar possessive suffix”
S. -elir suf. “2nd person plural polite possessive suffix”
S. -emir suf. “1st person plural exclusive possessive”
S. -en² suf. “my, 1st sg. poss. suffix”
S. en² pron. “1st sg pronoun”
S. -enc suf. “our (inclusive), 1st pl. incl. poss. suffix”

23.5 Noun Inflection

S., G. †-a suf. “[old] genitive suffix”
S. †-ad suf. “dual”
S. #-ad¹ suf. “noun-suffix”
⚠️G. a(n) prep. “of”; see instead:
S. an “to, for; ⚠️[N. and G.] of”
S. na(n) “of; with, along with, accompanied by, provided with or by, associated with, marked with; [N.] by”
S., N. #-as suf. “abstract noun”
S., N. -ath suf. “collective or group plural”
⚠️G. #-c suf. “noun or adjective suffix”
⚠️G. -chi suf. “dim[inutive] suffix”; see instead:
S. -eg¹ “diminutive/singular ending”
⚠️G. -in¹ suf. “plural suffix”
⚠️G. -n suf. “genitive suffix”
⚠️G. -th suf. “plural suffix”; see instead:
S. -ath “collective or group plural”

23.6 Verb Inflection

S., N. -ant suf. “3rd person past tense”

23.7 Comparative, Intensive

N. a- pref. “intensive prefix”
⚠️G. a-² pref. “?”
⚠️G. ach adv. “too, *excessively”
⚠️ᴱN. agos adv. “very”
⚠️G. agra adj. “extreme, vehement, excessive”
⚠️G. agros adv. “excessively, too; excess”
S. #an- pref. “intensive prefix”
⚠️ᴱN. balodog adj. “too much”; see instead:
ᴺS. !othovor “too much, (lit.) abundant in a bad way”

23.8 Conjunction

S. ach² conj. “*but”
S. egor conj. “or”
S. eithro adv. “*also”
⚠️G. el conj. “or”; see instead:
S. egor “or”
ᴺS. !ened adv. “moreover”
ᴺS. !lo conj. “while”

23.9 Affix

S., N., ᴱN. -eb suf. “adjective suffix”
S., N. #-ed¹ suf. “gerund”
S., N. -eg¹ suf. “diminutive/singular ending”
⚠️N. -eg² suf. “suffix for ordinal numbers”; see instead:
S. -ui “-ful, having quality, adjective suffix; possibility, suitability [as verbal suffix], *-able”
S. -el suf. “2nd person singular polite possessive suffix”
S., N. #-en¹ suf. “adjective suffix”
⚠️G. inc adj. “little”; see instead:
S. #pîn “little”
⚠️G. #-og suf. “adjectival suffix”; see instead:
S. -eb “adjective suffix”